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Genomics of domestication

Index Genomics of domestication

Domesticated species and the human populations that domesticate them are typified by a mutualistic relationship of interdependence, in which humans have over thousands of years modified the genomics of domesticated species. [1]

70 relations: Agricultural economics, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaeology, Austronesian peoples, Basmati, Beringia, Calabash, Charles Darwin, Chromosome, Coconut, Comparative genomics, Conserved sequence, Cotton, DNA sequencing, Domestication, Drosophila melanogaster, Eukaryote, Evolution, Exon, Fertilizer, Fitness (biology), Founder effect, Gene, Genetic admixture, Genetic divergence, Genetic pollution, Genetics, Genome, Genomics, Grape, House mouse, Human Genome Project, Indian Ocean, Jasmine rice, Lima bean, Locus (genetics), Madagascar, Maize, Mendelian inheritance, Microsatellite, Morphology (biology), Natural selection, Neontology, Nitrogen, Non-coding DNA, Nucleic acid sequence, On the Origin of Species, Pacific Ocean, Paleo-Indians, Pearl millet, ..., Phaseolus vulgaris, Phenotype, Phytophthora infestans, Population bottleneck, Populus, Potato, Reference genome, Retrotransposon, Rice, Seed dispersal, Selective breeding, Selective sweep, Seychelles, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Smithsonian Institution, Sorghum, Subspecies, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Transposable element, Wheat. Expand index (20 more) »

Agricultural economics

Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as agricultural economics.

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Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.

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Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Austronesian peoples

The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.

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Basmati

Basmati (pronounced in South Asia) is a variety of long, slender-grained aromatic rice which is traditionally from the Indian subcontinent.

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Beringia

Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Calabash

A calabash, bottle gourd, or white-flowered gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, also known by many other names, including long melon, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.

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Comparative genomics

Comparative genomics is a field of biological research in which the genomic features of different organisms are compared.

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Conserved sequence

In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Domestication

Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Exon

An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

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Fertilizer

A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Founder effect

In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic admixture

Genetic admixture occurs when two or more previously isolated and genetically differentiated populations begin interbreeding.

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Genetic divergence

Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.

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Genetic pollution

Genetic pollution is a controversial term for uncontrolled gene flow into wild populations.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genomics

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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Grape

A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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House mouse

The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.

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Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Jasmine rice

Jasmine rice (ข้าวหอมมะลิ) is a long-grain variety of fragrant rice (also known as aromatic rice).

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Lima bean

Phaseolus lunatus, commonly known as the lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Madagascar

Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Microsatellite

A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Neontology

Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Non-coding DNA

In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Paleo-Indians

Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

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Pearl millet

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.

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Phaseolus vulgaris

Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean and green bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans).

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Phenotype

A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phytophthora infestans

Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete or water mold, a microorganism which causes the serious potato and tomato disease known as late blight or potato blight.

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Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).

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Populus

Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Reference genome

A reference genome (also known as a reference assembly) is a digital nucleic acid sequence database, assembled by scientists as a representative example of a species' set of genes.

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Retrotransposon

Retrotransposons (also called transposons via RNA intermediates) are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Seed dispersal

Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Selective sweep

In genetics, a selective sweep is the reduction or elimination of variation among the nucleotides near a mutation in DNA.

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Seychelles

Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Subspecies

In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.

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The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication

The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication is a book by Charles Darwin that was first published in January 1868.

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Transposable element

A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genomics_of_domestication

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