206 relations: Abydos, Egypt, Aelius Gallus, Africa, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Algarve, Anaximander, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient philosophy, Andalusia, Antiphanes of Berge, Antipodes, Arctic Circle, Aristotle, Armant, Egypt, Armenia, Arsinoe (Gulf of Suez), Asia, Aswan, Athribis, Atlantis, Augustus, Axial tilt, Bactria, Barbarian, Bastarnae, Bibliotheca historica, Black Sea, Buto, Caesareum of Alexandria, Canopus, Egypt, Cape St. Vincent, Carni, Carpetani, Caspian Sea, Cataracts of the Nile, Cádiz, Córdoba, Spain, Celestial sphere, Celts, Cicero, Cimbri, Cimmerians, Circle of latitude, Clime, Codex Vaticanus 2061, Cone, Continent, Cyperus, ..., Cyperus papyrus, Cyrenaica, Dacians, Damietta, Danube, Deimachus, Dendera, Diodorus Siculus, Divination, Dnieper, Dniester, Don River (Russia), Earth, Earthquake, Ecliptic, Ecumene, Elephantine, Elysium, Emerald, Equator, Eratosthenes, Esna, Ethiopia, Etruria, Eudoxus of Cyzicus, Euhemerus, Europe, Fortunate Isles, Fossil, Gaul, Geographical pole, Geography, Geology, Geometry, Germania, Germanic peoples, Getae, Gnomon, Gravity, Great Bitter Lake, Great Britain, Great circle, Greeks, Guadalquivir, Guadiana, Gulf of Suez, Hecataeus of Miletus, Heptastadion, Hercynian Forest, Hermopolis, Hipparchus, Hispania Baetica, History of Ethiopia, Homer, Hyperborea, Iberian Peninsula, Indeterminism, Indian subcontinent, Inundation, Ireland, Island, John Robert Sitlington Sterrett, Juba II, Julius Caesar, Karnak, La Mancha, Lake Mariout, Latin, Latitude, Library of Alexandria, Lighthouse of Alexandria, List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes, Longitude, Lusitania, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Madrid, Mark Antony, Mediterranean Sea, Megasthenes, Mendes, Meridian (geography), Meroë, Myos Hormos, Mysia, Mysians, Naucratis, Necho II, Nero Claudius Drusus, Nile, Nile Delta, Nilometer, Nome (Egypt), Noricum, Ocean, Ocean current, Oceanus, Oretani, Osiris, Papyrus, Parmenides, Parthian Empire, Patrocles (geographer), Pelusium, Perdiccas, Persian Gulf, Philae, Physical geography, Pillars of Hercules, Plane (geometry), Political geography, Polybius, Posidonius, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy I Soter, Pyrenees, Pytheas, Qift, Quadrilateral, Raids, Red Sea, Roman Empire, Roman legion, Rome, Rosetta, Roxana, Roxolani, Sagres Point, Sais, Egypt, Salamanca, Schoenus, Scythians, Serapeum, Serapis, Sierra Morena, Silt, Southern Bug, Sphere, Stadion (unit), Strabo, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tagus, Tanis, Thebes, Egypt, Thracians, Thule, Tide, Tropic of Cancer, Tropics, Turdetani, Tyrannion of Amisus, Vettones, Volcano, Wine, Xois, Zalmoxis, Zodiac. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
Abydos (أبيدوس.; Sahidic Ⲉⲃⲱⲧ) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city.
Gaius Aelius Gallus was a Roman prefect of Egypt from 26 to 24 BC.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.
Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Antiphanes of Berge (or Antiphanes the Younger, Greek: Ἀντιφάνης ὁ Βεργαῖος, 4th century BC) of Berge, a town near Amphipolis, was a Greek writer of the book Ἄπιστα (Apista; "Unbelievable Things").
In geography, the antipode of any spot on Earth is the point on Earth's surface diametrically opposite to it; the antipodes of a region similarly represent the area opposite it.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Armant (Egyptian jwnj, jwnj šm'j "southern Heliopolis" or jwnj-mntw "the Heliopolis of the Nomad"; Coptic:; known in Koine Greek as Hermonthis), is a town located about 12 miles south of Thebes.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Arsinoe (Greek: Ἀρσινόη) or Arsinoites or Cleopatris or Cleopatra, was an ancient city at the northern extremity of the Heroopolite Gulf (Gulf of Suez), in the Red Sea.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
Athribis (أتريب; Greek: Ἄθλιβις, from the original Egyptian Hut-heryib, Ⲁⲑⲣⲏⲃⲓ) was an ancient city in Lower Egypt.
Atlantis (Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
The Bastarnae (Latin variants: Bastarni, or Basternae; Βαστάρναι or Βαστέρναι) were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia.
Bibliotheca historica (Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική, "Historical Library"), is a work of universal history by Diodorus Siculus.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Buto (Βουτώ, بوتو, Butu), Butus (Βοῦτος, Boutos), or Butosus, now Tell El Fara'in ("Hill of the Pharaohs"), near the villages of Ibtu (or Abtu) and Kom Butu and the city of Desouk (دسوق), was an ancient city located 95 km east of Alexandria in the Nile Delta of Egypt.
The Caesareum of Alexandria is an ancient temple in Alexandria, Egypt.
Canopus, also known as Canobus, was an Ancient Egyptian coastal town, located in the Nile Delta.
The Carni (Greek Καρνίοι) were a tribe of the Eastern Alps in classical antiquity, settling in the mountains separating Noricum and Venetia (roughly corresponding to the more modern Triveneto).
The Carpetani (Greek: Karpetanoi) were one of the Celtic pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania, modern Spain and Portugal), akin to the Celtiberians, dwelling in the central part of the meseta - the high central upland plain of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.
The climes (singular clime; also clima, plural climata, from Greek κλίμα klima, plural κλίματα klimata, meaning "inclination" or "slope") in classical Greco-Roman geography and astronomy were the divisions of the inhabited portion of the spherical Earth by geographic latitude.
Codex Vaticanus Graecus 2061, usually known as Uncial 048 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), α1 (Soden), is a Greek uncial manuscript on parchment.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Cyperus is a large genus of about 700 species of sedges, distributed throughout all continents in both tropical and temperate regions.
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
Damietta (دمياط,; ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Deimachus (Greek Δηίμαχος) was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire who lived during the third-century BCE.
Dendera (دندرة Dandarah; ⲛⲓⲧⲉⲛⲧⲱⲣⲓ), also spelled Denderah, ancient Iunet, Tentyris or Tentyra is a small town and former bishopric in Egypt situated on the west bank of the Nile, about south of Qena, on the opposite side of the river.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
The ecumene (US) or oecumene (UK; οἰκουμένη, oikouménē, "inhabited") was an ancient Greek term for the known world, the inhabited world, or the habitable world.
Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.
Elysium or the Elysian Fields (Ἠλύσιον πεδίον., Ēlýsion pedíon) is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Esna (إسنا), known to the ancient Egyptians as Egyptian: jwny.t or t3-snt; Coptic (Sahidic): ⲥⲛⲏ (Snē), which derives from t3-snt; Greek: Λατόπολις (Latopolis or Letopolis) or πόλις Λάτων (Polis Laton) or Λάττων (Latton); Latin: Lato, is a city in Egypt.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Eudoxus of Cyzicus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κυζικηνός, Eúdoxos ho Kyzikēnós; fl. c. 130 BC) was a Greek navigator who explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
Euhemerus (also spelled Euemeros or Evemerus; Εὐήμερος Euhēmeros, "happy; prosperous"; late fourth century BC), was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedon.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed (μακάρων νῆσοι, makárōn nêsoi) were semi-legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean, variously treated as a simple geographical location and as a winterless earthly paradise inhabited by the heroes of Greek mythology.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
The Getae or or Gets (Γέται, singular Γέτης) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The Great Bitter Lake (البحيرة المرة الكبرى; transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra) is a saltwater lake in Egypt, connected to the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian Peninsula and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain.
The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia (Spain) from Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal).
The Gulf of Suez (khalīǧ as-suwais; formerly بحر القلزم,, "Sea of Calm") is a gulf at the northern end of the Red Sea, to the west of the Sinai Peninsula.
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.
The Heptastadion (Greek: Ὲπταστάδιον) was a giant causeway, often referred to as a mole or a dyke built by the people of Alexandria, Egypt in the 3rd century BC during the Ptolemaic period.
The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe known to writers of antiquity.
Hermopolis (also Hermopolis Magna, Ἑρμοῦ πόλις μεγάλη Hermou polis megale, Ḫmnw, Egyptological pronunciation: "Khemenu", Coptic Shmun) was a major city in antiquity, located near the boundary between Lower and Upper Egypt.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,; Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind".
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Inundation (from the Latin inundatio, flood) is both the act of intentionally flooding land that would otherwise remain dry, for military, agricultural, or river-management purposes, and the result of such an act.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
John Robert Sitlington Sterrett was an American classical scholar and archeologist.
Juba II (Berber: Yuba, ⵢⵓⴱⴰ; Latin: IVBA, Juba; Ἰóβας, Ἰóβα or Ἰούβας)Roller, Duane W. (2003) The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene "Routledge (UK)".
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (from Arabic Ka-Ranak meaning "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings in Egypt.
La Mancha is a natural and historical region located on an arid but fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft.) of central Spain, south of Madrid, from the mountains of Toledo to the western spurs of the hills of Cuenca, and bordered to the south by the Sierra Morena and to the north by the Alcarria region.
Lake Mariout (بحيرة مريوط,, also spelled Maryut or Mariut, is a brackish lake in northern Egypt. The lake area covered 200 km² and had a navigable canal at the beginning of the 20th century, but at the beginning of the 21st century, it covers only about 50 km².
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας, contemporary Koine), was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC) which has been estimated to be in overall height.
This list of Germanic tribes is a list of tribes, tribal groups, and other connections and alliances of ethnic groups and tribes that were considered Germanic in ancient times.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lusitania (Lusitânia; Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where most of modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
Mendes (Μένδης, gen.: Μένδητος), the Greek name of the Ancient Egyptian city of Djedet, also known in Ancient Egypt as Per-Banebdjedet ("The Domain of the Ram Lord of Djedet") and Anpet, is known today as Tell El-Ruba (تل الربع).
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.
Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.
Myos Hormos was a Red Sea port constructed by the Ptolemies around the 3rd century BC.
Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).
Mysians (Mysi, Μυσοί) were the inhabitants of Mysia, a region in northwestern Asia Minor.
Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.
Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Egypt was a king of the 26th Dynasty (610–595 BC).
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
A nilometer was a structure for measuring the Nile River's clarity and water level during the annual flood season.
A nome (from νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
The Oretani or Oretanii (Greek: Orissioi) were a pre-Roman ancient Iberian people (in the geographical sense) of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania), that lived in today's northeastern Andalusia, in the high Baetis (Guadalquivir) river valley, eastern Marianus Mons (Sierra Morena), and the southern area of today's La Mancha.
Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Patrocles (Greek: Πατροκλῆς) (active 312 – 270 BCE) was a Greek and specifically a Macedonian general and writer on geographical subjects.
Pelusium (الفرما; Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ or Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲏ), was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said, becoming a Roman provincial capital and Metropolitan archbishopric, remaining a multiple Catholic titular see.
Perdiccas (Περδίκκας, Perdikkas; c. 355 BC – 321/320 BC) became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Persia.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Philae (Φιλαί, فيله, Egyptian: p3-jw-rķ' or 'pA-jw-rq; Coptic) is currently an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
Qift (قفط; Ⲕⲉϥⲧ Keft or Kebto; Egyptian Gebtu; Κόπτος Coptos or Koptos; Roman Justinianopolis) is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile.
In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four edges (or sides) and four vertices or corners.
Raids is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rosetta (رشيد; Rosette; ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate.
Roxana (Ῥωξάνη; Old Iranian Raoxshna; sometimes Roxanne, Roxanna, Rukhsana, Roxandra and Roxane) was a SogdianChristopoulos, Lucas (August 2012), "Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China (240 BC – 1398 AD)," in Victor H. Mair (ed), Sino-Platonic Papers, No.
The Roxolani were a Sarmatian people, who are believed to be an offshoot of the Alans, although according to Strabo they were the most remote of Scythian peoples.
Sagres Point (Ponta de Sagres,, from the Latin Promontorium Sacrum ‘Holy Promontory’) is a windswept shelf-like promontory located in the southwest Algarve region of southern Portugal.
Sais (Σάϊς, ⲥⲁⲓ) or Sa El Hagar (صا الحجر) was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile.
Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
Schoenus (schœnus; σχοίνος, schoinos, "rush rope"; i͗trw, "river-measure") was an ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman unit of length and area based on the knotted cords first used in Egyptian surveying.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
A serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Greco-Egyptian deity Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was accepted by the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria.
Serapis (Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, earlier form, from Userhapi "Osiris-Apis") is a Graeco-Egyptian deity.
The Sierra Morena is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
The stadion (στάδιον; stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
Tanis (ϫⲁⲛⲓ/ϫⲁⲁⲛⲉ; Τάνις; ḏˁn.t /ˈɟuʕnat/ or /ˈcʼuʕnat/; صان الحجر) is a city in the north-eastern Nile Delta of Egypt.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thule (Θούλη, Thoúlē; Thule, Tile) was the place located furthest north, which was mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The Turdetani were an ancient pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania), living in the valley of the Guadalquivir (the river that the Turdetani called by two names: Kertis and Rérkēs; Romans would call the river by the name Baetis), in what was to become the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica (modern Andalusia, Spain).
Tyrannion (Τυραννίων, Tyranníōn; Tyrannio; 1st century BC) was a Greek grammarian brought to Rome as a war captive and slave.
The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Xois (سخا, Ξόις, ⲥϦⲱⲟⲩ Strabo xvii. p, 802; Ptol. iv. 5. § 50; Ξόης, Steph. B. s. v.) was a town of great antiquity and considerable size.
Zalmoxis (Ζάλμοξις) is a supposed divinity of the Getae and Dacians (a people of the lower Danube), mentioned by Herodotus in his ''Histories'' Book IV, 93–96, written before 425 BC.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.