238 relations: Acronym, Address (geography), Adobe Flash, Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer, Aerial photographic and satellite image interpretation, Aerial photography, Aeryon Scout, Ajax (programming), Allsopp Helikite, Altitude, AM/FM/GIS, Anaglyph 3D, Analytic geometry, Anseriformes, Application programming interface, ArcGIS, Archaeology, Aspect (geography), At-location mapping, Automotive navigation system, Barry Smith (academic), BoPET, Business, Business intelligence, California, Canada Geographic Information System, Canada Land Inventory, Cartography, Catchment area, Censorship, Cholera, Climatology, Collaborative mapping, Comparison of geographic information systems software, Computer hardware, Computer-aided design, Contour line, Coordinate system, Copyright, Correlation and dependence, Counter-mapping, Crime mapping, Crowdsourcing, CSIRO, Current Science, CyberGIS, Dana Tomlin, Data integration, Data mining, Data set, ..., David William Rhind, Decision support system, Digital elevation model, Digital geologic mapping, Digital image processing, Digitization, Directed graph, Distributed GIS, DOS, Drafter, Electromagnetic spectrum, Elevation, Epidemiology, Esri, Extract, transform, load, Forestry, Fourier analysis, Fourier transform, Free and open-source software, Geocoding, Geodetic datum, Geographic data and information, Geographic information science, Geographic information systems in China, Geographic information systems in geospatial intelligence, Geography, Geoinformatics, Geomatics, Geometric networks, Georeferencing, GeoSPARQL, Geospatial intelligence, Geostatistics, GIS and aquatic science, GIS and hydrology, GIS and public health, GIS applications, GIS Day, GIS in archaeology, GIS in environmental contamination, GISCorps, Global Positioning System, Grade (slope), Graph (discrete mathematics), Graphics tablet, GRASS GIS, Ground sample distance, GvSIG, Hard copy, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Historical geographic information system, Hydrology, Hydropower, Image scanner, Industry, Information system, Infrastructure, Integrated Geo Systems, Intergraph, Internet, Interoperability, Interpolation, Intersection (set theory), Inverse distance weighting, Java (programming language), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John Snow, Kriging, Landform, Landsat program, Landscape architecture, Laser rangefinder, Latitude, Layer, Lidar, Linear trend estimation, List of geographic information systems software, List of GIS data sources, Location intelligence, Location-based service, London, Longitude, Mainframe computer, Map algebra, Map database management, Map Overlay and Statistical System, Map projection, MapInfo Corporation, Mashup (web application hybrid), Matrix (mathematics), Michael Frank Goodchild, Microsoft Windows, Midpoint, Military, Miniature UAV, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Moving average, Multiple-criteria decision analysis, NASA, Natural resource, Natural Resources Canada, Natural rubber, North American Datum, Nuclear weapon, Object-oriented programming, Observation, Ontology (information science), Open Geospatial Consortium, OpenLayers, OpenStreetMap, Ordnance Survey, Orthophoto, Ottawa, Oxford University Press, Pacific Ocean, Paris, Participatory GIS, Paul Longley, Perspective (graphical), Photogrammetry, Photozincography, Plastic film, Point of sale, Polygon, Privacy, Proprietary software, Public health, Public utility, QGIS, Rain, Raster graphics, Real estate, Reason, Remote sensing, Rendering (computer graphics), Renewable energy, RGB color model, Roger Tomlinson, Rugged computer, SAGA GIS, San Andreas Fault, Satellite, Satellite imagery, Seine, Semantic Web, Shading, Shapefile, Soil, Spacetime, SPARQL, Spatial data infrastructure, Spatial decision support system, Spatial ETL, Spatial memory, Specialization (logic), Spline (mathematics), Spreadsheet, Springer Science+Business Media, Stereoscopy, Surveying, Sustainable development, Symmetric difference, Teledyne CARIS, Terrain cartography, Thalweg, Time geography, Topographic map, Topography, Topology, Traditional knowledge GIS, Transportation planning, Triangulated irregular network, Union (set theory), United Kingdom, United States Geological Survey, University of Barcelona, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Vector graphics, Venn diagram, Virtual globe, Voronoi diagram, Web Feature Service, Web Map Service, Web mapping, Wetland, World Geodetic System, World Wide Web, World Wide Web Consortium. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
An address is a collection of information, presented in a mostly fixed format, used to give the location of a building, apartment, or other structure or a plot of land, generally using political boundaries and street names as references, along with other identifiers such as house or apartment numbers.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instruments are a type of space-borne sensor that measure the reflectance of the Earth in five spectral bands that are relatively wide by today's standards.
Photographic interpretation is “the act of examining photographic images for the purpose of identifying objects and judging their significance” (Colwell, 1997).
Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.
Aeryon Scout is a small reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that was designed and built by Aeryon Labs of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
The Helikite is a type of kite-balloon or kytoon designed by Sandy Allsopp in the UK in 1993.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
AM/FM/GIS stands for Automated Mapping/Facilities Management and is a subset of GIS, which is associated with public utilities like gas, electric, water and telecommunications.
Anaglyph 3D is the name given to the stereoscopic 3D effect achieved by means of encoding each eye's image using filters of different (usually chromatically opposite) colors, typically red and cyan.
In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
In physical geology, aspect is the compass direction that a slope faces.
At-location mapping (ALM) is closely related to location-based services (LBS).
An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile.
Barry Smith (born June 4, 1952) is an academic working in the fields of ontology and biomedical informatics.
BoPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties, and electrical insulation.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis of business information.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) was an early geographic information system (GIS) developed for the Government of Canada beginning in the early 1960s.
The Canada Land Inventory (CLI) is a multi-disciplinary land inventory of rural Canada.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
In human geography, a catchment area is the area from which a city, service or institution attracts a population that uses its services.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Collaborative mapping is the aggregation of Web mapping and user-generated content, from a group of individuals or entities, and can take several distinct forms.
This is a comparison of notable GIS software. To be included on this list, the software must have a linked existing article.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
Counter-mapping refers to efforts to map "against dominant power structures, to further seemingly progressive goals".
Crime mapping is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns.
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.
CyberGIS, or cyber geographic information science and systems, is an interdisciplinary field combining cyberinfrastructure, e-science, and geographic information science and systems (GIS).
Charles Dana Tomlin is an author, professor, and originator of Map Algebra, a vocabulary and conceptual framework for classifying ways to combine map data to produce new maps.
Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of them.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data.
Professor David William Rhind CBE FRS FBA is a British geographer and expert on geographic information systems (GIS).
A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a 3D CG representation of a terrain's surface – commonly of a planet (e.g. Earth), moon, or asteroid – created from a terrain's elevation data.
Digital geologic mapping is the process by which geological features are observed, analyzed, and recorded in the field and displayed in real-time on a computer or personal digital assistant (PDA).
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a directed graph (or digraph) is a graph that is a set of vertices connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them.
Distributed GIS refers to GI Systems that do not have all of the system components in the same physical location.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
A drafter, draughtsman (British English) or draftsman, drafting technician (American English and Canadian English) is a person who makes detailed technical drawings or plans for machinery, buildings, electronics, infrastructure, sections, etc.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Esri (a.k.a. Environmental Systems Research Institute) is an international supplier of geographic information system (GIS) software, web GIS and geodatabase management applications.
In computing, extract, transform, load (ETL) refers to a process in database usage and especially in data warehousing.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.
Geocoding is the computational process of transforming a physical address description to a location on the Earth's surface (spatial representation in numerical coordinates).
A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).
Geographic data and information are defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to the Earth.
Geographic information science or geographical information science (GIScience) is the scientific discipline that studies data structures and computational techniques to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are becoming an increasingly important component of business, healthcare, security, government, trade, media, transportation and tourism industries and operations in China and GIS software are playing an increasing role in the way Chinese companies analyze and manage business operations.
Geographic information systems (GIS) play a constantly evolving role in geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) and United States national security.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, cartography, geosciences and related branches of science and engineering.
Geomatics (including geomatics engineering), also known as surveying engineering or geospatial science (including geospatial engineering and geospatial technology), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information.
A geometric network is an object commonly used in geographic information systems to model a series of interconnected features.
Georeferencing means that the internal coordinate system of a map or aerial photo image can be related to a ground system of geographic coordinates.
GeoSPARQL is a standard for representation and querying of geospatial linked data for the Semantic Web from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).
In the United States, Geospatial intelligence, GEOINT (GEOspatial INTelligence) is intelligence about the human activity on earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth.
Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has become an integral part of aquatic science and limnology.
Geographic information systems (GISs) have become a useful and important tool in the field of hydrology to study and manage Earth's water resources.
Geographic information systems (GISs) and geographic information science (GIScience) combine computer-mapping capabilities with additional database management and data analysis tools.
Geographic information systems (GIS) (also known as Geospatial information systems) are computer software and hardware systems that enable users to capture, store, analyse and manage spatially referenced data.
GIS Day is an annual event celebrating the technology of geographic information systems (GIS) that was initiated by spatial analytics world-leader Esri, and which first took place in 1999.
GIS or Geographic Information Systems has been an important tool in archaeology since the early 1990s.
GIS in environmental contamination is the use of GIS software in mapping out the contaminants in soil and water using the spatial interpolation tools from GIS.
GISCorps, founded in 2003, is a program initiated by the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) that offers volunteer GIS services to under-served developing communities worldwide.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense "related".
A graphic tablet (also known as a digitizer, drawing tablet, digital drawing tablet, pen tablet, or digital art board) is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images, animations and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper.
Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (commonly termed GRASS GIS) is a geographic information system (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, producing graphics and maps, spatial and temporal modeling, and visualizing.
In remote sensing, ground sample distance (GSD) in a digital photo (such as an orthophoto) of the ground from air or space is the distance between pixel centers measured on the ground.
gvSIG is a geographic information system (GIS), that is, a desktop application designed for capturing, storing, handling, analyzing and deploying any kind of referenced geographic information in order to solve complex management and planning problems.
In information handling, the U.S. Federal Standard 1037C (Glossary of Telecommunication Terms) defines a hard copy as a permanent reproduction, or copy, in the form of a physical object, of any media suitable for direct use by a person (in particular paper), of displayed or transmitted data.
The Harvard Graduate School of Design (also known as The GSD) is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A historical geographic information system (also written as historical GIS or HGIS) is a geographic information system that may display, store and analyze data of past geographies and track changes in time.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Integrated Geo Systems (IGS) is a computational architecture system developed for managing geoscientific data through systems and data integration.
Intergraph Corporation is an American software development and services company.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.
In mathematics, the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.
Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is a type of deterministic method for multivariate interpolation with a known scattered set of points.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
In statistics, originally in geostatistics, kriging or Gaussian process regression is a method of interpolation for which the interpolated values are modeled by a Gaussian process governed by prior covariances, as opposed to a piecewise-polynomial spline chosen to optimize smoothness of the fitted values.
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Layer often refers to.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
Trend estimation is a statistical technique to aid interpretation of data.
GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data.
This is a list of GIS data sources (including some geoportals) that provide information sets that can be used in geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases for purposes of geospatial analysis and cartographic mapping.
Location intelligence (LI), or spatial intelligence, is the process of deriving meaningful insight from geospatial data relationships to solve a particular problem.
A location-based service (LBS) is a software-level service that uses location data to control features.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Map algebra is a set-based algebra for manipulating geographic data, proposed by Dr.
Map database management systems are software programs designed to efficiently store and recall spatial information.
The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS), is a GIS software technology.
A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.
MapInfo Corporation, initially incorporated as Navigational Technologies Incorporated, developed location intelligence software.
A mashup (computer industry jargon), in web development, is a web page or web application that uses content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single graphical interface.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Michael Frank Goodchild (born February 24, 1944) is a British-American geographer.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
In geometry, the midpoint is the middle point of a line segment.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A miniature UAV or small UAV (SUAV) is an unmanned aerial vehicle small enough to be man-portable.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a payload scientific instrument built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite.
In statistics, a moving average (rolling average or running average) is a calculation to analyze data points by creating series of averages of different subsets of the full data set.
Multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) or multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a sub-discipline of operations research that explicitly evaluates multiple conflicting criteria in decision making (both in daily life and in settings such as business, government and medicine).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
The Department of Natural Resources (Ministère des Ressources naturelles), operating under the FIP applied title Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is the ministry of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The North American Datum (NAD) is the datum now used to define the geodetic network in North America.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations of the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains.
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), an international voluntary consensus standards organization, originated in 1994.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world.
Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.
An orthophoto, orthophotograph or orthoimage is an aerial photograph or image geometrically corrected ("orthorectified") such that the scale is uniform: the photo has the same lack of distortion as a map.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Participatory GIS (PGIS) is a participatory approach to spatial planning and spatial information and communications management.
Paul A. Longley (B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., FAcSS) is a British geographer.
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
Photozincography, sometimes referred to as heliozincography but essentially the same process, known commercially as zinco, is the photographic process developed by Sir Henry James FRS (1803–1877) in the mid-nineteenth century.
Plastic film is a thin continuous polymeric material.
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed.
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
QGIS (previously known as Quantum GIS) is a free and open-source cross-platform desktop geographic information system (GIS) application that supports viewing, editing, and analysis of geospatial data.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Roger F. Tomlinson, (17 November 1933 – 7 February 2014) was an English geographer and the primary originator of modern computerised geographic information systems (GIS), and has been acknowledged as the "father of GIS.".
A rugged (or ruggedized, but also ruggedised) computer is a computer specifically designed to operate reliably in harsh usage environments and conditions, such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures and wet or dusty conditions.
System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA GIS) is a geographic information system (GIS) computer program, used to edit spatial data.
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly through California.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Shading refers to depicting depth perception in 3D models or illustrations by varying levels of darkness.
The shapefile format is a popular geospatial vector data format for geographic information system (GIS) software.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a semantic query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format.
A spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is a data infrastructure implementing a framework of geographic data, metadata, users and tools that are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way.
A spatial decision support system (SDSS) is an interactive, computer-based system designed to assist in decision making while solving a semi-structured spatial problem.
Spatial ETL, also known as Geospatial Transformation and Load (GTL), provides the data processing functionality of traditional Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) software, but with a primary focus on the ability to manage spatial data (which may also be called GIS, geographic, or map data).
In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is that part of the memory responsible for the recording of information about one's environment and spatial orientation.
Specialisation, (or specialization) is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as "when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor".
In mathematics, a spline is a function defined piecewise by polynomials.
A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
In mathematics, the symmetric difference, also known as the disjunctive union, of two sets is the set of elements which are in either of the sets and not in their intersection.
Teledyne CARIS Inc. is a business unit of Teledyne Technologies and is a Canadian software company that develops and supports geomatics software for marine and land applications.
Terrain or relief is an essential aspect of physical geography, and as such its portrayal presents a central problem in cartography, and more recently GIS and geovisualization.
In geography and fluvial geomorphology, a thalweg or talweg is the line of lowest elevation within a valley or watercourse.
Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals.
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
Traditional knowledge geographic information systems (GIS) are the data, techniques, and technologies designed to document and utilize local knowledges in communities around the world.
Transportation planning is the process of defining future policies, goals, investments, and designs to prepare for future needs to move people and goods to destinations.
A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a representation of a continuous surface consisting entirely of triangular facets.
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Barcelona (Universitat de Barcelona, UB;; Universidad de Barcelona) is a public university located in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia in Spain.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.
A Venn diagram (also called primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagram) is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets.
A virtual globe is a three-dimensional (3D) software model or representation of the Earth or another world.
In mathematics, a Voronoi diagram is a partitioning of a plane into regions based on distance to points in a specific subset of the plane.
In computing, the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Feature Service (WFS) Interface Standard provides an interface allowing requests for geographical features across the web using platform-independent calls.
A Web Map Service (WMS) is a standard protocol developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium in 1999 for serving georeferenced map images over the Internet.
Web mapping is the process of using the maps delivered by geographic information systems (GIS) in World Wide Web.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
A geographic information system, A geographic information system (GIS), Applications of geographic information systems, GIS, GIS data, GIS software, Geo-Information Science, Geo-Information Technology, Geo-information science, GeoComputation, Geocomputation, Geographic Information System, Geographic Information Systems, Geographic boundary data, Geographic information system (GIS), Geographic information systems, Geographic information systems software, Geographic information technology, Geographical Information Service, Geographical Information System, Geographical Information Systems, Geographical information system, Geographical information systems, Geoinformationssystem, Geospatial Information System, Geospatial Information Systems, Gis software, Graphical Information System, Graphical information system, Mobile GIS.