58 relations: Accuracy and precision, Associated Legendre polynomials, Asteroid, Atmospheric pressure, Cambridge University Press, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Computation, Continental collision, Effective potential, EGM96, Equipotential, European Space Agency, Figure of the Earth, Geodesy, Geodetic datum, Geophysical Journal International, Geophysics, Gravity, Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer, Gravity of Earth, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Ice sheet, International Terrestrial Reference System, Isopycnic, Levelling, List of geocoding systems, Lithosphere, Mantle (geology), Mariana Trench, Mariner 9, Mount Everest, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Natural satellite, Ocean surface topography, Order of magnitude, Orogeny, Petr Vaníček, Physical geodesy, Planet, Plumb bob, Post-glacial rebound, Potential, Reference ellipsoid, Satellite, Satellite geodesy, Sea level, Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet, Spherical harmonics, Spirit level, Springer Science+Business Media, ..., Tangential and normal components, Tharsis, Undulation of the geoid, University of Texas at Austin, Viking program, Viscosity, Wiley-VCH, World Geodetic System. Expand index (8 more) »

## Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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## Associated Legendre polynomials

In mathematics, the associated Legendre polynomials are the canonical solutions of the general Legendre equation or equivalently where the indices ℓ and m (which are integers) are referred to as the degree and order of the associated Legendre polynomial respectively.

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## Asteroid

Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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## Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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## Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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## Computation

Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

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## Continental collision

Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.

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## Effective potential

The effective potential (also known as effective potential energy) combines multiple, perhaps opposing, effects into a single potential.

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## EGM96

EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model 1996) is a geopotential model of the Earth consisting of spherical harmonic coefficients complete to degree and order 360.

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## Equipotential

Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.

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## European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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## Figure of the Earth

The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.

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## Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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## Geodetic datum

A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).

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## Geophysical Journal International

Geophysical Journal International is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (German Geophysical Society).

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## Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer

The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was the first of ESA's Living Planet Programme satellites intended to map in unprecedented detail the Earth's gravity field.

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## Gravity of Earth

The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by, refers to the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth.

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## Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.

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## Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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## International Terrestrial Reference System

The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) describes procedures for creating reference frames suitable for use with measurements on or near the Earth's surface.

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## Isopycnic

An isopycnic surface is a surface of constant density inside a fluid.

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## Levelling

Levelling (British English) or leveling (American English; see spelling differences) is a branch of surveying, the object of which is to.

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## List of geocoding systems

This is a list of geocoding systems, in the sense of schemes that assign systematic labels to geographic entities.

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## Lithosphere

A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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## Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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## Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.

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## Mariner 9

Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.

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## Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.

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## National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.

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## Natural satellite

A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).

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## Ocean surface topography

The ocean surface has highs and lows, similar to the hills and valleys of Earth's land surface depicted on a topographic map.

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## Order of magnitude

An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.

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## Orogeny

An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.

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## Petr Vaníček

Petr Vaníček (born 1935 in Sušice, Czechoslovakia, today in Czech Republic) is a Czech Canadian geodesist and theoretical geophysicist who has made important breakthroughs in theory of spectral analysis and geoid computation.

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## Physical geodesy

Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.

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## Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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## Plumb bob

A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.

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## Post-glacial rebound

Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.

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## Potential

Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.

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## Reference ellipsoid

In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body.

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## Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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## Satellite geodesy

Satellite geodesy is geodesy by means of artificial satellites — the measurement of the form and dimensions of Earth, the location of objects on its surface and the figure of the Earth's gravity field by means of artificial satellite techniques.

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## Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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## Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet

Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, (13 August 1819 – 1 February 1903), was an Irish physicist and mathematician.

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## Spherical harmonics

In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere.

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## Spirit level

A spirit level, bubble level or simply a level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb).

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## Tangential and normal components

In mathematics, given a vector at a point on a curve, that vector can be decomposed uniquely as a sum of two vectors, one tangent to the curve, called the tangential component of the vector, and another one perpendicular to the curve, called the normal component of the vector.

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## Tharsis

Tharsis is a vast volcanic plateau centered near the equator in the western hemisphere of Mars.

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## Undulation of the geoid

Undulation of the geoid is the height of the geoid relative to a given ellipsoid of reference.

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## University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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## Viking program

The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.

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## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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## Wiley-VCH

Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.

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## World Geodetic System

The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.

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## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoid