203 relations: A Canterbury Tale, A Knight's Tale, A Treatise on the Astrolabe, Act for the Advancement of True Religion, Alain Chartier, Aldgate, Alice Chaucer, Duchess of Suffolk, Allegory, Alliterative verse, Amersham, Anelida and Arcite, Argument (literature), Astrolabe, Astronomer, Author, Barking Abbey, Beowulf, Blanche of Lancaster, Boece (Chaucer), Boethius, Brian Tuke, Bureaucracy, Canterbury, Charles Muscatine, Chaucer (crater), Chaucer (surname), Chief Butler of England, Classical antiquity, Clerk of works, Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter, Coat of arms, Comptroller, Condottieri, Confessio Amantis, Construction foreman, Couplet, Court (royal), Cressida, Dante Alighieri, Dialect, Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Ulster, Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, Edward III of England, Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster, Encryption, English literature, English national identity, English words first attested in Chaucer, Equatorium, ..., Esquire, Eustache Deschamps, Family tree, Feckenham Forest, Flanders, Fleet Street, Florence, Forester, Fortuna, Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Francis Beaumont, Franciscans, Frederick James Furnivall, Friar, Galeazzo II Visconti, Genoa, Giovanni Boccaccio, God Spede the Plough, Great Vowel Shift, Guillaume de Lorris, Guillaume de Machaut, Harvard University, Henry IV of England, History of the British Army, House of Beaufort, Hundred Years' War, Iambic pentameter, Influence of Italian humanism on Chaucer, Inner Temple, Inns of Court, Ipswich, Italian poetry, Jack Upland, Jean Froissart, John Barbour (poet), John Chadworth, John Colet, John Dart, John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln, John Dryden, John Foxe, John Gower, John Hawkwood, John Lydgate, John of Gaunt, John Skelton, John Stow, John Urry (literary editor), John V. Fleming, John Wycliffe, Katherine Swynford, Kent, Late Middle Ages, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Lollardy, Lord Chancellor, Lords Appellant, Marchette Chute, Merton College, Oxford, Metre (poetry), Middle Ages, Middle English, Middle English literature, Milan, Modern English, Moneyer, North Petherton, Oxford English Dictionary, Palace of Westminster, Parlement of Foules, Paul Bettany, Pearl Poet, Peasants' Revolt, Petherton Park, Petrarch, Philip Sidney, Philippa of Hainault, Philippa Roet, Picardy, Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, Piers Plowman, Poet laureate, Poet-diplomat, Poets' Corner, Pope Innocent III, Princeton University, Pronunciation, Pseudepigrapha, Queen's Printer, Reginald De Koven, Reims, Rhyme royal, Richard II of England, Richard III of England, Richard Pynson, Robert Henryson, Robert Robinson (broadcaster), Roman de la Rose, Romanticism, Royal forest, Rudyard Kipling, Saint George's Day, Santiago de Compostela, Schwa, Scrope v Grosvenor, Shilling, Simon Singh, Sinecure, Speaker of the House of Commons (United Kingdom), St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Standard English, Technical writing, Terry Jones, The 'Wonderful Parliament' (1386), The Book of the Duchess, The Canterbury Pilgrims, The Canterbury Tales, The Code Book, The Complaint of Mars, The Consolation of Philosophy, The Floure and the Leafe, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women, The Pilgrim's Tale, The Plowman's Tale, The Reeve's Tale, The Romaunt of the Rose, The Shepheardes Calender, The Summoner's Tale, Thomas Chaucer, Thomas Hoccleve, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Thomas Speght, Thomas Tyrwhitt, Thomas Usk, Tower of London, Translation, Troilus and Criseyde, University of California, Berkeley, Valet de chambre, Vernacular, Vernacular literature, Violante Visconti, Walter William Skeat, Westminster Abbey, William Caxton, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, William Langland, William Thynne, Winemaker, Wynkyn de Worde, Yeoman, 2984 Chaucer. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
A Canterbury Tale is a 1944 British film by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger starring Eric Portman, Sheila Sim, Dennis Price and Sgt. John Sweet; Esmond Knight provided narration and played several small roles.
A Knight's Tale is a 2001 American medieval adventure-comedy film written, produced, and directed by Brian Helgeland.
A Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval instruction manual on the astrolabe by Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Act for the Advancement of True Religion (34 & 35 Henry VIII, c. 1) was an Act passed by the Parliament of England on 12 May 1543.
Alain Chartier (1430) was a French poet and political writer.
Aldgate is an area of Central London, England, within the City of London.
Alice de la Pole, Duchess of Suffolk (1404–1475) was a granddaughter of the English poet Geoffrey Chaucer.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration as the principal ornamental device to help indicate the underlying metrical structure, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme.
Amersham is a market town and civil parish within the Chiltern district in Buckinghamshire, England, north-west of London, in the Chiltern Hills.
Anelida and Arcite is a 357-line English poem by Geoffrey Chaucer.
An argument in literature is a brief summary, often in prose, of a poem or section of a poem or other work.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
Barking Abbey is a former royal monastery located in Barking, in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Blanche of Lancaster (25 March 1345/1347 – 12 September 1368) was a member of the English royal House of Plantagenet and the daughter of the kingdom's wealthiest and most powerful peer, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster.
Boece is Geoffrey Chaucer's translation into Middle English of The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
Sir Brian Tuke (died 1545), was the secretary of Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Charles Muscatine (28 November 1920 – 12 March 2010) was an American academic specializing in medieval literature, particularly Chaucer.
Chaucer is a lunar impact crater that is located to the west of the walled plain Hertzsprung, on the far side of the Moon.
The surname Chaucer is thought to have one of the following derivations.
The Chief Butler of England is an office of Grand Sergeanty associated with the feudal Manor of Kenninghall in Norfolk.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Clerk of Works (or Clerk of the Works), often abbreviated CoW, is employed by an architect or a client on a construction site.
The Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter was an extra-parochial area, and later civil parish, in the metropolitan area of London, England.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
A comptroller is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.
Condottieri (singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance.
Confessio Amantis ("The Lover's Confession") is a 33,000-line Middle English poem by John Gower, which uses the confession made by an ageing lover to the chaplain of Venus as a frame story for a collection of shorter narrative poems.
A construction foreman is the worker or tradesman who is in charge of a construction crew.
A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
Cressida (also Criseida, Cresseid or Criseyde) is a character who appears in many Medieval and Renaissance retellings of the story of the Trojan War.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The Duke of Lancaster is the owner of the estates of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The title of Earl of Ulster has been created six times in the Peerage of Ireland and twice Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Elizabeth de Burgh, Duchess of Clarence, suo jure 4th Countess of Ulster and 5th Baroness of Connaught (6 July 1332 – 10 December 1363) was a Norman-Irish noblewoman who married Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
A national identity of the English as the people or ethnic group native to England developed in the Middle Ages arguably beginning with the unification of the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, but explicitly in the 11th century after the Norman Conquest, when Englishry came to be the status of the subject indigenous population.
English words first attested in Chaucer, or special manuscript words of Chaucer, are a set of about two thousand English words that Geoffrey Chaucer is credited as being the first use found today in existing manuscripts.
An equatorium (plural, equatoria) is an astronomical calculating instrument.
Esquire (abbreviated Esq.) is usually a courtesy title.
Eustache Deschamps (1346 — 1406 or 1407), was a French poet, byname Morel, in French "Nightshade".
A family tree, or pedigree chart, is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure.
Feckenham Forest was a royal forest, centred on the village of Feckenham, covering large parts of west Worcestershire and Warwickshire.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Fleet Street is a major street in the City of London.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
A forester is a person who practices forestry, the science, art, and profession of managing forests.
Fortuna (Fortūna, equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the goddess of fortune and the personification of luck in Roman religion.
The Actes and Monuments, popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs, is a work of Protestant history and martyrology by John Foxe, first published in English in 1563 by John Day.
Francis Beaumont (1584 – 6 March 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Frederick James Furnivall, FBA (4 February 1825 – 2 July 1910), one of the co-creators of the New English Dictionary, was an English philologist.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Galeazzo II Visconti (– 4 August 1378) was a member of the Visconti dynasty and a ruler of Milan, Italy.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
"God Spede the Plough" (original: "God spede ƿe plouȝ: & sende us kǫꝛne Inolk") is the name of an early 16th-century manuscript poem which borrows twelve stanzas from Geoffrey Chaucer's Monk's Tale.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Guillaume de Lorris (c. 1200c. 1240) was a French scholar and poet from Lorris.
Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300 – April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
The history of the British Army spans over three and a half centuries since its founding in 1660 and involves numerous European wars, colonial wars and world wars.
The House of Beaufort is an English noble family, which originated in the fourteenth century and played an important role in the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth century.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Iambic pentameter is a type of metrical line used in traditional English poetry and verse drama.
Contact between Geoffrey Chaucer and the Italian humanists Petrarch or Boccaccio has been proposed by scholars for centuries.
The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk, England, located on the estuary of the River Orwell, about north east of London.
Italian poetry is a category of Italian literature.
Jack Upland or Jack up Lande (c. 1389–96?) is a polemical, probably Lollard, literary work which can be seen as a "sequel" to Piers Plowman, with Antichrist attacking Christians through corrupt confession.
Jean Froissart (Old French, Middle French Jehan, –) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems.
John Barbour (c.1320 – 13 March 1395) was a Scottish poet and the first major named literary figure to write in Scots.
John Chadworth (or Chedworth; died 1471) was Provost of King's College, Cambridge from 1447 until his election as Bishop of Lincoln.
John Colet (January 1467 – 16 September 1519) was an English churchman and educational pioneer.
John Dart (died 1730) was an English lawyer and cleric, known as an antiquary and man of letters.
John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1462/1464 – 16 June 1487) was a leading figure in the Yorkist aristocracy during the Wars of the Roses.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Foxe (1516/17 – 18 April 1587) was an English historian and martyrologist, the author of Actes and Monuments (popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs), an account of Christian martyrs throughout Western history, but emphasizing the sufferings of English Protestants and proto-Protestants from the 14th century through the reign of Mary I. Widely owned and read by English Puritans, the book helped to mould British popular opinion about the Catholic Church for several centuries.
John Gower (c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer.
Sir John Hawkwood (c. 1323–1394) was an English soldier and condottiere.
John Lydgate of Bury (c. 1370 – c. 1451) was a monk and poet, born in Lidgate, near Haverhill, Suffolk, England.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
John Skelton, also known as John Shelton (c. 1463 – 21 June 1529), possibly born in Diss, Norfolk, was an English poet and tutor to King Henry VIII of England.
John Stow (also Stowe; 1524/25 – 5 April 1605) was an English historian and antiquarian.
John Urry (1666 in Dublin, Ireland – 18 March 1715 in Oxford, Great Britain) was a noted literary editor and medieval scholar of Scottish family.
John V. Fleming is an American literary critic and the Louis W. Fairchild, '24 Professor of Literature and Comparative Literature, emeritus, at Princeton University.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster (25 November 1350 – 10 May 1403) (also spelled Katharine or Catherine), was the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, KG (29 November 133817 October 1368) was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
Lollardy (Lollardism, Lollard movement) was a pre-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II, who, in 1388, sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule.
Marchette Gaylord Chute (1909-1994) was an American writer.
Merton College (in full: The House or College of Scholars of Merton in the University of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The term Middle English literature refers to the literature written in the form of the English language known as Middle English, from the 12th century until the 1470s.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
A moneyer is a private individual who is officially permitted to mint money.
North Petherton is a small town and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated on the edge of the eastern foothills of the Quantocks, and close to the edge of the Somerset Levels.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Parlement of Foules (also known as the Parliament of Foules, Parlement of Briddes, Assembly of Fowls, Assemble of Foules, or The Parliament of Birds) is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?–1400) made up of approximately 700 lines.
Paul Bettany (born 27 May 1971) is an English actor.
The "Pearl Poet", or the "Gawain Poet", is the name given to the author of Pearl, an alliterative poem written in 14th-century Middle English.
The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381.
Petherton Park (also known as North Petherton Park or Newton Park) was a Deer park around North Petherton within the English county of Somerset.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Sir Philip Sidney (30 November 1554 – 17 October 1586) was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age.
Philippa of Hainault (Middle French: Philippe de Hainaut; 24 June c.1310/15 – 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III.
Philippa de Roet (1346Galway, Margaret. “Philippa Pan, Phillipa Chaucer.” Modern Language Review 55 (1960). 483–487. – c. 1387) – also known as Philippa Pan or Philippa Chaucer – was the sister of Katherine Swynford and the wife of Geoffrey Chaucer.
Picardy (Picardie) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Pierce the Ploughman's Crede is a medieval alliterative poem of 855 lines, lampooning the four orders of friars.
Piers Plowman (written 1370–90) or Visio Willelmi de Petro Ploughman (William's Vision of Piers Plowman) is a Middle English allegorical narrative poem by William Langland.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
Poet-diplomats are poets who have also served their countries as diplomats.
Poets' Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey because of the high number of poets, playwrights, and writers buried and commemorated there.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.
The Queen's Printer (known as King's Printer during the reign of a male monarch) is typically a bureau of the national, state, or provincial government responsible for producing official documents issued by the Queen-in-Council, ministers of the Crown, or other departments.
Henry Louis Reginald De Koven (April 3, 1859January 16, 1920) was an American music critic and prolific composer, particularly of comic operas.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Rhyme royal (or rime royal) is a rhyming stanza form that was introduced to English poetry by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard Pynson (1448 in Normandy – 1529) was one of the first printers of English books.
Robert Henryson (Middle Scots: Robert Henrysoun) was a poet who flourished in Scotland in the period c. 1460–1500.
Robert Henry Robinson (17 December 1927 – 12 August 2011) was an English radio and television presenter, game show host, journalist and author.
Le Roman de la Rose (English: The Romance of the Rose) is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood", is an area of land with different definitions in England, Wales, and Scotland.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Saint George's Day, also known as the Feast of Saint George, is the feast day of Saint George as celebrated by various Christian Churches and by the several nations, kingdoms, countries, and cities of which Saint George is the patron saint.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scrope v Grosvenor (1389) was one of the earliest heraldic law cases brought in England.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.
Simon Lehna Singh, (born 19 September 1964) is a British popular science author, theoretical and particle physicist whose works largely contain a strong mathematical element.
A sinecure (from Latin sine.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's lower chamber of Parliament.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
Technical writing is any written form of writing or drafting technical communication used in a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, medical, consumer electronics, and biotechnology.
Terence Graham Parry Jones (born 1 February 1942) is a Welsh actor, writer, comedian, screenwriter and film director.
The Wonderful Parliament was an English Parliamentary session of November 1386 which pressed for reforms of King Richard II's administration.
The Book of the Duchess, also known as The Deth of Blaunche, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910.
The Canterbury Pilgrims is an opera by the American composer Reginald De Koven.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography is a book by Simon Singh, published in New York in 1999 by Doubleday.
The Complaint of Mars, is one of Geoffrey Chaucer's short poems that has elicited a variety of critical commentary.
The Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524.
The Floure and the Leafe is an anonymous Middle English allegorical poem in 595 lines of rhyme royal, written around 1470.
The House of Fame (Hous of Fame in the original spelling) is a Middle English poem by Geoffrey Chaucer, probably written between 1379 and 1380, making it one of his earlier works.
The Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Pilgrim's Tale is an English anti-monastic poem.
There are two pseudo-Chaucerian texts called The Plowman's Tale (aka Brent's Story).
"The Reeve's Tale" is the third story told in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.
The Romaunt of the Rose (the Romaunt) is a partial translation into Middle English of the French allegorical poem, le Roman de la Rose (le Roman).
The Shepheardes Calender was Edmund Spenser's first major poetic work, published in 1579.
"The Summoner's Tale" is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Thomas Chaucer (c. 136718 November 1434) was the Speaker of the English House of Commons and son of Geoffrey Chaucer and Philippa Roet.
Thomas Hoccleve or Occleve (c. 1368–1426) was an English poet and clerk who has been seen as a key figure in 15th-century Middle English literature.
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Thomas Speght (died 1621) was an English schoolmaster and editor of Geoffrey Chaucer.
Thomas Tyrwhitt (27 March 1730 – 15 August 1786) was an English classical scholar and critic.
Thomas Usk (died 4 March 1388) was appointed the under-sheriff of London by Richard II in 1387.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Troilus and Criseyde is an epic poem by Geoffrey Chaucer which re-tells in Middle English the tragic story of the lovers Troilus and Criseyde set against a backdrop of war during the Siege of Troy.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Valet de chambre, or varlet de chambre, was a court appointment introduced in the late Middle Ages, common from the 14th century onwards.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular—the speech of the "common people".
Violante (Jolantha) Visconti (1354 – November 1386) was the second of three children of Galeazzo II Visconti, Lord of Milan and Pavia, and Bianca of Savoy.
Walter William Skeat (21 November 1835 – 6 October 1912), FBA, was the pre-eminent British philologist of his time.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, (16 October 1396 – 2 May 1450), nicknamed Jackanapes, was an English magnate, statesman, and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
William Langland (Willielmus de Langland; 1332 – c. 1386) is the presumed author of a work of Middle English alliterative verse generally known as Piers Plowman, an allegory with a complex variety of religious themes.
William Thynne (died 1546) was an English courtier and editor of Geoffrey Chaucer's works.
A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking.
Wynkyn de Worde (died 1534) was a printer and publisher in London known for his work with William Caxton, and is recognised as the first to popularise the products of the printing press in England.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
2984 Chaucer, provisionally designated, is a main-belt asteroid, which was discovered by American astronomer Edward Bowell at Lowell's Anderson Mesa Station in Flagstaff, Arizona, on 30 December 1981.
Chaucer, Chaucer bibliography, Chaucer, Geoffrey, Chauceresque, Chaucerian, Chausseur, Father of English literature, G. Chaucer, Geoffery Chaucer, Geoffry Chaucer, Geofrey Chaucer, Jeffrey Chaucer, The father of English literature.