161 relations: Alu element, Amoeba, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Archaic humans, Aspergillus nidulans, Bacteria, Bacterial genome, Bacteriophage MS2, Base pair, Biome, Bombyx mori, Bonobo, Botany, Bryophyte, Buchnera (bacterium), Caenorhabditis elegans, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, Chloroplast, Chloroplast DNA, Chromosome, Circuit topology, Circular bacterial chromosome, Citizen science, Coding region, Codon usage bias, Crowdsourcing, Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources, Cyanobacteria, Denisova Cave, Developmental biology, Dichotomyctere nigroviridis, Diploscapter pachys, DNA, DNA transposon, Drosophila melanogaster, Economies of scale, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Fish, Flowering plant, Frederick Sanger, Fritillaria assyriaca, Fungus, Gamete, Gattaca, GC-content, Gene, Gene duplication, Genealogy, ..., Genetics, Genlisea tuberosa, Genome size, Genome-wide association study, Genoscope, Germany, Ghent University, Haemophilus influenzae, Hans Winkler, HIV, Homo sapiens, Horizontal gene transfer, House mouse, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Huntington's disease, Illumina (company), In silico, In vivo, Insect, Intron, J. Craig Venter Institute, Jack jumper ant, James Watson, Jean Weissenbach, Jurassic Park (film), Jurassic Park (novel), Karyotype, Lambda phage, List of sequenced animal genomes, List of sequenced archaeal genomes, List of sequenced bacterial genomes, List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes, List of sequenced fungi genomes, List of sequenced plant genomes, List of sequenced plastomes, List of sequenced protist genomes, Mammal, Manteia Predictive Medicine, Marbled lungfish, Massive parallel sequencing, Measurement, Megavirus, Meiosis, Metagenomics, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Microbiota, Microorganism, Microsatellite, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Molecular biology, Molecular epidemiology, Molecular pathological epidemiology, Molecular pathology, Moss, Nasuia deltocephalinicola, National Institutes of Health, Neanderthal, Nematode, New York Genome Center, Non-coding DNA, Nostoc punctiforme, Nucleic acid sequence, Omics, Ophioglossum, Organelle, Pan-genome, Pandoravirus salinus, Paris japonica, Phalanx bone, Phi X 174, Physcomitrella patens, Plant, Plasmid, Polychaos dubium, Polyploid, Populus, Porcine circovirus, Pratylenchus coffeae, Precision medicine, Prochlorococcus, Red imported fire ant, Reference genome, Retrotransposon, Rhizome, Rice, RNA, RNA virus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sequenceome, Sequencing, Serratia symbiotica, SV40, Symbiotic bacteria, Tandem repeat, Telomere, Tetraodontidae, The New York Times, Trinucleotide repeat disorder, Twist Bioscience, UCSC Genome Browser, University of Hamburg, V(D)J recombination, Virus, Walter Fiers, Western honey bee, Whole genome sequencing, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Yeast, 454 Life Sciences. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
An Alu element is a short stretch of DNA originally characterized by the action of the Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) restriction endonuclease.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
Aspergillus nidulans (also called Emericella nidulans when referring to its sexual form, or teleomorph) is one of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of animals and single cell eukaryotes.
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Buchnera aphidicola, a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and has been studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Candidatus Carsonella ruddii is an obligate endosymbiotic Gamma Proteobacterium with one of the smallest genomes of any characterised bacteria.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The circuit topology of a linear polymer refers to arrangement of its intra-molecular contacts.
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA.
Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.
The coding region of a gene, also known as the CDS (from CoDing Sequence), is that portion of a gene's DNA or RNA that codes for protein.
Codon usage bias refers to differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons in coding DNA.
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.
Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a strategy wherein samples of animal genetic materials are preserved cryogenically.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Denisova Cave (Дени́сова Пеще́ра, Аю-Таш.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (syn. Tetraodon nigroviridis) is one of the pufferfish known as the green spotted puffer.
Diploscapter pachys is a species of nematode.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA transposons (also called Class II elements) are a group of transposable elements (TEs) that can move in the DNA of an organism via a single- or double-stranded DNA intermediate.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
Fritillaria assyriaca is a perennial herbaceous bulbous plant occurring in a region stretching from Turkey to Iran.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gattaca is a 1997 American science fiction film written and directed by Andrew Niccol.
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genlisea tuberosa is a carnivorous species in the genus Genlisea (family Lentibulariaceae) that is endemic to Brazil and found only in campos rupestres vegetation.
Genome size is the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single genome.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
The French National Sequencing Center (Genoscope) was created in 1996 in Évry, France.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghent University (Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Hans Karl Albert Winkler (23 April 1877 – 22 November 1945) was a German botanist.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Illumina, Inc. is an American company incorporated in April 1998 that develops, manufactures and markets integrated systems for the analysis of genetic variation and biological function.
In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.
The Myrmecia pilosula, commonly known as the jack jumper, jumping jack, hopper ant, or jumper ant, is a species of venomous ant native to Australia.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jean Weissenbach (born 13 February 1946) is the current director of the Genoscope.
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science-fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen.
Jurassic Park is a 1990 science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton, divided into seven sections (iterations).
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
This list of sequenced animal genomes contains animal species for which complete genome sequences have been assembled, annotated and published.
This list of sequenced archaeal genomes contains all the archaea known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and deposited in public databases.
This list of sequenced eubacterial genomes contains all the eubacteria known to have publicly available complete genome sequences.
This list of "sequenced" eukaryotic genomes contains all the eukaryotes known to have publicly available complete nuclear and organelle genome sequences that have been sequenced, assembled, annotated and published; draft genomes are not included, nor are organelle-only sequences.
This list of sequenced fungi genomes contains all the fungal species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and published; draft genomes are not included, nor are organelle only sequences.
This list of sequenced plant genomes contains plant species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and published.
A plastome is the genome of a plastid, a type of organelle found in plants and in a variety of protoctists.
This list of sequenced protist genomes contains all the protist species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and published; draft genomes aren't included, nor are organelle only sequences.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manteia Predictive Medicine S.A. (initially incorporated under the name "GenInEx S.A.") was a start-up company created in November 2000 as a spin-off of Serono, a Swiss-based biotechnology company, now part of Merck-Serono, by private founders.
The marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) is a lungfish of the family Protopteridae.
Massive parallel sequencing or massively parallel sequencing is any of several high-throughput approaches to DNA sequencing using the concept of massively parallel processing; it is also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) or second-generation sequencing.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
Megavirus is a viral genus containing a single identified species named Megavirus chilensis (MGVC), phylogenetically related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV).
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (formerly Methanococcus jannaschii) is a thermophilic methanogenic archaean in the class Methanococci.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology and medical science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of disease within families and across populations.
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE, also molecular pathologic epidemiology) is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology.
Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Nasuia deltocephalinicola was recently discovered to have the smallest genome of all bacteria, with 112,091 nucleotides.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The New York Genome Center (NYGC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit biomedical research organization in New York, New York.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
Nostoc punctiforme is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
The English-language neologism omics informally refers to a field of study in biology ending in -omics, such as genomics, proteomics or metabolomics.
Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25–30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In molecular biology a pan-genome (or supra-genome) describes the full complement of genes in a clade (originally applied to species in bacteria and archaea, but also to plant species), which can have large variation in gene content among closely related strains or ecotypes.
Pandoravirus salinus is a large virus of genus Pandoravirus, found in coastal sediments in Chile, and is one of the largest viruses identified, along with Pandoravirus dulcis.
is a Japanese species of plants the genus Paris in the family Melanthiaceae.
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.
Physcomitrella patens, the spreading earthmoss, is a moss (bryophyte) used as a model organism for studies on plant evolution, development, and physiology.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Polychaos dubium is a freshwater amoeboid and one of the larger species of single-celled eukaryote.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Porcine circovirus (PCV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (class II), that is nonenveloped with an unsegmented circular genome.
Pratylenchus coffeae is a plant-pathogenic nematode infecting several hosts including potato, banana, sweet potato, strawberry, Persian violet, peanut and citrus.
Precision medicine (PM) is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare, with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products being tailored to the individual patient.
Prochlorococcus is a genus of very small (0.6 µm) marine cyanobacteria with an unusual pigmentation (chlorophyll ''a2'' and ''b2'').
The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), also known as the fire ant or RIFA, is a species of ant native to South America.
A reference genome (also known as a reference assembly) is a digital nucleic acid sequence database, assembled by scientists as a representative example of a species' set of genes.
Retrotransposons (also called transposons via RNA intermediates) are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Sequenceome is the totality of polymer sequences on Earth.
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.
Serratia symbiotica is a species of bacteria that lives as a symbiont of aphids.
SV40 is an abbreviation for simian vacuolating virus 40 or simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans.
Symbiotic bacteria are bacteria living in symbiosis with another organism or each other.
Tandem repeats occur in DNA when a pattern of one or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Trinucleotide repeat disorders (also known as trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders, triplet repeat expansion disorders or codon reiteration disorders) are a set of genetic disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion, a kind of mutation where trinucleotide repeats in certain genes or intronsDavid W. Sanders & Clifford P. Brangwynne (2017), Nature, 546, 215–216 (08 June 2017) exceed the normal, stable threshold, which differs per gene.
Twist Bioscience is a privately held company based in San Francisco that manufactures synthetic DNA for clients in the biotechnology industry.
The UCSC Genome Browser is an on-line, and downloadable, genome browser hosted by the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC).
The University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg, also referred to as UHH) is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.
The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most common of the 7–12 species of honey bee worldwide.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
Wigglesworthia glossinidia is a species of gram-negative bacteria which was isolated from the gut of the tsetse fly.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
454 Life Sciences was a biotechnology company based in Branford, Connecticut that specialized in high-throughput DNA sequencing.