115 relations: A Memory of Solferino, Al-Qaeda, Alberto Gonzales, Asymmetric warfare, Attacks on humanitarian workers, Authority, Battle of Solferino, Biological warfare, Boumediene v. Bush, Chemical warfare, Cold War, Colombian conflict, Command responsibility, Congressional Research Service, Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Customary international humanitarian law, Customary international law, Declaration of war, Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Deportation, Detention (imprisonment), Duško Tadić, Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Enemy combatant, First Geneva Convention, Fourth Geneva Convention, Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, Geneva Conference, Geneva Convention (1929), Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field (1929), Geneva Protocol, George W. Bush, German prisoners of war in the United States, Guantánamo Bay, Guarantee, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Harvard University, Henry Dunant, Hors de combat, Hostage, Human shield, Human subject research, Humanitarian aid, Ian Fishback, Insurgency in the North Caucasus, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, ..., International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International humanitarian law, International law, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Jean Pictet, John Ashcroft, Judiciary, Jurisdiction, Keith B. Alexander, Law of war, List of parties to the Geneva Conventions, Military necessity, Military personnel, Mutilation, Neutral country, Nobel Peace Prize, Non-combatant, Nuremberg principles, Nuremberg trials, Perfidy, Police action, Population transfer, Prisoner of war, Protective sign, Protocol (diplomacy), Protocol I, Protocol II, Protocol III, Rasul v. Bush, Reprisal, Reservation (law), Right to a fair trial, Rohr Jewish Learning Institute, Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project, Russo-Georgian War, Second Geneva Convention, Second Sudanese Civil War, Sentence (law), Shipwreck, Solitary confinement, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Sri Lankan Civil War, Supreme Court of the United States, Switzerland, Syrian Civil War, Taliban, Targeted killing, Third Geneva Convention, Torture, Treaty, United Nations Charter, United Nations Security Council, Universal jurisdiction, Unlawful combatant, War, War crime, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Weapon, Wesley Clark, World War I, World War II, Wound, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
A Memory of Solferino (French: Un souvenir de Solférino) is a book of the Swiss humanist Henry Dunant published in 1862.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955) is an American lawyer who served as the 80th United States Attorney General, appointed in February 2005 by President George W. Bush, becoming the highest-ranking Hispanic American in executive government to date.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Humanitarian aid workers belonging to United Nations organisations, PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international legal protection, and de facto immunity from attack by belligerent parties.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
The Battle of Solferino (referred to in Italy as the Battle of Solferino and San Martino) on 24 June 1859 resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II (together known as the Franco-Sardinian Alliance) against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I. It was the last major battle in world history where all the armies were under the personal command of their monarchs.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
Boumediene v. Bush,, was a writ of habeas corpus submission made in a civilian court of the United States on behalf of Lakhdar Boumediene, a naturalized citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in military detention by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colombian conflict began in the mid-1960s and is a low-intensity asymmetric war between Colombian governments, paramilitary groups, crime syndicates, and far-left guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN), fighting each other to increase their influence in Colombian territory.
Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW or CCWC), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or whose effects are indiscriminate.
Customary international humanitarian law is a body of unwritten rules of public international law, which govern conduct during armed conflict.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
The Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict was adopted by the United Nations in 1974 and went into force the same year.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time.
Duško Tadić (born 1 October 1955, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian Serb politician, former SDS leader in Kozarac and a former member of the paramilitary forces supporting the attack on the district of Prijedor.
The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on humanitarian and medical vehicles and buildings, and to be worn by medical personnel and others carrying out humanitarian work, to protect them from military attack on the battlefield.
An enemy combatant is a person who, either lawfully or unlawfully, directly engages in hostilities for an enemy state or non-state actor in an armed conflict.
The First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
The Geneva Academy of international Humanitarian Law and Human Rights provides post-graduate education, conducts academic legal research and policy studies, and organizes training courses and expert meetings.
Geneva Conference may refer to.
The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929.
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field (1929)
The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, consisting of 39 articles in French, was adopted on 27 July 1929, at the end of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1929, which met from the 27 July until the 1 August of that year.
The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Members of the German military were interned as prisoners of war in the United States during World War I and World War II.
Guantánamo Bay (Bahía de Guantánamo) is a bay located in Guantánamo Province at the southeastern end of Cuba.
Guarantee is a legal term more comprehensive and of higher import than either warranty or "security".
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld,, is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the Bush administration to try detainees at Guantanamo Bay lack "the power to proceed because its structures and procedures violate both the Uniform Code of Military Justice and the four Geneva Conventions signed in 1949." Specifically, the ruling says that Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions was violated.
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld,, is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court recognized the power of the U.S. government to detain enemy combatants, including U.S. citizens, but ruled that detainees who are U.S. citizens must have the rights of due process, and the ability to challenge their enemy combatant status before an impartial authority.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henry Dunant (born Jean-Henri Dunant; 8 May 1828 – 30 October 1910), also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss businessman and social activist, the founder of the Red Cross, and the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Hors de combat, literally meaning "outside the fight", is a French term used in diplomacy and international law to refer to persons who are incapable of performing their ability to wage war.
A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.
Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets.
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
Ian Fishback is a former United States Army officer, who became known after he sent a letter to Senator John McCain of Arizona on September 16, 2005, in which Fishback stated his concerns about the continued abuse of prisoners held under the auspices of the Global War on Terror.
The insurgency in the North Caucasus is a currently low-level armed conflict between Russia and militants associated with the Caucasus Emirate and, since June 2015, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) groups.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 190-member National Societies.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
Jean Simon Pictet (born 2 September 1914, dec. 30 March 2002) was a Swiss citizen, jurist, legal practitioner and honorary doctorate with a profound knowledge of international humanitarian law.
John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as the 79th U.S. Attorney General (2001–2005), in the George W. Bush Administration.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Keith Brian Alexander (born December 2, 1951) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army who served as director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), chief of the Central Security Service (CHCSS) and commander of the United States Cyber Command.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
The Geneva Conventions, which were most recently revised in 1949, consist of seven individual treaties which are open to ratification or accession by any sovereign state.
Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict.
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces.
Mutilation or maiming (from the Latin: mutilus) is cutting off or injury to a body part of a person so that the part of the body is permanently damaged, detached or disfigured.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
The Nuremberg principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitutes a war crime.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
In the context of war, perfidy is a form of deception in which one side promises to act in good faith (such as by raising a flag of truce) with the intention of breaking that promise once the unsuspecting enemy is exposed (such as by coming out of cover to attack the enemy coming to take the "surrendering" prisoners into custody).
In military/security studies and international relations, "police action" is a euphemism for a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Protective signs are symbols to be used during an armed conflict to mark persons and objects under the protection of various treaties of international humanitarian law (IHL).
In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state.
Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international conflicts, where "armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination, alien occupation or racist regimes" are to be considered international conflicts.
Protocol II is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts.
Protocol III is a 2005 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem.
Rasul v. Bush,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court in which the Court held that foreign nationals held in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp could petition federal courts for writs of habeas corpus to review the legality of their detention.
A reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of international law to punish another sovereign state that has already broken them.
A reservation in international law is a caveat to a state's acceptance of a treaty.
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.
The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute (JLI) is a provider of adult Jewish courses on Jewish history, law, ethics, philosophy and rabbinical literature worldwide.
The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC Project) is an initiative of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights to support the application and implementation of the international law of armed conflict.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
The Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.
Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated from any human contact, often with the exception of members of prison staff, for 22–24 hours a day, with a sentence ranging from days to decades.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Targeted killing is defined as a form of assassination based on the presumption of criminal guilt.
The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
Universal jurisdiction allows states or international organizations to claim criminal jurisdiction over an accused person regardless of where the alleged crime was committed, and regardless of the accused's nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting entity.
An unlawful combatant, illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is a person who directly engages in armed conflict in violation of the laws of war.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr. (born December 23, 1944) is a retired General of the United States Army.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
Common Article 3 of the Geneva Convention, Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions, Convention of Geneva, Geneva Accords on Humane Weaponry, Geneva Convention, Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva convention, Geneva conventions, Geneve Convention, The Geneva Conventions, The Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. Commentary.