256 relations: Acetabularia, Adaptation, Adenine, Alfred Sturtevant, Allele, Allele frequency, Amino acid, Ancient Greek, Apoptosis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Asexual reproduction, Augustinians, Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Bacterial genome, Base pair, Basic research, Behavioural genetics, Bioinformatics, Biology, Blending inheritance, Blood vessel, Brno, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cancer, Celera Corporation, Cell (biology), Cell culture, Cell division, Cell signaling, Central dogma of molecular biology, Charles Darwin, Chemical reaction, Chromatin, Chromosomal crossover, Chromosomal inversion, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Cloning, Coding region, Collagen, Common descent, Complex traits, Contact inhibition, CRISPR, Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources, Cytosine, Deletion (genetics), ..., Denaturation (biochemistry), Desert climate, DNA, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, Dominance (genetics), Drosophila melanogaster, Edith Rebecca Saunders, Egg cell, Embryo, Embryology, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enzyme, Epigenetics, Epistasis, Epithelium, Escherichia coli, Eugenics, Eukaryote, Evolution, Experiments on Plant Hybridization, Extracellular, Fitness (biology), Francis Crick, Francis Galton, Frederick Griffith, Frederick Sanger, Friar, Gamete, Gel electrophoresis, Genain quadruplets, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Gene flow, Gene therapy, Genetic code, Genetic disorder, Genetic diversity, Genetic drift, Genetic engineering, Genetic hitchhiking, Genetic linkage, Genetic variation, Genetically modified organism, Genome, Genome project, Genomics, Genomics data sharing, Genotype, Gregor Mendel, Griffith's experiment, Growth factor, Guanine, Health care, Helix, Hemoglobin, Heredity, Heritability, Hershey–Chase experiment, Histone, History of genetics, Homologous chromosome, Homology (biology), Horizontal gene transfer, Host (biology), House mouse, Hugo de Vries, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Human skin color, Hungary, Imre Festetics, Index of genetics articles, Information system, Intracellular, James Watson, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Joachim Hämmerling, Kary Mullis, Lamarckism, List of file formats, List of life sciences, Locus (genetics), London, Maurice Wilkins, Medical genetics, Meiosis, Mendelian inheritance, Mendelian randomization, Messenger RNA, Metastasis, MicroRNA, MIT Technology Review, Mitosis, Model organism, Molecular clock, Molecular cloning, Molecular genetics, Molecule, Morphogenesis, Multicellular organism, Multiple birth, Muriel Wheldale Onslow, Mutagen, Mutation, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature versus nurture, Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution, Negative feedback, Neuroepigenetics, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Non-coding RNA, Nora Barlow, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid methods, Nucleoid, Nucleosome, Nucleotide, Omphalodes verna, On the Origin of Species, Oncogene, Ontogeny, Organism, Outline of genetics, Oxford English Dictionary, P53, Pangenesis, Paramutation, Pea, Pedigree chart, Personally identifiable information, Peter J. Bowler, Pharmacogenetics, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phenylalanine, Phenylketonuria, Phylogenetic tree, Plant genetic resources, Plasmid, Ploidy, Polymerase chain reaction, Population genetics, Primary tumor, Protein, Protein & Cell, Protein biosynthesis, Protein folding, Protein primary structure, Punnett square, Quantitative genetics, Quantitative trait locus, Ras subfamily, Recombinant DNA, Red blood cell, Regulation of gene expression, Restriction enzyme, Ribosomal RNA, RNA, Rosalind Franklin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sanger sequencing, Schizophrenia, Science (journal), Scientific American, Selective breeding, Sequence assembly, Sex chromosome, Sexual reproduction, Siamese cat, Sickle cell disease, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Speciation, Sperm, Stop codon, The Journal of Experimental Biology, The New York Times, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Thymine, Tomoko Ohta, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transfer RNA, Transformation (genetics), Translation (biology), Trinity College, Cambridge, Tryptophan, Tryptophan repressor, Tumor suppressor, Tumour heterogeneity, Twin study, Ultraviolet, Virus, White (mutation), Wild type, William Bateson, X chromosome, X-ray crystallography, Y chromosome, Zinc finger, Zygosity. Expand index (206 more) » « Shrink index
Acetabularia is a genus of green algae in the family Polyphysaceae, Typically found in subtropical waters, Acetabularia is a single-celled organism, but gigantic in size and complex in form, making it an excellent model organism for studying cell biology.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Alfred Henry Sturtevant (November 21, 1891 – April 5, 1970) was an American geneticist.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of animals and single cell eukaryotes.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Blending inheritance is an obsolete theory in biology from the 19th century.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Celera is a subsidiary of Quest Diagnostics which focuses on genetic sequencing and related technologies.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
The coding region of a gene, also known as the CDS (from CoDing Sequence), is that portion of a gene's DNA or RNA that codes for protein.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Complex traits, also known as quantitative traits, are traits that do not behave according to simple Mendelian inheritance laws.
In cell biology, contact inhibition refers to two different but closely related phenomena: contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) and contact inhibition of proliferation (CIP).
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a strategy wherein samples of animal genetic materials are preserved cryogenically.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Edith Rebecca Saunders (14 October 1865 – 6 June 1945) was a British geneticist and plant anatomist.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
"Experiments on Plant Hybridization" (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) is a seminal paper written in 1865 and published in 1866 by Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian friar considered to be the founder of modern genetics.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
The Genain quadruplets (born in 1930) are a set of identical quadruplet sisters.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Genomics research data is the type of data generated from human genomics research.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Griffith's experiment, reported in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that helped to confirm that DNA is genetic material.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Epicurus.
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS (16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Count Imre Festetics de Tolna (Simaság, 1764 – Kőszeg, 1847) was a noble landowner and geneticist.
Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, “genite” and that from γένεσις genesis, “origin”), a discipline of biology, is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28, 1944) is a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist.
Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.
This is a list of file formats used by computers, organized by type.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.
Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring.
Muriel Wheldale Onslow (31 March 1880 – 19 May 1932) was a British biochemist, born in Birmingham, England.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution is a modification of the neutral theory of molecular evolution that accounts for the fact that not all mutations are either so deleterious such that they can be ignored, or else neutral.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neuroepigenetics is the study of how epigenetic changes to genes affect the nervous system.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Emma Nora Barlow, Lady Barlow (née Darwin; 22 December 1885 – 29 May 1989), was the granddaughter of the British naturalist Charles Darwin.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Nucleic acid methods are the techniques used to study nucleic acids: DNA and RNA.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Omphalodes verna (common names creeping navelwort or blue-eyed-Mary) is an herbaceous perennial rhizomatous plant of the genus Omphalodes belonging to the family Boraginaceae.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to genetics: Genetics – science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.
In epigenetics, a paramutation is an interaction between two alleles at a single locus, whereby one allele induces a heritable change in the other allele.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses.
Personal information, described in United States legal fields as either personally identifiable information (PII), or sensitive personal information (SPI), as used in information security and privacy laws, is information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context.
Peter J. Bowler (born 8 October 1944) is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought, the history of the environmental sciences, and on the history of genetics.
Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Plant genetic resources are plant genetic materials of actual or potential value.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
A primary tumor is a tumor growing at the anatomical site where tumor progression began and proceeded to yield a cancerous mass.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein & Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed open access journal covering protein and cell biology.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.
The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of DNA (the locus) which correlates with variation in a phenotype (the quantitative trait).
Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing first commercialized by Applied Biosystems, based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
In bioinformatics, sequence assembly refers to aligning and merging fragments from a longer DNA sequence in order to reconstruct the original sequence.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The Siamese cat is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Asian cat.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, embryologist, and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
is a Japanese scientist working on population genetics/molecular evolution.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tryptophan repressor (or trp repressor) is a transcription factor involved in controlling amino acid metabolism.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.
Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
white, abbreviated w, was the first sex-linked mutation ever discovered, found in the fruit fly ''Drosophila melanogaster''.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.