88 relations: Altitude, Analemma, Angle, Apsis, Areostationary orbit, Areosynchronous orbit, Arthur C. Clarke, Astronomical object, Astronomy, Atmosphere, Atmospheric entry, Celestial equator, Celestial sphere, Circular orbit, Co-orbital configuration, Coordinate system, Degree (angle), Earth, Earth's orbit, Eccentricity (mathematics), Ellipse, Elliptic orbit, Equator, Escape velocity, Euclidean vector, Force, Geostationary orbit, Geostationary transfer orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, Goddard Space Flight Center, Graveyard orbit, Heliocentric orbit, High Earth orbit, Highly elliptical orbit, Hohmann transfer orbit, Horseshoe orbit, Hyperbolic trajectory, Impulse (physics), Inclined orbit, Infinity, Integral, Lagrangian point, List of orbits, Low Earth orbit, Medium Earth orbit, Molniya orbit, Moon, Newton (unit), Orbit, Orbit of the Moon, ..., Orbital decay, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital elements, Orbital inclination, Orbital mechanics, Orbital period, Orbital spaceflight, Parabolic trajectory, Pass (spaceflight), Plane (geometry), Plane of reference, Planet, Polar orbit, Pound (force), Reconnaissance satellite, Retrograde and prograde motion, Satellite, Sea level, Second, Semi-synchronous orbit, Sidereal time, Solar time, Space debris, Space station, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Specific orbital energy, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Subsynchronous orbit, Sun-synchronous orbit, Sundial, Supersynchronous orbit, Tundra orbit, Velocity, Walter Hohmann, Weather satellite, 2002 AA29, 3753 Cruithne. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
In astronomy, an analemma (from Greek ἀνάλημμα analēmma "support") is a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth.
In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
An areostationary orbit or areosynchronous equatorial orbit (abbreviated AEO) is a circular areo­synchronous orbit in the Martian equatorial plane about above the surface, any point on which revolves about Mars in the same direction and with the same period as the Martian surface.
Areosynchronous orbits (ASO) are a class of synchronous orbits for artificial satellites around the planet Mars.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
A circular orbit is the orbit with a fixed distance around the barycenter, that is, in the shape of a circle.
In astronomy, a co-orbital configuration is a configuration of two or more astronomical objects (such as asteroids, moons, or planets) orbiting at the same, or very similar, distance from their primary, i.e. they are in a 1:1 mean-motion resonance.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's orbit is the trajectory along which Earth travels around the Sun.
In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit—an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane—used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high-thrust chemical engines.
A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an orbit around Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches Earth's rotation on its axis, which takes one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is an orbit that lies away from common operational orbits.
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
A high Earth orbit is a geocentric orbit with an altitude entirely above that of a geosynchronous orbit.
A highly elliptical orbit (HEO) is an elliptic orbit with high eccentricity, usually referring to one around Earth.
In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.
A horseshoe orbit is a type of co-orbital motion of a small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth).
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
A satellite is said to occupy an inclined orbit around Earth if the orbit exhibits an angle other than 0° to the equatorial plane.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
The following is a list of types of orbits.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).
A Molniya orbit (a, "Lightning") is a type of satellite orbit.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
The Moon orbits Earth in the prograde direction and completes one revolution relative to the stars in about 27.322 days (a sidereal month) and one revolution relative to the Sun in about 29.530 days (a synodic month).
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1.
A pass, in spaceflight and satellite communications, is the period in which a satellite or other spacecraft is above the local horizon and available for radio communication with a particular ground station, satellite receiver, or relay satellite (or, in some cases, for visual sighting).
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
In celestial mechanics, the plane of reference (or reference plane) is the plane used to define orbital elements (positions).
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.
The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
A semi-synchronous orbit is an orbit with a period equal to half the average rotational period of the body being orbited, and in the same direction as that body's rotation.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
A subsynchronous orbit is an orbit of a satellite that is nearer the planet than it would be if it were in synchronous orbit, i.e. the orbital period is less than the sidereal day of the planet.
A Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO, also called a heliosynchronous orbit) is a nearly polar orbit around a planet, in which the satellite passes over any given point of the planet's surface at the same local mean solar time.
A sundial is a device that tells the time of day when there is sunlight by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky.
A supersynchronous orbit is either an orbit with a period greater than that of a synchronous orbit, or just an orbit whose apsis (apogee in the case of the earth) is higher than that of a synchronous orbit.
A Tundra orbit (Russian: Тундра) is a highly elliptical geosynchronous orbit with a high inclination (usually near 63.4°) and an orbital period of one sidereal day.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
Walter Hohmann (18 March 1880 – 11 March 1945) was a German engineer who made an important contribution to the understanding of orbital dynamics.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
(also written 2002 AA29) is a small near-Earth asteroid that was discovered on January 9, 2002 by the LINEAR (Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research) automatic sky survey.
3753 Cruithne (For instance, on the British television show Q.I. (Season 1; aired 11 Sept 2003).) is a Q-type, Aten asteroid in orbit around the Sun in 1:1 orbital resonance with Earth, making it a co-orbital object.