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Index Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. [1]

279 relations: Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, Aerial photography, African Geographical Review, Age of Discovery, Al-Biruni, Alexander von Humboldt, American Association of Geographers, American Geographical Society, Anaxagoras, Anaximander, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Rome, Animal, Anthropology, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Area studies, Arnold Henry Guyot, Art, Assyria, Astronomy, Atlas, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Azimuthal equidistant projection, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian Map of the World, Babylonian mathematics, Baghdad, Balkh, Behavioral geography, Behaviorism, Berlin, Biogeography, Biosphere, Botany, Boundary delimitation, Bridgewater State University, Built environment, Cambridge University Press, Carl O. Sauer, Carl Ritter, Cartography, Celestial sphere, Central place theory, Christopher Columbus, Circumference, Climate, ..., Climatology, Cluster analysis, Coastal geography, Cognitive psychology, Communication, Computer science, Cosmology, Cosmos (Humboldt), Critical geography, Cultural geography, Culture, Culture theory, Cycle of erosion, Database, David Harvey, Demography, Development geography, Doreen Massey (geographer), Earth, Earth radius, Earth science, Earth system science, Eckhard Unger, Eclipse, Economic geography, Economics, Edward Soja, Electromagnetic spectrum, Ellen Churchill Semple, Emergency management, Emporia State University, Environmental determinism, Environmental resource management, Epidemiology, Equirectangular projection, Eratosthenes, Euphrates, Europe, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Fan Chengda, Fauna, Feminist geography, Figure of the Earth, Flora, Gazetteer, Geodesy, Geographer, Geographic coordinate system, Geographic information system, Geographica, Geographical Association, Geographical Review, Geography (Ptolemy), Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, Geology, Geology of Mars, Geomatics, Geomorphology, Geopolitics, Geosophy, Geosphere, Geostatistics, Gerardus Mercator, Glacial motion, Glaciology, Global Positioning System, Globalization, Gnomon, Greek language, Halford Mackinder, Health, Health geography, Hipparchus, Historical geography, History of cartography, History of China, History of mathematics, Horizon, House of Wisdom, Human, Human factors and ergonomics, Human geography, Hydrography, Hydrology, Hydrosphere, Ibn Battuta, Ibn Khaldun, Immanuel Kant, Indian subcontinent, Integrated geography, Interaction, International Meridian Conference, Interpolation, James Cook, Jia Dan, John Francon Williams, John Harrison, John Wiley & Sons, Karl Butzer, Khwarezm, Landform, Landscape ecology, Language interpretation, Latitude, Level of measurement, Linear discriminant analysis, List of geographic information systems software, Lithosphere, Liu An, Location theory, Logistics, London School of Economics, Longitude, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Map, Marco Polo, Mathematics, Mercator projection, Meteorology, Michael Frank Goodchild, Middle Ages, Middle East, Minute and second of arc, Mountain, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muslim world, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Council for Geographic Education, National Geographic Society, Natural environment, Nigel Thrift, Non-representational theory, Nonparametric statistics, Oceanography, Oceanus, Okanagan Campus, University of British Columbia, Organism, Outline of academic disciplines, Outline of physical science, Palaeogeography, Paris, Parmenides, Participant observation, Paul Vidal de La Blache, Pedology, Pedosphere, Pei Xiu, Penguin Group, Petroleum, Physical geography, Piri Reis, Piri Reis map, Plain, Planet, Planetary habitability, Planetary science, Plant, Political ecology, Political geography, Politics, Population geography, Prime meridian (Greenwich), Princeton University Press, Ptolemy, Pythagoras, Qualitative research, Quantitative revolution, Quaternary science, Regional geography, Regional planning, Regional science, Regionalisation, Religion and geography, Remote sensing, Resource management, Roman Empire, Royal Canadian Geographical Society, Royal Danish Geographical Society, Royal Geographical Society, Russian Geographical Society, Rutgers University, SAGE Publications, Satellite imagery, Science, Sexagesimal, Shen Kuo, Social, Social geography, Société de géographie, Sociology, Soil, Solar System, Space, Spatial analysis, Spatial planning, Spherical Earth, Strabo, Sustainability, Synekism, Tabula Rogeriana, Technological change, Temporal database, Terrain, Thales of Miletus, Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum, Time geography, Topography, Toponymy, Tourism geography, Transport, Transport geography, Trigonometry, University, University of Oxford, Urartu, Urban geography, Urban planning, Valley, Vautrin Lud Prize, Walter Christaller, Walter Isard, Water, William Hughes (geographer), William Morris Davis, World map, Xu Xiake, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Yi-Fu Tuan, Zhou Daguan. Expand index (229 more) »

Abu Zayd al-Balkhi

Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi (ابو زید احمد بن سهل بلخی) was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist.

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Aerial photography

Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.

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African Geographical Review

The African Geographical Review is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the American Association of Geographers' Africa Specialty Group.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.

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American Association of Geographers

The American Association of Geographers (AAG) is a non-profit scientific and educational society aimed at advancing the understanding, study, and importance of geography and related fields.

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American Geographical Society

The American Geographical Society (AGS) is an organization of professional geographers, founded in 1851 in New York City.

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Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.

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Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek literature

Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Anton Melik Geographical Institute

The Anton Melik Geographical Institute (Geografski inštitut Antona Melika) was founded in 1946 by the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

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Area studies

Area studies (also: regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.

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Arnold Henry Guyot

Arnold Henry Guyot (September 28, 1807February 8, 1884) was a Swiss-American geologist and geographer.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Azimuthal equidistant projection

The azimuthal equidistant projection is an azimuthal map projection.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Babylonian Map of the World

The so-called Babylonian Map of the World (or Imago Mundi) is a Babylonian clay tablet containing a labeled depiction of the known world, with a short and partially lost description, dated to roughly the 6th century BC (Neo-Babylonian or early Achaemenid period).

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Babylonian mathematics

Babylonian mathematics (also known as Assyro-Babylonian mathematics) was any mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.

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Behavioral geography

Behavioral geography is an approach to human geography that examines human behavior using a disaggregate approach.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Boundary delimitation

Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.

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Bridgewater State University

Bridgewater State University is a public university located in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, United States.

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Built environment

In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl O. Sauer

Carl Ortwin Sauer (December 24, 1889 – July 18, 1975) was an American geographer.

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Carl Ritter

Carl Ritter (August 7, 1779September 28, 1859) was a German geographer.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Celestial sphere

In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.

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Central place theory

Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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In geometry, the circumference (from Latin circumferentia, meaning "carrying around") of a circle is the (linear) distance around it.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Cluster analysis

Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters).

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Coastal geography

Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Cosmos (Humboldt)

Cosmos (in German Kosmos – Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung) is an influential treatise on science and nature written by the German scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt.

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Critical geography

Critical geography is theoretically informed geographical scholarship that seeks for social justice, liberation, and Leftist politics.

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Cultural geography

Cultural geography is a subfield within human geography.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Culture theory

Culture theory is the branch of comparative anthropology and semiotics (not to be confused with cultural sociology or cultural studies) that seeks to define the heuristic concept of culture in operational and/or scientific terms.

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Cycle of erosion

The geographic cycle or cycle of erosion is an idealized model that explains the development of relief in landscapes.

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A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

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David Harvey

David W. Harvey (born 31 October 1935) is the Distinguished Professor of anthropology and geography at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY).

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Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Development geography

Development geography is a branch of geography which refers to the standard of living and its quality of life of its human inhabitants.

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Doreen Massey (geographer)

Doreen Barbara Massey FRSA FBA FAcSS (3 January 1944 – 11 March 2016) was a British social scientist and geographer, working among others on topics involving Marxist geography, feminist geography, and cultural geography.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth radius

Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Earth system science

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.

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Eckhard Unger

Eckhard Unger (Landsberg an der Warthe, 11 April 1884 – 24 July 1966) was a German assyriologist.

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An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.

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Economic geography

Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Edward Soja

Edward William Soja (1940–2015) was a self-described "urbanist," a noted postmodern political geographer and urban theorist on the planning faculty at UCLA, where he was Distinguished Professor of Urban Planning, and the London School of Economics.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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Ellen Churchill Semple

Ellen Churchill Semple (January 8, 1863 – May 8, 1932) was an American geographer and the first female president of the Association of American Geographers.

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Emergency management

Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).

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Emporia State University

Emporia State University, often referred to as Emporia State or ESU, is a public university in Emporia, Kansas.

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Environmental determinism

Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories.

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Environmental resource management

Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Equirectangular projection

The equirectangular projection (also called the equidistant cylindrical projection, geographic projection, or la carte parallélogrammatique projection, and which includes the special case of the plate carrée projection or geographic projection) is a simple map projection attributed to Marinus of Tyre, who Ptolemy claims invented the projection about AD 100.

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Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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Fan Chengda

Fan Chengda (1126–1193), courtesy name Zhineng (致能), was one of the best-known Chinese poets of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD), a government official, and an academic authority in geography, especially the southern provinces of China.

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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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Feminist geography

Feminist geography is an approach in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space.

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Figure of the Earth

The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.

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Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.

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A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.

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Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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Geographical Association

The Geographical Association (GA) is a United Kingdom-based subject association whose objects are the advancement of education for the public benefit by furthering geographical knowledge and understanding, through the promotion and dissemination of good practice in geographical teaching and learning.

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Geographical Review

The Geographical Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Geographical Society.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Geography and cartography in medieval Islam

Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geology of Mars

The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars.

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Geomatics (including geomatics engineering), also known as surveying engineering or geospatial science (including geospatial engineering and geospatial technology), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information.

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Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.

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Geosophy is a concept introduced to geography by J.K. Wright in 1947.

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There are several conflicting definitions for geosphere.

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Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.

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Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.

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Glacial motion

Glacial motion is the motion of glaciers, which can be likened to rivers of ice.

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Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Halford Mackinder

Sir Halford John Mackinder (15 February 1861 – 6 March 1947) was an English geographer, academic, politician, the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading (which became the University of Reading) and Director of the London School of Economics, who is regarded as one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Health geography

Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.

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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

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Historical geography

Historical geography is the branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time.

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History of cartography

Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of mathematics

The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.

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The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

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House of Wisdom

The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) refers either to a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human factors and ergonomics

Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.

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Human geography

Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.

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Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.

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Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.

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Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Integrated geography

Integrated geography (also referred to as integrative geography, environmental geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment.

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Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.

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International Meridian Conference

The International Meridian Conference was a conference held in October 1884 in Washington, D.C., in the United States, to determine a prime meridian for international use.

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In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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James Cook

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.

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Jia Dan

Jia Dan (730 – October 27, 805Hsu (1988), 96.http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype.

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John Francon Williams

John Francon Williams FRGS (1854 – 4 September 1911) was a Welsh journalist, writer, geographer, historian, cartographer and inventor, born in Llanllechid, Caernarvonshire.

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John Harrison

John Harrison (– 24 March 1776) was a self-educated English carpenter and clockmaker who invented a marine chronometer, a long-sought-after device for solving the problem of calculating longitude while at sea.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Karl Butzer

Karl W. Butzer (August 19, 1934 – May 4, 2016) was a German-born American geographer, ecologist, and archaeologist.

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Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.

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A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.

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Landscape ecology

Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.

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Language interpretation

Interpretation or interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an utterance in a source language.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Level of measurement

Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.

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Linear discriminant analysis

Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), normal discriminant analysis (NDA), or discriminant function analysis is a generalization of Fisher's linear discriminant, a method used in statistics, pattern recognition and machine learning to find a linear combination of features that characterizes or separates two or more classes of objects or events.

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List of geographic information systems software

GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data.

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A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Liu An

Liú Ān (c. 179–122 BC) was a Han dynasty Chinese prince and an advisor to his nephew, Emperor Wu of Han (武帝).

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Location theory

Location theory has become an integral part of economic geography, regional science, and spatial economics.

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Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.

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London School of Economics

The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Mahmud al-Kashgari

Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, Mehmud Qeshqiri, Мәһмуд Қәшқири) was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar.

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A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mercator projection

The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Michael Frank Goodchild

Michael Frank Goodchild (born February 24, 1944) is a British-American geographer.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Muhammad al-Idrisi

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Council for Geographic Education

The National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), chartered in 1915, is a non-profit scientific and educational society in the United States that promotes and supports geography education.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Nigel Thrift

Sir Nigel John Thrift, DL, FBA, FAcSS (born 12 October 1949 in Bath) is a British academic and geographer.

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Non-representational theory

Non-representational theory is a theory developed in human geography, largely through the work of Nigel Thrift (Warwick University), and his colleagues such as J.D. Dewsbury (University of Bristol) and Derek McCormack (University of Oxford), and later by their respective graduate students.

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Nonparametric statistics

Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance).

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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.

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Okanagan Campus, University of British Columbia

The University of British Columbia's Okanagan Campus (commonly referred to as UBCO) is a campus of the University of British Columbia, located in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Outline of academic disciplines

An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.

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Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

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Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).

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Participant observation

Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research.

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Paul Vidal de La Blache

Paul Vidal de La Blache (Pézenas, Hérault, 22 January 1845 - Tamaris-sur-Mer, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, 5 April 1918) was a French geographer.

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Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.

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The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes.

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Pei Xiu

Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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Penguin Group

The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.

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Piri Reis

Ahmed Muhiddin Piri (1465/70–1553), better known as Piri Reis (Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer.

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Piri Reis map

The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis.

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In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary habitability

Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Political ecology

Political ecology is the study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes.

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Political geography

Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Population geography

Population geography is a division of human geography.

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Prime meridian (Greenwich)

A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.

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Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data.

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Quantitative revolution

The quantitative revolution (QR)n was a paradigm shift that sought to develop a more rigorous and systematic methodology for the discipline of geography.

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Quaternary science

Quaternary science is an inter-disciplinary field of study focusing on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years.

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Regional geography

Regional geography is a major branch of geography.

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Regional planning

Regional planning deals with the efficient placement of land-use activities, infrastructure, and settlement growth across a larger area of land than an individual city or town.

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Regional science

Regional science is a field of the social sciences concerned with analytical approaches to problems that are specifically urban, rural, or regional.

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Regionalization is the tendency to form decentralized regions.

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Religion and geography

Religion and geography is the study of the impact of geography, i.e. place and space, on religious belief.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Resource management

In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective development of an organization's resources when they are needed.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Royal Canadian Geographical Society

The Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS) (French: La Société géographique royale du Canada; SRGC) is a Canadian non-profit educational organization dedicated to imparting a broader knowledge and deeper appreciation of Canada — its people and places, its natural and cultural heritage and its environmental, social and economic challenges.

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Royal Danish Geographical Society

The Royal Danish Geographical Society (RDGS, Det Kongelige Danske Geografiske Selskab) is a scientific society aimed at furthering the knowledge of the Earth and its inhabitants and to disseminate interest in the science of geography.

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Royal Geographical Society

The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.

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Russian Geographical Society

The Russian Geographical Society (Russian: Ру́сское географи́ческое о́бщество «РГО») (RGO) is a learned society based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.

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Shen Kuo

Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.

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Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.

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Social geography

Social geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.

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Société de géographie

The Société de Géographie (French, "Geographical Society"), is the world's oldest geographical society.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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Spatial analysis

Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

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Spatial planning

Spatial planning systems refer to the methods and approaches used by the public and private sector to influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales.

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Spherical Earth

The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Synekism is a concept in urban studies coined by Edward Soja.

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Tabula Rogeriana

The Nuzhat al-mushtāq fi'khtirāq al-āfāq (نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق, lit. "the book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands"), most often known as the Tabula Rogeriana (lit. "The Book of Roger" in Latin), is a description of the world and world map created by the Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, in 1154.

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Technological change

Technological change (TC), technological development, technological achievement, or technological progress is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes.

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Temporal database

A temporal database stores data relating to time instances.

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Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

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Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).

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Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum

Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum (NOESIS) is located at the outskirts of Thessaloniki, Central Macedonia, Greece.

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Time geography

Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Tourism geography

Tourism geography is the study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity.

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Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Transport geography

Transport geography, also transportation geography, is a branch of geography that investigates the movement and connections between people, goods and information on the Earth's surface.

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Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.

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Urban geography

Urban geography is the subdiscipline of geography that derives from a study of cities and urban processes.

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Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

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A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.

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Vautrin Lud Prize

The Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud, known in English as the Vautrin Lud Prize, is the highest award in the field of geography.

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Walter Christaller

Walter Christaller (April 21, 1893 – March 9, 1969), was a German geographer whose principal contribution to the discipline is Central Place Theory, first published in 1933.

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Walter Isard

Walter Isard (April 19, 1919, Philadelphia – November 6, 2010, Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania) was a prominent American economist, the principal founder of the discipline of Regional Science, as well as one of the main founders of the discipline of Peace Science and Peace Economics.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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William Hughes (geographer)

William Hughes FRGS (1818 – 21 May 1876) was an English geographer, mapmaker and author.

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William Morris Davis

William Morris Davis (February 12, 1850 – February 5, 1934) was an American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography".

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World map

A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of the Earth.

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Xu Xiake

Xu Xiake (January 5, 1587 – March 8, 1641), born Xu Hongzu (徐弘祖), courtesy name Zhenzhi (振之), was a Chinese travel writer and geographer of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), known best for his famous geographical treatise, and noted for his bravery and humility.

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Yaqut al-Hamawi

Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) (ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Arab biographer and geographer of Greek origin, renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.

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Yi-Fu Tuan

Yi-Fu Tuan (Traditional Chinese: 段義孚, born 5 December 1930) is a Chinese-American geographer.

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Zhou Daguan

Zhou Daguan (French: Tcheou Ta-Kouan; c. 1270–?) was a Chinese diplomat under the Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong of Yuan.

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Geog., Geographic, Geographical, Geographically, Geographics, Geographies, Geography of Earth, Geography of the earth, Geograpy, Jography, Planetary geography.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography

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