223 relations: A Problem from Hell, Ahmed Haroun, Albigensian Crusade, Ali Kushayb, Anfal genocide, Armenian Genocide, Article 301 (Turkish Penal Code), Assyrian genocide, Authoritarianism, Bahrain, Bangladesh, BBC, BBC News, Bodily harm, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian genocide, Bosnian genocide case, Bosnian War, C.H. Beck, Cambodia, Cambodian genocide, Cambridge University Press, Center for the Study of Genocide, Conflict Resolution, and Human Rights, Chams, China, Christian Gerlach, Christopher Browning, Colin Powell, Cornell University Press, Countervalue, Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Crimes against humanity, Cultural genocide, Custom (law), Cyprus, Darfur, Darfur genocide, Death squad, Definitions of politicide, Dehumanization, Democide, Effects of genocide on youth, Erga omnes, Ethiopia, Ethnic cleansing, Ethnic group, Ethnic hatred, Ethnocide, European Court of Human Rights, Extrajudicial killing, ..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, Forced displacement, Forensic anthropology, France, Gendercide, Genocidal massacre, Genocidal rape, Genocide Convention, Genocide definitions, Genocide denial, Genocide education, Genocides in history, Genos, Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, Great Purge, Greek genocide, Greek language, Gregory Stanton, Guatemalan genocide, Hate speech, Helen Fein, Hersch Lauterpacht, Historical negationism, History, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Holocaust denial, Holodomor, Homicide, Human extinction, Hybrid word, Ibiblio, Ieng Sary, Ieng Thirith, Immunity from prosecution (international law), India, Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966, Infanticide, Institutional racism, International Association of Genocide Scholars, International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International law, Involuntary euthanasia, Israel Charny, Janjaweed, Jean Kambanda, Jean-Paul Akayesu, Joshua Oppenheimer, Jurgen Brauer, Kang Kek Iew, Khieu Samphan, Khmer Rouge, Khmer Rouge Tribunal, King Leopold's Ghost, Kosovo War, Latin, Leo Kuper, List of Bosnian genocide prosecutions, List of genocides by death toll, Ljubiša Beara, Local extinction, Malaysia, Mass Atrocity crimes, Mass murder, McGill University, Mental health, Militia, Municipal law, Nation, Nationality, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Nikola Jorgić, Norway, Nuon Chea, Nuremberg trials, Omar al-Bashir, Operation Barbarossa, Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture, Oxfam, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Paradigm, Paul R. Williams (professor of law), PBS NewsHour, People, Peremptory norm, Philippe Sands, Philippines, Plea bargain, Pogrom, Pol Pot, Policide, Political cleansing of population, Political Instability Task Force, Princeton University Press, PublicAffairs, Race (human categorization), Racial integration, Radislav Krstić, Radovan Karadžić, Raphael Lemkin, Ratko Mladić, Religion, Religious cleansing, Ritualcide, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Routledge, Rudolph Rummel, Rwanda, Rwandan genocide, San Francisco Chronicle, Singapore, Slobodan Milošević, Social cleansing, Social Science Research Council, Soviet Union, Spain, Srebrenica, Srebrenica massacre, Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Suffix, Ta Mok, Taiwan, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The Independent, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, Time (magazine), Totalitarianism, Transaction Publishers, Treaty, Trial of Ratko Mladić, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 96, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council resolution, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1674, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820, United Nations Security Council Resolution 780, United Nations Security Council Resolution 827, United States, United States and the International Criminal Court, United States Department of State, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, United States Secretary of State, United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, University of California, USA Today, Utilitarian genocide, Vietnam, Vietnamese Cambodians, Vujadin Popović, War crime, William Rubinstein, William Schabas, Winston Churchill, World War II, World War II persecution of Serbs, Yair Auron, Yale University, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zdravko Tolimir, 1971 Bangladesh genocide, 2005 World Summit. Expand index (173 more) » « Shrink index
"A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide is a book by Samantha Power, at that time Professor of Human Rights Practice at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, which explores America's understanding of, response to, and inaction on genocides in the 20th century from the Armenian genocide to the "ethnic cleansings" of the Kosovo War.
Ahmed Mohammed Haroun (or Ahmad Harun أحمد هارون) (born 1964) is one of four Sudanese men wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.
Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman, commonly known as Ali Kushayb, is a senior Janjaweed commander supporting the Sudanese government against Darfur rebel groups, and currently is sought under an arrest warrant by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes.
The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Article 301 is an article of the Turkish Penal Code making it illegal to insult Turkey, the Turkish nation, or Turkish government institutions.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bodily harm is a legal term of art used in the definition of both statutory and common law offences in Australia, Canada, England and Wales and other common law jurisdictions.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The term Bosnian genocide refers to either genocide at Srebrenica and ŽepaIWPR, Genocide Conviction for Serb General Tolimir, 13 December 2012.
Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro (also called the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide) is a public international law case decided by the International Court of Justice.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Verlag C.H.BECK oHG, doing business as Publishers C.H. Beck (Verlag C. H. Beck), is a German publisher with its headquarters in Munich and a branch office in Frankfurt.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cambodian genocide (របបប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍) was carried out by the Khmer Rouge regime under the leadership of Pol Pot, killing approximately 1.5 to 3 million Cambodian people from 1975 to 1979.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Center for the Study of Genocide and Human Rights (CGHR) is a non-profit organization based at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
In military doctrine, countervalue is the targeting of an opponent's assets which are of value but not actually a military threat, such as cities and civilian populations.
The Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Serbo-Croatian: Sud Bosne i Hercegovine, Cyrillic script: Суд Босне и Херцеговине; abbreviated as the Court of BiH in English) is a domestic court of the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina which includes international judges and prosecutors.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept that lawyer Raphael Lemkin distinguished in 1944 as a component of genocide.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
The Darfur genocide refers to the systematic killing of Darfuri men, women, and children which has occurred during the ongoing conflict in Western Sudan.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
Politicide may refer to one of the following: Political cleansing of population.
Dehumanization or an act thereof can describe a behavior or process that undermines individuality of and in others.
Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".
The effects of genocide on youth include psychological and demographic effects that affect the transition into adulthood.
Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone".
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.
Ethnocide refers to extermination of national culture as a genocide component.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender.
The term genocidal massacre was introduced by Leo Kuper (1908–1994) to describe incidents with a genocidal component but which are committed on a smaller scale when compared to genocides such as the Rwandan Genocide.
Genocidal rape is a term used to describe the actions of a group who have carried out acts of mass rape during wartime against their perceived enemy as part of a genocidal campaign.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
This is a list of scholarly and international legal definitions of genocide, a word coined with genos (Greek: birth, kind, race) and an English suffix -cide by Raphael Lemkin in 1944.
Genocide denial is the attempt to deny or minimize statements of the scale and severity of an incidence of genocide.
Genocide education refers to education about patterns and trends in the phenomenon of genocide and/or about the causes, nature and impact of particular instances of genocide.
Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group.
In ancient Greece, a genos (Greek: γένος, "race, stock, kin", plural γένη genē) was a social group claiming common descent, referred to by a single name (see also Sanskrit "Gana").
The Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (1915–1918) was a period of mass starvation during World War I. The Allies' blockade was made worse by another introduced by Jamal Pasha, the commander of the Fourth Army of the Ottoman Empire in Syria region, where crops were barred from entering from the neighboring Syrian hinterland to Mount Lebanon, and by the arrival of a swarm of locusts to the region in 1915 that, for three continuous months, devoured the remaining crops.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Greek genocide, including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory H. Stanton is the Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention at the George Mason University in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
The Guatemalan genocide, Mayan genocide, or Silent Holocaust refers to the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations.
Hate speech is speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, national origin, gender, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.
Helen Fein (born 1934) is a historical sociologist, Professor, specialized on genocide, human rights, collective violence and other issues.
Sir Hersch Lauterpacht QC (16 August 1897 – 8 May 1960) was a Polish-British lawyer and judge at the International Court of Justice.
Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Holocaust and Genocide Studies is an international peer-reviewed academic journal addressing the issue of the Holocaust and other genocides.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
In futures studies, human extinction is the hypothetical end of the human species.
A hybrid word or hybridism is a word that etymologically derives from at least two languages.
ibiblio (formerly SunSITE.unc.edu and MetaLab.unc.edu) is a "collection of collections," and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source content, including software, music, literature, art, history, science, politics, and cultural studies.
Ieng Sary (អៀង សារី; 24 October 1925 – 14 March 2013) was a co-founder and senior member of the Khmer Rouge.
Ieng Thirith (née Khieu; អៀង ធីរិទ្ធ; 10 March 1932 – 22 August 2015) was an influential figure in the Khmer Rouge, although she was neither a member of the Khmer Rouge Standing Committee nor of the Central Committee.
Immunity from prosecution is a doctrine of international law that allows an accused to avoid prosecution for criminal offences.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966 (also variously known as the Indonesian massacres, Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, Indonesian politicide, or the 1965 Tragedy) were large-scale killings and civil unrest which occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting communist sympathizers, ethnic Chinese and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
Institutional racism (also known as institutionalized racism) is a form of racism expressed in the practice of social and political institutions.
The International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) is an international non-partisan organization that seeks to further research and teaching about the nature, causes, and consequences of genocide, including the Holocaust, and to advance policy studies on the prevention of genocide.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Involuntary euthanasia occurs when euthanasia is performed on a person who would be able to provide informed consent, but does not, either because they do not want to die, or because they were not asked.
Israel W. Charny (born 1931 in Brooklyn, New York) is an Israeli psychologist and genocide scholar.
The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd; also transliterated Janjawid) (English: a man with a gun on a horse.") are a militia that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad.
Jean Kambanda (born October 19, 1955) was the Prime Minister in the caretaker government of Rwanda from the start of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.
Jean-Paul Akayesu (born 1953) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican Democratic Movement (MDR) politician from Rwanda.
Joshua Lincoln Oppenheimer (born September 23, 1974) is an American-born British film director based in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Jurgen Brauer (born February 19, 1957) is a German-American economist and contributor to the growing field of peace economics, the study of economic aspects of peace and security.
Kang Kek Iew or Kaing Kek Iev, also romanized as Kaing Guek Eav (កាំង ហ្គេកអ៊ាវ), nom de guerre Comrade Duch or Deuch (មិត្តឌុច); or Hang Pin, (born 17 November 1942) is a prisoner, war criminal and former leader in the Khmer Rouge movement, which ruled Democratic Kampuchea from 1975 to 1979.
Khieu Samphan (ខៀវ សំផន; born 27 July 1931) is a former Cambodian communist politician who was the chairman of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC; Chambres extraordinaires au sein des tribunaux cambodgiens (CETC); អង្គជំនុំជម្រះវិសាមញ្ញក្នុjងតុលាការកម្ពុជា), commonly known as the Cambodia Tribunal or Khmer Rouge Tribunal (សាលាក្ដីខ្មែរក្រហម), is a court established to try the most senior responsible members of the Khmer Rouge for alleged violations of international law and serious crimes perpetrated during the Cambodian genocide.
King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1998) is a best-selling popular history book by Adam Hochschild that explores the exploitation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium between 1885 and 1908, as well as the large-scale atrocities committed during that period.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leo Kuper (20 November 1908 – 23 May 1994) was a South African sociologist specialising in the study of genocide.
This is a comprehensive list of prosecutions brought against individuals for the crime of genocide in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and international cases brought against states for the same crime.
This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide.
Ljubiša Beara (14 July 1939 – 8 February 2017) was a Bosnian Serb who participated in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Atrocity crimes refer to the three legally defined international crimes of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Municipal law is the national, domestic, or internal law of a sovereign state defined in opposition to international law.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nikola Jorgić (1946, Doboj, Bosnia-Herzegovina – 8 June 2014, Germany) was a Bosnian Serb from the Doboj region who was a soldier of a paramilitary group located in his native area.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuon Chea (នួន ជា; born Lau Kim Korn, 7 July 1926), also known as Long Bunruot (ឡុង ប៊ុនរត្ន) or Rungloet Laodi (รุ่งเลิศ เหล่าดี), is a Cambodian former communist politician who was the chief ideologist of the Khmer Rouge.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (عمر حسن أحمد البشير; pronunciation:; born 1944) is a Sudanese politician who is currently the seventh president of Sudan and head of the National Congress Party.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture (OPCAT)) is a treaty that supplements to the 1984 United Nations Convention Against Torture.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Paul R. Williams holds the Rebecca Grazier Professorship in Law and International Relations at American University, where he teaches in the School of International Service and the Washington College of Law.
The PBS NewsHour is an American daily evening television news program that is broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), airing seven nights a week on more than 350 of the public broadcaster's member stations.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.
Philippe Sands, QC (born 17 October 1960) is British and French lawyer at Matrix Chambers, and Professor of Laws and Director of the Centre on International Courts and Tribunals at University College London.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
Policide is a neologism used in political science to describe the intentional destruction of a city or nation.
Political cleansing of population refers to eliminating categories of people in specific areas for political reasons.
The Political Instability Task Force (PITF), formerly known as State Failure Task Force, is a U.S. government-sponsored research project to build a database on major domestic political conflicts leading to state failures.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
PublicAffairs (or PublicAffairs Books) is an imprint of the Perseus Books Group, an American book publishing company located in New York City.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).
Radislav Krstić (Радислав Крстић; born 15 February 1948) was the Deputy Commander and later Chief of Staff of the Drina Corps of the Army of Republika Srpska (the Bosnian Serb Army) from October 1994 until 12 July 1995.
Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић,; born 19 June 1945) is a Bosnian Serb former politician and convicted war criminal who served as the President of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War and sought the direct unification of that entity with Serbia.
Raphael Lemkin (June 24, 1900 – August 28, 1959) was a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent who is best known for coining the word genocide and initiating the Genocide Convention.
Ratko Mladić (Ратко Младић,; born 12 March 1943) is a Bosnian Serb former general found guilty of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious cleansing is a term sometimes used to refer to removal of a population from a certain territory based on its religion.
Ritualcide is the systematic destruction or alteration of traditional ritual practices and their sequencing.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Social cleansing (limpieza social) is class-based killing that consists of elimination of members of society considered "undesirable," including but not limited to the homeless, criminals, street children, the elderly, sex workers, and sexual minorities.
The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is a U.S.-based independent nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing research in the social sciences and related disciplines.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Srebrenica is a town and municipality located in the easternmost part of Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (before 1999, known as the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities) was a think tank of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Ta Mok (តាម៉ុក; born Chhit Choeun, 1926 – July 21, 2006) was a Cambodian military chief and soldier who was a senior figure in the Khmer Rouge and the leader of the national army of Democratic Kampuchea.. He was best known as "Brother Number Five" or "the Butcher". He was captured along the Thailand-Cambodia border in March 1999 by Cambodian government forces while on the run with a small band of followers, and was held in government custody all the way to his death in 2006 while awaiting his war crime trial.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Prosecutor v. Ratko Mladić was a case before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague, Netherlands, concerning crimes committed during the Bosnian War by Ratko Mladić in his role as a general in the Yugoslav People's Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army of Republika Srpska.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 96 of 11 December 1946, titled "The Crime of Genocide", was a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly during its first session that affirmed that genocide was a crime under international law.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564, adopted on 18 September 2004, after recalling resolutions 1502 (2003), 1547 (2004) and 1556 (2004), the Council threatened the imposition of sanctions against Sudan if it failed to comply with its obligations on Darfur, and an international inquiry was established to investigate violations of human rights in the region.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593, adopted on 31 March 2005, after receiving a report by the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, the Council referred the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan to the International Criminal Court (ICC) and required Sudan to co-operate fully.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1674, adopted unanimously on April 28, 2006, after reaffirming resolutions 1265 (1999) and 1296 (2000) concerning the protection of civilians in armed conflict and Resolution 1631 (2005) on co-operation between the United Nations and regional organisations, the Council stressed a comprehensive approach to the prevention of armed conflict and its recurrence.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820 was unanimously adopted on 19 June 2008.
United Nations Security Council resolution 780, adopted unanimously on 6 October 1992, after reaffirming Resolution 713 (1991) and subsequent resolutions on the topic, the Council expressed its concern at the continued "widespread violations of international humanitarian law" in Bosnia and Herzegovina and authorised the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to establish a Commission of Experts to examine and analyse the information submitted pursuant to Resolution 771 (1992) on violations of the Geneva Conventions in the region.
United Nations Security Council resolution 827, adopted unanimously on 25 May 1993, after reaffirming Resolution 713 (1991) and all subsequent resolutions on the topic of the former Yugoslavia, approved report S/25704 of Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, with the Statute of the International Tribunal as an annex, establishing the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States is not a State Party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute), which founded the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002 as a permanent international criminal court to "bring to justice the perpetrators of the worst crimes known to humankind – war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide", when national courts are unable or unwilling to do so.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Utilitarian genocide is one of five forms of genocide categorized and defined in 1975 by genocide scholar Vahakn Dadrian.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnamese Cambodians refer to ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia.
Vujadin Popović (14 March 1957, Popovići, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina) is a Bosnian Serb who participated in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
William D. Rubinstein (born August 12, 1946) is a historian and author.
William Anthony Schabas, OC (born 19 November 1950) is a Canadian academic in the field of international criminal and human rights law, and has been called 'the world expert on the law of genocide and international law.' He is professor of international law at Middlesex University in the United Kingdom, professor of international human law and human rights at Leiden University in the Netherlands, and an internationally respected expert on human rights law, genocide and the death penalty.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World War II persecution of Serbs, includes the extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion of large numbers of ethnic Serbs by the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), as well as killings and expulsions of Serbs by the various Axis forces and their local supporters in occupied Yugoslavia.
Yair Auron (יאיר אורון, Ya'ir Oron; born April 30, 1945) is an Israeli historian, scholar and expert specializing on Holocaust and genocide studies, racism and contemporary Jewry.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zdravko Tolimir (Serbian Cyrillic: Здравко Толимир; 27 November 1948 – 9 February 2016) was a Bosnian Serb military commander and war criminal, convicted of genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, extermination, murder, persecution on ethnic grounds and forced transfer.
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.
The 2005 World Summit, 14–16 September 2005, was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Autogenocide, Crime of genocide, Culture Genocide, Ethocide, Genocidal, Genocidal intent to destroy, Genocidal organization, Genocide bombers, Genocide for profit, Genocides, Genoicide, Genoside, Genozide, Human Genocide, The Specific Intent to Commit Genocide.