233 relations: Aedes aegypti, African clawed frog, Agriculture, Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Algae, Alpha-amylase, American Medical Association, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anticoagulant, AquaBounty Technologies, Aquaculture, AquAdvantage salmon, Argentina, Associated Press, ATryn, Bacteria, Biofuel, Biological pigment, Biologist, Bioreactor, Bioremediation, BioSteel, Blue rose, British Medical Association, Bromoxynil, Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, Cell membrane, Ceratocystis platani, Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, Childbirth, Chimera (genetics), Chinook salmon, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chorion, Chymosin, Cisgenesis, Citrus greening disease, Cnidaria, Coagulation, Council for Responsible Genetics, Cystic fibrosis, Dairy cattle, Dead zone (ecology), Defensin, Delphinidin, Dengue fever, ..., Detection of genetically modified organisms, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, DNA, Domestication, Drosophila melanogaster, Dwarfism, Ebola virus, Electroporation, Emerald ash borer, Endocrine disruptor, Enviropig, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, European rabbit, Evolution, Feline immunodeficiency virus, Flavr Savr, Florigene, Fluorescence, Fluorescent protein, Food and Drug Administration, Food security, Gaucher's disease, Gene, Gene expression, Gene flow, Gene gun, Gene knockout, Gene pool, Gene therapy, Gene therapy of the human retina, Genentech, Genetic disorder, Genetic engineering, Genetic erosion, Genetically modified bacterium, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified fish, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified food controversies, Genetically modified mouse, Genetically modified organism, Genetically modified virus, Genetics, Genome, GloFish, Glyphosate, Goat, Golden rice, Green fluorescent protein, Greenpeace, Growth hormone, GUS reporter system, Haemophilia, Herbert Boyer, Herbicide, History of genetic engineering, HIV/AIDS, Horizontal gene transfer, Huntington's disease, Hydra (genus), Immunity (medical), Insulin, Insulin (medication), International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, Invasive species, J. Craig Venter Institute, Japanese rice fish, Jargon, Justus Wesseler, Kanamycin A, Kingdom (biology), Knockout mouse, Lambda phage, Large White pig, Lemna, Lemna minor, Lentivirus, Limiting factor, Marmoset, Martin Chalfie, Mary-Dell Chilton, Medication, Michael W. Bevan, Microinjection, Model organism, Monsanto, Moss, Muscular dystrophy, Mycoplasma laboratorium, Myxoma virus, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Medicine, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nematode, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nucleotide, Ocean pout, Omega-3 fatty acid, Oncogene, Organ transplantation, Organic Consumers Association, Organic farming, Osamu Shimomura, Oxitec, Pain in fish, Pansy, Papaya, Papaya ringspot virus, Parkinson's disease, Paul Berg, Pectinesterase, Pesticide resistance, Pharming (genetics), Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Phosphorus, Photoreceptor cell, Physcomitrella patens, Phytase, Pink bollworm, Plant manufactured pharmaceuticals, Plasmid, Platanus, Precautionary principle, Primate, Prokaryote, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Pseudomonas syringae, Ralph L. Brinster, Recombinant DNA, Reporter gene, Research, Richard B. Flavell, RNA interference, Robert A. Swanson, Roger Y. Tsien, Rudolf Jaenisch, Salmon, Scientific consensus, Selective breeding, Severe combined immunodeficiency, Sickle cell disease, Smart breeding, Somatostatin, Species, Sperm-mediated gene transfer, Stanley Norman Cohen, Starlet sea anemone, StarLink corn recall, Suntory, Surface runoff, Surgery, Synthetic biology, Taliglucerase alfa, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The EMBO Journal, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Non-GMO Project, Thrombus, Tilapia, Tissue culture, Transformation (genetics), Transgene, Trout, Ultraviolet, Union of Concerned Scientists, Vertebrate, Virus, Vitamin A, Wageningen University and Research, Western clawed frog, Xenotransplantation, Zebrafish, Zika virus. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, Mayaro and yellow fever viruses, and other disease agents.
The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
AquaBounty Technologies is a biotechnology company based in Maynard, Massachusetts, United States.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
AquAdvantage salmon is a genetically modified (GM) Atlantic salmon developed by AquaBounty Technologies.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
ATryn is the brand name of the anticoagulant antithrombin manufactured by the Massachusetts-based U.S. company rEVO Biologics (formerly known as GTC Biotherapeutics).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
BioSteel was a trademark name for a high-strength fiber-based material made of the recombinant spider silk-like protein extracted from the milk of transgenic goats, made by Nexia Biotechnologies, and later by the Randy Lewis lab of the University of Wyoming and Utah State University.
A blue rose is a flower of the genus Rosa (family Rosaceae) that presents blue-to-violet pigmentation instead of the more common red, white, or yellow.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.
Bromoxynil is an organic compound with the formula HOBr2C6H2CN.
The Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment (CAPE) is a Canadian-based non-profit organization dedicated to environmental issues, especially as they relate to human health.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity effective since 2003.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Ceratocystis platani is a fungus that causes a disease on plane trees in the genus Platanus.
The Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (CIEH) is a professional membership body, dedicated to enhancing environmental health and promoting the highest possible standards in the training and education of environmental health professionals in order to benefit people’s health and well-being.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.
The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus.
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella.
The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane around the embryo in mammals, birds and reptiles.
Chymosin or rennin is a protease found in rennet.
Cisgenesis is a product designation for a category of genetically engineered plants.
Citrus greening disease (or HLB), is a disease of citrus caused by a vector-transmitted pathogen.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
The Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG) is a nonprofit NGO with a focus on biotechnology.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Delphinidin (also delphinidine) is an anthocyanidin, a primary plant pigment, and also an antioxidant.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
The detection of genetically modified organisms in food or feed is possible by biochemical means.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In enzymology, a dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are (+)-dihydrokaempferol, NADPH, and H+.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small.
Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.
Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell.
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to northeastern Asia that feeds on ash species.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Enviropig is the trademark for a genetically modified line of Yorkshire pigs, with the capability to digest plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional unmodified livestock pigs, that was developed at the University of Guelph.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or coney is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe (including Spain, Portugal and Western France) and to northwest Africa (including Morocco and Algeria).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects cats worldwide.
Flavr Savr (also known as CGN-89564-2; pronounced "flavor saver"), a genetically modified tomato, was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption.
Florigene is a biotechnology company based in Melbourne, Australia, which is principally involved in the application of in-house genetic modification techniques to develop novel colour expressions in a range of commercial plants.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluorescent proteins include.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Gaucher's disease or Gaucher disease (GD) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside (a sphingolipid, also known as glucosylceramide) accumulates in cells and certain organs.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
A gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, originally designed for plant transformation, is a device for delivering exogenous DNA (transgenes) to cells.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Retinal gene therapy holds a promise in treating different forms of non-inherited and inherited blindness.
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population.
Genetically modified bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetically modified fish (GM fish) are organisms from the taxonomic clade which includes the classes Agnatha (jawless fish), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) and Osteichthyes (bony fish) whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.
A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
A genetically modified virus is a virus that has gone through genetic modification for various biomedical purposes, agricultural purposes, bio-control and technological purposes.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The GloFish is a patented and trademarked brand of genetically engineered fluorescent fish.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
The GUS reporter system (GUS: β-glucuronidase) is a reporter gene system, particularly useful in plant molecular biology and microbiology.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Herbert Wayne "Herb" Boyer (born July 10, 1936) is a researcher and entrepreneur in biotechnology.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Genetic modification caused by human activity has been occurring since around 12,000 BC, when humans first began to domesticate organisms.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose.
The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) is a non-profit international organization that shares agricultural biotechnology, focusing on genetic engineering.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.
The Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) also known as the medaka, is a member of genus Oryzias (ricefish), the only genus in the subfamily Oryziinae.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Justus Wesseler (* 25 March 1963) is a German agricultural economist and professor of Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy at Wageningen University in the Netherlands.
Kanamycin A, often referred to simply as kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
The Large White is a British breed of domestic pig.
Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants from the duckweed family.
Lemna minor, the common duckweed or lesser duckweed, is an aquatic freshwater plant of the genus Lemna.
Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow") is a genus of retroviruses that cause chronic and deadly diseases characterized by long incubation periods, in the human and other mammalian species.
A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.
The marmosets,, also known as zaris, are twenty-two New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella, Callibella and Mico.
Martin Lee Chalfie (born January 15, 1947) is an American scientist.
Mary-Dell Chilton (born February 2, 1939, in Indianapolis, Indiana) is one of the founders of modern plant biotechnology.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Michael Webster Bevan FRS (born 5 June 1952) is a Professor at the John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK.
Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time.
Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.
Myxoma virus is a virus that causes myxomatosis in rabbits and was used as a pest control in Australia.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The ocean pout (Zoarces americanus) is an eelpout in the family Zoarcidae.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
The Organic Consumers Association (OCA) is a non-profit advocacy group for organic agriculture based in Finland, Minnesota.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
is a Japanese organic chemist and marine biologist, and Professor Emeritus at Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and Boston University School of Medicine.
Oxitec (orig. Oxford Insect Technologies) is a British biotechnology company which develops genetically modified insects to assist in insect control.
Whether fish feel pain is a contentious issue.
The garden pansy is a type of large-flowered hybrid plant cultivated as a garden flower.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a pathogenic plant virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae which primarily infects the papaya tree.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Paul Berg (born June 30, 1926) is an American biochemist and professor emeritus at Stanford University.
Pectinesterase (PE) is a ubiquitous cell-wall-associated enzyme that presents several isoforms that facilitate plant cell wall modification and subsequent breakdown.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Physcomitrella patens, the spreading earthmoss, is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development, and physiology.
A phytase (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase) is any type of phosphatase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) – an indigestible, organic form of phosphorus that is found in grains and oil seeds – and releases a usable form of inorganic phosphorus.
The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella; lagarta rosada) is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming.
Plant Manufactured Pharmaceuticals are pharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants used as therapeutic compounds.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pseudomonas syringae is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium with polar flagella.
Ralph Lawrence Brinster is an American geneticist and Richard King Mellon Professor of Reproductive Physiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Richard Bailey Flavell CBE, FRS (born 11 October 1943) is a British molecular biologist, Chief Scientific Officer of Ceres, Inc., and was director of John Innes Centre from 1987 to 1998.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Robert "Bob" Swanson (1947–1999) was an American venture capitalist who cofounded the biotechnology giant Genentech in 1976 with Herbert Boyer.
Roger Yonchien Tsien (February 1, 1952 – August 24, 2016) was a Han Chinese/Taiwanese-American biochemist.
Rudolf Jaenisch (born 22 April 1942) is a Professor of Biology at MIT and a founding member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
Severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID, also known as alymphocytosis, Glanzmann–Riniker syndrome, severe mixed immunodeficiency syndrome, and thymic alymphoplasia, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the disturbed development of functional T cells and B cells caused by numerous genetic mutations that result in heterogeneous clinical presentations.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
SMART breeding (Selection with Markers and Advanced Reproductive Technologies) or Precision breeding refers to a genetic engineering technique of reproducing a species members together to retain desirable traits and so produce a stronger hybrid.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a transgenic technique that transfers genes based on the ability of sperm cells to spontaneously bind to and internalize exogenous DNA and transport it into an oocyte during fertilization to produce genetically modified animals.
Stanley Norman Cohen (born February 17, 1935 in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States) is an American geneticist and the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine.
The starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) is a species of small sea anemone in the family Edwardsiidae native to the east coast of the United States, with introduced populations along the coast of southeast England and the west coast of the United States.
The StarLink corn recalls occurred in the autumn of 2000, when over 300 food products were found to contain a genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption.
is a Japanese brewing and distilling company group.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
Taliglucerase alfa, commercially known as Elelyso, is a biopharmaceutical drug developed by Protalix and Pfizer.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The EMBO Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on full-length papers describing original research of general interest in molecular biology and related areas.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Non-GMO Project is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization focusing on genetically modified organisms.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is a nonprofit science advocacy organization based in the United States.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Wageningen University & Research (also known as Wageningen UR; abbreviation: WUR) is a Dutch public university in Wageningen, Netherlands.
The western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) is a species of frog in the family Pipidae, also known as tropical clawed frog.
Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae.
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