602 relations: Aalenian, Abitibi greenstone belt, Abraham Gottlob Werner, Acadian orogeny, Acasta Gneiss, Acritarch, Adelaide Rift Complex, Aegean Sea, Aeronian, Age (geology), Age of the Earth, Agnatha, Agriculture, Albertus Magnus, Albian, Alexandre Brongniart, Alexians, Algae, Allerød oscillation, Alpine orogeny, Alps, Altai Mountains, Ammonoidea, Amphibian, Ancient Greece, Andes, Animal, Anisian, Anomalocarida, Anthropocene, Antler orogeny, Ape, Appalachian Mountains, Aptian, Aquitanian (stage), Aravalli Range, Archaea, Archaeocyatha, Archaeopteris, Archean, Archosaur, Arenig, Aristotle, Arthropleura, Arthur Holmes, Artinskian, Asselian, Atlantic (period), Atlas Mountains, Atmosphere of Earth, ..., Australia (continent), Australopithecine, Avicenna, Azolla event, Bacteria, Bajocian, Banded iron formation, Barremian, Bartonian, Bashkirian, Basin Groups, Bathonian, Bear, Beetle, Before Present, Belemnoidea, Bennettitales, Berriasian, Bible, Bishop, Bivalvia, Blake River Megacaldera Complex, Blastoid, Boreal (age), Brachiopod, Brackish water, Bronze Age, Brookfield, Vermont, Bryozoa, Bubnoff unit, Burdigalian, Bushveld Igneous Complex, Calamites, Calcium carbonate, Caledonian orogeny, Callovian, Calymmian, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Cambrian Series 2, Cambrian Series 3, Cambrian Stage 10, Cambrian Stage 2, Cambrian Stage 3, Cambrian Stage 4, Cambrian Stage 5, Campanian, Canadian Shield, Capitanian, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carboniferous, Carnian, Carnosauria, Carpathian Mountains, Cenomanian, Cenozoic, Central Australia, Central Europe, Ceratopsidae, Cetacea, Chalk, Changhsingian, Chaos (cosmogony), Chaos theory, Chaotian, Chaotian (geology), Charles Lyell, Chattian, Chondrichthyes, Chordate, Chronological dating, Chronology of the universe, Chronostratigraphy, Chronozone, Cimmerian Orogeny, Circa, Civilization, Climate, Climate change, Coal, Coleoidea, Colony (biology), Columbia (supercontinent), Columbian, Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information, Condylarth, Coniacian, Conifer cone, Conodont, Continental crust, Coral, Cordaites, Cosmic Calendar, Craton, Creationism, Creodonta, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crinoid, Crocodilia, Cryogenian, Cryptic (geology), Cyanobacteria, Cycad, Cynodont, Cystoidea, Danian, Dapingian, Darriwilian, Deep time, Devon, Devonian, Dickinsonia, Dicroidium, Dinoflagellate, Dinosaur, Dominican Order, Drumian, Early Cretaceous, Early Jurassic, Early Pleistocene, Early Triassic, Earth, Earth science, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Echinoderm, Ectasian, Ediacaran, Ediacaran biota, Eemian, Eifelian, Embryophyte, Emsian, Eoarchean, Eocene, Eonothem, Epoch (geology), Equidae, Equisetopsida, Era (geology), Erathem, Erosion, Eugene F. 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The Aalenian is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic epoch/series of the geologic timescale that extends from about 174.1 Ma to about 170.3 Ma (million years ago).
The Abitibi greenstone belt is a 2,800-to-2,600-million-year-old greenstone belt that spans across the Ontario–Quebec border in Canada.
Abraham Gottlob Werner (25 September 174930 June 1817) was a German geologist who set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and propounded a history of the Earth that came to be known as Neptunism.
The Acadian orogeny is a long-lasting mountain building event which began in the Middle Devonian, reaching a climax in the early Late Devonian.
The Acasta Gneiss is a tonalite gneiss in the Slave craton in Northwest Territories, Canada.
Acritarchs are organic microfossils, present from approximately to the present.
The Adelaide Rift Complex (also known as Adelaide Geosyncline) is a major geological province in central South Australia.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
In the geologic timescale, the Aeronian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 439 ± 1.8 Ma and 436 ± 1.9 Ma (million years ago), approximately.
A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
Agnatha (Greek, "no jaws") is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct (conodonts and ostracoderms) species.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column.
Alexandre Brongniart (5 February 17707 October 1847) was a French chemist, mineralogist, and zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier on a study of the geology of the region around Paris.
The Alexians, Alexian Brothers or Cellites are a Catholic religious institute or congregation specifically devoted to caring for the sick which has its origin in Europe at the time of the Black Death.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The Allerød oscillation (Allerødtiden) was a warm and moist global interstadial that occurred c.13,900 to 12,900 BP, nearly at the end of the last glacial period.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
In the geologic timescale, the Anisian is the lower stage or earliest age of the Middle Triassic series or epoch and lasted from million years ago until million years ago.
Anomalocarida is an extinct clade of stem-group arthropods.
The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
The Antler orogeny was an enigmatic tectonic event, that began in the early Late Devonian with widespread effects continuing into the Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column.
The Aquitanian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the oldest age or lowest stage in the Miocene.
The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km (430 mi) in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Archaeocyatha (or archaeocyathids “ancient cups”) is a taxon of extinct, sessile, reef-building marine organisms of warm tropical and subtropical waters that lived during the early (lower) Cambrian Period.
Archaeopteris is an extinct genus of tree-like plants with fern-like leaves.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.
In geology, the Arenigian (or 'Arenig') refers both to a time interval during the Lower Ordovician period and also to the suite of rocks which were deposited during this interval.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthropleura (Greek for jointed ribs) is a genus of extinct millipede arthropods that lived in what is now northeastern North America and Scotland around 315 to 299 million years ago, during the late Carboniferous Period.
Prof Arthur Holmes FRS FRSE LLD (14 January 1890 – 20 September 1965) was a British geologist who made two major contributions to the understanding of geology.
In the geologic timescale, the Artinskian is an age or stage of the Permian.
In the geologic timescale, the Asselian is the earliest geochronologic age or lowermost chronostratigraphic stage of the Permian.
The Atlantic in palaeoclimatology was the warmest and moistest Blytt-Sernander period, pollen zone and chronozone of Holocene northern Europe.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Azolla event occurred in the middle Eocene epoch, around, when blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla are thought to have happened in the Arctic Ocean.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is an age or stage in the Middle Jurassic.
Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.
The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale (or a chronostratigraphic stage) between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago) and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch (or Lower Cretaceous series). It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.See Gradstein et al. (2004) or the online geowhen database (link below).
The Bartonian is, in the ICS's geologic time scale, a stage or age in the middle Eocene epoch or series.
The Bashkirian is in the ICS geologic timescale the lowest stage or oldest age of the Pennsylvanian.
Basin Groups refers to 9 subdivisions of the lunar Pre-Nectarian geologic period.
In the geologic timescale the Bathonian is an age or stage of the Middle Jurassic.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Belemnoids are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish.
Bennettitales (also known as cycadeoids) is an extinct order of seed plants that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct in most areas toward the end of the Cretaceous (i.e. they existed around 252 to 66 million years ago), although some Bennettitales appear to have survived into Oligocene times in Tasmania and eastern Australia.
In the geological timescale, the Berriasian is an age or stage of the Early Cretaceous.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The Blake River Megacaldera Complex is a giant subaqueous caldera cluster or a nested caldera system that spans across the Ontario-Quebec border in Canada.
Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm.
In paleoclimatology of the Holocene, the Boreal was the first of the Blytt-Sernander sequence of north European climatic phases that were originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs, named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Sernander, who first established the sequence.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brookfield is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
The Bubnoff unit (abbreviated B) is a unit of speed equal to 1 m / 106 a. In other words, 1 B is equal to 1 meter in 1,000,000 years, 1 millimeter in 1,000 years, or one micrometer per year.
The Burdigalian is, in the geologic timescale, an age or stage in the early Miocene.
The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is the largest layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's crust.
Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent (tree-like) horsetails to which the modern horsetails (genus Equisetum) are closely related.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.
In the geologic timescale, the Callovian is an age or stage in the Middle Jurassic, lasting between 166.1 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago) and 163.5 ± 4.0 Ma.
The Calymmian Period (from Greek κάλυμμα (kálymma), meaning "cover") is the first geologic period in the Mesoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
Cambrian Series 2 is the unnamed 2nd series of the Cambrian.
Cambrian Series 3 is the still unnamed 3rd Series of the Cambrian.
Stage 10 of the Cambrian is the still unnamed third and final stage of the Furongian Series.
Stage 2 of the Cambrian is the unnamed upper stage of the Terreneuvian series.
Cambrian Stage 3 is the still unnamed third stage of the Cambrian.
Cambrian Stage 4 is the still unnamed 4th stage of the Cambrian and the upper stage of the 2nd Cambrian series.
Stage 5 of the Cambrian is the first stage of the 3rd series of the Cambrian (or Middle Cambrian).
The Campanian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series).
The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton or Laurentia).
In the geologic timescale, the Capitanian is an age or stage of the Permian.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
The Carnian (less commonly, Karnian) is the lowermost stage of the Upper Triassic series (or earliest age of the Late Triassic epoch).
Carnosauria is a large group of predatory dinosaurs that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Central Australia, also known as the Alice Springs Region, is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a family of marginocephalian dinosaurs including Triceratops, Centrosaurus, and Styracosaurus.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
In the geologic time scale, the Changhsingian or Changxingian is the latest age or uppermost stage of the Permian.
Chaos (Greek χάος, khaos) refers to the void state preceding the creation of the universe or cosmos in the Greek creation myths, or to the initial "gap" created by the original separation of heaven and earth.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Chaotian may refer to.
In the geologic record the Chaotian eon or era is unofficially proposed to denote the time preceding the solidification of the Earth's crust and the formation of Earth's moon, it is the earliest era within the eon of Hadean.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
The Chattian is, in the geologic timescale, the younger of two ages or upper of two stages of the Oligocene epoch/series.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology.
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time.
A chronozone or chron is a slice of time that begins at a given identifiable event and ends at another.
The Cimmerian Orogeny was an orogeny that created mountain ranges that now lie in Central Asia.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Subclass Coleoidea, or Dibranchiata, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
Columbia, also known as Nuna and Hudsonland, was one of Earth's ancient supercontinents.
Columbian is the adjective form of Columbia.
The Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), usually referred to by the unofficial "Commission for Geoscience Information" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with geological standard, information management and interoperability matters on a global scale.
Condylarthra is an informal group – previously considered an order – of extinct placental mammals, known primarily from the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.
The Coniacian is an age or stage in the geologic timescale.
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.
Conodonts (Greek kōnos, "cone", + odont, "tooth") are extinct agnathan chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Cordaites is an important genus of extinct gymnosperms which grew on wet ground similar to the Everglades in Florida.
The Cosmic Calendar is a method to visualize the chronology of the universe, scaling its current age of 13.8 billion years to a single year in order to help intuit it for pedagogical purposes in science education or popular science.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
Creodonta is an extinct, potentially polyphyletic order of carnivorous mammals that lived from the Paleocene to the Miocene epochs.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
The Cryogenian (from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from.
The Cryptic era is an informal term that refers to the earliest geologic evolution of the Earth and Moon.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.
The cynodonts ("dog teeth") (clade Cynodontia) are therapsids that first appeared in the Late Permian (approximately 260 Ma).
Cystoidea is a class of extinct crinozoan echinoderms, termed cystoids, that lived attached to the sea floor by stalks.
The Danian is the oldest age or lowest stage of the Paleocene epoch or series, the Paleogene period or system and the Cenozoic era or erathem.
The Dapingian is the third stage of the Ordovician and the first stage of the Middle Ordovician.
The Darriwilian is the upper stage of the Middle Ordovician.
Deep time is the concept of geologic time.
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Dickinsonia is a genus of iconic fossils of the Ediacaran biota.
Dicroidium is an extinct genus of fork-leaved seed ferns that were distributed over Gondwana during the Triassic.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
The Drumian is a stage of 3rd series of the Cambrian.
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.
The Early Jurassic epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the Lower Jurassic series) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic period.
The Early Pleistocene (also known as the Lower Pleistocene) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series.
The Early Triassic is the first of three epochs of the Triassic Period of the geologic timescale.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
The Ectasian Period (from Greek ἔκτασις (éktasis), meaning "extension") is the second geologic period in the Mesoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya ago to Mya (million years ago).
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).
The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.
The Eifelian is one of two faunal stages in the Middle Devonian epoch.
The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.
The Emsian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch.
The Eoarchean (also spelled Eoarchaean) is the first era of the Archean Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
In stratigraphy and geology, an eonothem is the totality of rock strata laid down in the stratigraphic record deposited during a certain eon of the continuous geologic timescale.
In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period.
Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils.
Equisetopsida, or Sphenopsida, is a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian.
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time.
In stratigraphy, paleontology, geology, and geobiology an erathem is the total stratigraphic unit deposited during a certain corresponding span of time during an era in the geologic timescale.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Eugene F. Stoermer (March 7, 1934February 17, 2012) was a leading researcher in diatoms, with a special emphasis on freshwater species of the North American Great Lakes.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Euramerica (also known as Laurussia – not to be confused with Laurasia, – the Old Red Continent or the Old Red Sandstone Continent) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian as the result of a collision between the Laurentian, Baltica, and Avalonia cratons during the Caledonian orogeny, about 410 million years ago.
Eurypterids, often informally called sea scorpions, are an extinct group of arthropods related to arachnids that include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.
The Eusuchia ("true crocodiles") are a clade of crocodylomorphs that first appears in the Early Cretaceous with Hylaeochampsa.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
The Famennian is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
The Floian is the second stage of the Ordovician.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
The Fortunian stage marks the beginning of the Phanerozoic eon, the Paleozoic era, and the Cambrian period.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The Frasnian is one of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian period.
Friedrich August von Alberti (September 4, 1795 – September 12, 1878) was a German geologist whose ground-breaking 1834 publication recognized the unity of the three characteristic strata that compose the sedimentary deposits of the Triassic period in Northern Europe.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
The Gascoyne Complex is a terrane of Proterozoic granite and metamorphic rock in the central-western part of Western Australia.
The Gawler Craton covers approximately 440,000 square kilometres of central South Australia.
The Gelasian is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geologic time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy).
A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars.
The geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces.
The geology of the Moon (sometimes called selenology, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of Earth.
Venus is a planet with striking geology.
The term geon (for geological eon) refers to large, geologic units of time.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
GeoSciML or Geoscience Markup Language is a GML Application Schema that can be used to transfer information about geology, with an emphasis on the "interpreted geology" that is conventionally portrayed on geologic maps.
The giant-impact hypothesis, sometimes called the Big Splash, or the Theia Impact suggests that the Moon formed out of the debris left over from a collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars, approximately 4.5 billion years ago, in the Hadean eon; about 20 to 100 million years after the solar system coalesced.
The Givetian is one of two faunal stages in the Middle Devonian period.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale.
In the stratigraphy sub-discipline of geology, a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age, abbreviated GSSA, is a chronological reference point and criterion in the geologic record used to define the boundaries (an internationally sanctioned benchmark point) between different geological periods, epochs or ages on the overall geologic time scale in a chronostratigraphically useful rock layer.
Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Goniatids, informally Goniatites, are ammonoid cephalopods that form the Order Goniatitida, derived from the more primitive Agoniatitida during the Middle Devonian some 390 million years ago.
In the geologic timescale, the Gorstian is the age of the Ludlow epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 422.9 ± 2.5 Ma and 421.3 ± 2.6 Ma (million years ago), approximately.
This more than 20-billion-year timeline of our universe shows the best estimates of major events from the universe's beginning to anticipated future events.
Graptolithina is a subclass of the class Pterobranchia, the members of which are known as graptolites.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
Throughout the Phanerozoic history of the Earth, the planet's climate has been fluctuating between two dominant climate states: the greenhouse Earth and the icehouse Earth.
The Grenville orogeny was a long-lived Mesoproterozoic mountain-building event associated with the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia.
The Guzhangian is an uppermost stage of the 3rd series of the Cambrian.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
The Gzhelian is an age in the ICS geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
Hadrosaurids (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae.
The Hauterivian is, in the geologic timescale, an age in the Early Cretaceous epoch or a stage in the Lower Cretaceous series.
The Hettangian is the earliest age or lowest stage of the Jurassic period of the geologic timescale.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
The Hirnantian is the seventh and final internationally recognized stage of the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.
The history of paleontology traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
In the geologic timescale, the Homerian is the age of the Wenlock epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 426.2 ± 2.4 Ma and 422.9 ± 2.5 Ma (million years ago), approximately.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
In geology, a horizon refers to either a bedding surface where there is marked change in the lithology within a sequence of sedimentary or volcanic rocks, or a distinctive layer or thin bed with a characteristic lithology or fossil content within a sequence.
The Hunter-Bowen Orogeny was a significant arc accretion event in the Permian and Triassic periods affecting approximately 2,500 km of the Australian continental margin.
The Huronian glaciation (or Makganyene glaciation) was a glaciation that extended from 2.4 billion years ago (Ga) to 2.1 Ga, during the Siderian and Rhyacian periods of the Paleoproterozoic era.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.
The Imbrian is a lunar geologic period divided into two epochs, the Early Imbrian and Late Imbrian.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Induan is, in the geologic timescale, the first age of the Early Triassic epoch or the lowest stage of the Lower Triassic series.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Innuitian orogeny, sometimes called the Ellesmere orogeny, was a major tectonic (mountain building) episode responsible for the formation of a series of mountain ranges in the Canadian Arctic.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.
The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Isua Greenstone Belt is an Archean greenstone belt in southwestern Greenland.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (February 17, 1783 in Liège – January 15, 1875 in Brussels) was a Belgian geologist.
The Jiangshanian is the middle stage of the Furongian series.
John Angus McPhee (born March 8, 1931) is an American writer, widely considered one of the pioneers of creative nonfiction.
John Phillips FRS (25 December 1800 – 24 April 1874) was an English geologist.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
The Kaapvaal Craton (centred on Limpopo Province in South Africa), along with the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, are the only remaining areas of pristine 3.6–2.5 Ga (billion years ago) crust on Earth.
The Kaikoura Orogeny is a New Zealand orogeny that has given birth to the Southern Alps.
The Kasimovian is an geochronologic age or chronostratigraphic stage in the ICS geologic timescale.
The Katian is the second stage of the Upper Ordovician.
Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
In the geologic timescale, the Kimmeridgian is an age or stage in the Late or Upper Jurassic epoch or series.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
In the geologic timescale, the Kungurian is an age or stage of the Permian.
The Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) or Lachlan Orogen is a geological subdivision of the east part of Australia.
The Ladinian is a stage and age in the Middle Triassic series or epoch.
Lake Toba (Danau Toba) is a large natural lake in Indonesia occupying the caldera of a supervolcano.
Land, sometimes referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water.
The Langhian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, an age or stage in the middle Miocene epoch/series.
The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.
The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Lepidodendron — also known as scale tree — is an extinct genus of primitive, vascular, arborescent (tree-like) plant related to the lycopsids (club mosses).
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils.
Lithification (from the Ancient Greek word lithos meaning 'rock' and the Latin-derived suffix -ific) is the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
In the geological timescale, the Llandovery epoch (from 443.7 ± 1.5 million years ago to 428.2 ± 2.3 million years ago) occurred during the Silurian period.
The Lochkovian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch.
A logarithmic timeline is a timeline laid out according to a logarithmic scale.
In the geologic timescale, the Ludfordian is the age of the Ludlow epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that occurred between 421.3 ± 2.6Ma and 418.7 ± 2.7 Ma (million years ago).
In the geological timescale, the Ludlow epoch (from 422.9 ± 2.5 million years ago to 418.7 ± 2.7 million years ago) occurred during the Silurian period, after the end of the Homerian age.
The lunar geological timescale (or selenological timescale) divides the history of Earth's Moon into five generally recognized periods: the Copernican, Eratosthenian, Imbrian (Late and Early epochs), Nectarian, and Pre-Nectarian.
The lunar maria (singular: mare) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions.
The Lutetian is, in the geologic timescale, a stage or age in the Eocene.
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
Lycopodiopsida is a class of herbaceous vascular plants known as the clubmosses and firmosses.
The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age (uppermost stage) of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem.
The MacDonnell Ranges, a mountain range and an interim Australian bioregion, is located in the Northern Territory, comprising.
Macrofossils, also known as megafossils, are preserved organic remains large enough to be visible without a microscope.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mare Nectaris ("Sea of Nectar") is a small lunar mare or sea (a volcanic lava plain noticeably darker than the rest of the Moon's surface) located south of Mare Tranquillitatis southwest of Mare Fecunditatis, on the near side of the moon.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct proboscideans in the genus Mammut (family Mammutidae), distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago.
Mayor Island (or Tuhua) is a dormant shield volcano located off the Bay of Plenty coast of New Zealand's North Island.
The McArthur Basin is a large intracratonic sedimentary basin in northern Australia, with an exposed area of about 180,000 km2.
Meganisoptera is an extinct order of very large to gigantic insects, occasionally called griffinflies.
The Mesoarchean (also spelled Mesoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archean Eon, spanning.
The Mesoproterozoic Era is a geologic era that occurred from.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Messinian is in the geologic timescale the last age or uppermost stage of the Miocene.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Methanotrophs (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy.
Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.
The Middle Jurassic is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period.
The term Middle Miocene disruption, alternatively the Middle Miocene extinction or Middle Miocene extinction peak, refers to a wave of extinctions of terrestrial and aquatic life forms that occurred around the middle of the Miocene, roughly 14 million years ago, during the Langhian stage of the Miocene.
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
In the geologic timescale, the Middle Triassic is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period or the middle of three series in which the Triassic system is divided.
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
The Mississippian (also known as Lower Carboniferous or Early Carboniferous) is a subperiod in the geologic timescale or a subsystem of the geologic record.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') are an extinct group of large marine reptiles containing 38 genera in total.
The Moscovian is in the ICS geologic timescale a stage or age in the Pennsylvanian, the youngest subsystem of the Carboniferous.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
The Musgrave Block (also known as the Musgrave Province) is an east-west trending belt of Proterozoic granulite-gneiss basement rocks approximately long.
The Napier Mountains are a group of close set peaks, the highest being Mount Elkins, at about 2,300 meters above sea level.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nautiloids are a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus.
The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).
The Nectarian Period of the lunar geologic timescale runs from 3920 million years ago to 3850 million years ago.
Not to be confused with archaea, in spite of biological discussion commonly alluding to the only life forms of that era, e.g. microbes The Neoarchean (also spelled Neoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptunism, a superseded scientific theory of geology proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749-1817) in the late 18th century, proposed rocks formed from the crystallisation of minerals in the early Earth's oceans.
The Nevadan orogeny occurred along the western margin of North America during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time which is approximately from 155 Ma to 145 Ma.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
While also using the international geologic time scale, many nations - especially those with isolated and therefore non-standard prehistories - use their own system of dividing geologic time into epochs and faunal stages.
Nicolas Steno (Niels Steensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Stenonis or Nicolaus Stenonius; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 – Aber, James S. 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2012.) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years.
The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period.
The term Northern Australia includes Queensland and the Northern Territory (NT).
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Nothosaurs (order Nothosauroidea) were Triassic marine sauropterygian reptiles that may have lived like seals of today, catching food in water but coming ashore on rocks and beaches.
The Older Dryas was a stadial (cold) period between the Bølling and Allerød interstadials (warmer phases), about 14,000 years Before Present), towards the end of the Pleistocene. Its date is not well defined, with estimates varying by 400 years, but its duration is agreed to have been around 200 years. The gradual warming since the Last Glacial Maximum (27,000 to 24,000 years BP) has been interrupted by two cold spells: the Older Dryas and the Younger Dryas (c.
The Oldest Dryas was a climatic period, which occurred during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian glaciation in north Europe.
In the geologic timescale, the Olenekian is an age in the Early Triassic epoch or a stage in the Lower Triassic series.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
The Vredefort crater is believed to have formed in this period. The Orosirian Period (translit, meaning "mountain range") is the third geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).
Orthocerida is an order of extinct Orthoceratoid cephalopods also known as the Michelinocerda that lived from the Early Ordovician possibly to the Late Triassic.
An orthocone is an unusually long straight shell of a nautiloid cephalopod.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.
Ostracoderms ("shell-skinned") are the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.
The Ouachita orogeny was a mountain building event that resulted in the folding and faulting of strata currently exposed in the Ouachita Mountains.
The Oxfordian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the earliest age of the Late Jurassic epoch, or the lowest stage of the Upper Jurassic series.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Paibian is the lowest stage of Furongian series of the Cambrian.
The Palaeodictyoptera are an extinct order of medium-sized to very large, primitive Palaeozoic paleopterous insects.
The Paleoarchean, also spelled Palaeoarchaean (formerly known as early Archean), is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon.
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Paleoproterozoic Era, spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Pan-African orogeny was a series of major Neoproterozoic orogenic events which related to the formation of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pannotia about 600 million years ago.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Parareptilia ("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida.
The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.
The pelycosaurs (from Greek πέλυξ pelyx 'wooden bowl' or 'axe' and σαῦρος sauros 'lizard') are an informal grouping (previously considered an order) composed of basal or primitive Late Paleozoic synapsids, sometimes erroneously referred to as "mammal-like reptiles".
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
The Penokean orogeny was a mountain-building episode that occurred in the early Proterozoic about 1.86 to 1.83 billion years ago, in the area of Lake Superior, North America.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
The Petermann Orogeny was an Australian intracontinental event that affected basement rocks of the northern Musgrave Province and Ediacaran (Proterozoic) sediments of the (now) southern Amadeus Basin between ~550-535 Ma.
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
The Piacenzian is in the international geologic time scale the upper stage or latest age of the Pliocene.
The Pilbara Craton is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere located in Pilbara, Western Australia.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Placodermi (from the Greek πλάξ.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In geology, a platform is a continental area covered by relatively flat or gently tilted, mainly sedimentary strata, which overlie a basement of consolidated igneous or metamorphic rocks of an earlier deformation.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pleistocene megafauna is the set of large animals that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.
Plesiosauria (Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and Sauria) or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.
The Pliensbachian is an age of the geologic timescale or stage in the stratigraphic column.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Plutonism (or volcanism) is the geologic theory that the igneous rocks forming the Earth originated from intrusive magmatic activity, with a continuing gradual process of weathering and erosion wearing away rocks, which were then deposited on the sea bed, re-formed into layers of sedimentary rock by heat and pressure, and raised again.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
The Pragian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch.
The pre-Nectarian period of the lunar geologic timescale runs from 4.533 billion years ago (the time of the initial formation of the Moon) to 3.920 billion years ago, when the Nectaris Basin was formed by a large impact.
The Preboreal is a stage of the Holocene epoch.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The Priabonian is, in the ICS's geologic timescale, the latest age or the upper stage of the Eocene epoch or series.
Priapulida (priapulid worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive), sometimes referred to as penis worms, is a phylum of unsegmented marine worms.
In the geologic timescale, the Pridoli epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon is comprehended between 423 ± 1.5 and 419.2 ± 2.8 mya (million years ago), approximately.
Productida is an extinct order of brachiopods in the extinct class Strophomenata.
The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
The Pterygota are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
The Rangitata Orogeny (an orogeny named after the Rangitata River), was a long period of uplift and collision in New Zealand.
Red beds (or redbeds) are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.
The Rhaetian is, in geochronology, the latest age of the Triassic period or in chronostratigraphy the uppermost stage of the Triassic system.
Rhizodonts (order Rhizodontida) are an extinct group of predatory tetrapodomorph fishes known from many areas of the world from the Givetian through to the Pennsylvanian - the earliest known species is about 377 million years ago (Mya), the latest around 310 Mya.
In the geologic timescale, the Rhuddanian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 443.7 ± 1.5 Ma and 439.0 ± 1.8 Ma (million years ago), approximately.
The Rhyacian Period (translit, meaning "stream of lava") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).
The taxonomic order Rhynchonellida is one of the two main groups of living articulate brachiopods, the other being the order Terebratulida.
Rhyniophytina is a subdivision of extinct early vascular plants that are considered to be similar to the genus Rhynia, found in the Early Devonian (around). Sources vary in the name and rank used for this group, some treating it as the class Rhyniopsida, others as the division Rhyniophyta.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In the geologic timescale, the Roadian is an age or stage of the Permian.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.
Rodinia (from the Russian родить, rodít, meaning "to beget, to give birth", or родина, ródina, meaning "motherland, birthplace") is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.
Rudists are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.
The Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas.
The Rupelian is, in the geologic timescale, the older of two ages or the lower of two stages of the Oligocene epoch/series.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct homininae species and is probably the ancestor to Orrorin that is dated to about, during the Miocene epoch, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence.
In the geologic timescale, the Sakmarian is an age or stage of the Permian.
The Sandbian is the first stage of the Upper Ordovician.
The Sangamonian Stage (or Sangamon interglacial) is the term used in North America to designate the last interglacial.
The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage.
The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
The Selandian is in the geologic timescale an age or stage in the Paleocene.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Series are subdivisions of rock layers based on the age of the rock and formally defined by international conventions of the geological timescale.
The Serpukhovian is in the ICS geologic timescale the uppermost stage or youngest age of the Mississippian, the lower subsystem of the Carboniferous.
The Serravallian is in the geologic timescale an age or a stage in the middle Miocene epoch/series, that spans the time between 13.65 ± 0.05 Ma and 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago).
The Sevier orogeny was a mountain-building event that affected western North America from Canada to the north to Mexico to the south.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
In the geologic timescale, the Sheinwoodian is the age of the Wenlock epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 428.2 ± 2.3 Ma and 426.2 ± 2.4 Ma (million years ago), approximately.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siderian Period (translit, meaning "iron") is the first geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Ma to Ma (million years ago).
Sigillaria is a genus of extinct, spore-bearing, arborescent (tree-like) plants.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
In the geologic timescale, the Sinemurian is an age or stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series.
The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth surface's became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago).
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The Southern Alps (Kā Tiritiri-o-te-Moana) is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the range's western side.
SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a semantic query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
Spiriferida is an order of extinct articulate brachiopod fossils which are known for their long hinge-line, which is often the widest part of the shell.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles.
Stadials and interstadials are phases dividing the Quaternary period, or the last 2.6 million years.
In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
The Statherian Period (σταθερός (statherós), meaning "stable, firm") is the final geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).
Stegosauria is a group of herbivorous ornithischian dinosaurs that lived during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous periods.
The Stenian Period (from Greek στενός (stenós), meaning "narrow") is the final geologic period in the Mesoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Strophomenida is a large, extinct order of articulate brachiopods in the extinct class Strophomenata that existed from the lower Ordovician to the lower Jurassic period.
The Subatlantic is the current climatic age of the Holocene epoch.
The Subboreal is a climatic period, immediately before the present one, of the Holocene.
The Sudbury Basin, also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological structure in Ontario, Canada.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, which is the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).
The Sveconorwegian orogeny was an orogenic system active 1140 to 960 million years ago and currently exposed as the Sveconorwegian orogenic belt in southwestern Sweden and southern Norway.
Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.
A system in stratigraphy is a unit of rock layers that were laid down together within the same corresponding geological period.
The tabulate corals, forming the order Tabulata, are an extinct form of coral.
The Taconic orogeny was a mountain building period that ended 440 million years ago and affected most of modern-day New England.
Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
In the geologic timescale, the Telychian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 436.0 ± 1.9 Ma and 428.2 ± 2.3 Ma (million years ago), approximately.
Temnospondyli (from Greek τέμνειν (temnein, "to cut") and σπόνδυλος (spondylos, "vertebra")) is a diverse subclass of extinct small to giant tetrapods—often considered primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.
Terebratulids are one of only three living orders of articulate brachiopods, the others being the Rhynchonellida and the Thecideida.
The Terreneuvian is the lowermost and oldest series of the Cambrian geological system.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The Thanetian is, in the ICS Geologic timescale, the latest age or uppermost stratigraphic stage of the Paleocene Epoch or series.
The Book of Healing (Arabic: کتاب الشفاء Kitāb al-Šifāʾ, Latin: Sufficientia) is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from ancient Persia, near Bukhara in Greater Khorasan.
Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.
The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the development of the human species, Homo sapiens, and the evolution of the human's ancestors.
This timeline of natural history summarizes significant geological and biological events from the formation of the Earth to the arrival of modern humans.
Timeline of paleontology.
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.
This time line of the geologic history of the United States chronologically lists important events occurring within the present political boundaries of United States (including territories) before 12,000 years ago.
Titanosaurs (members of the group Titanosauria) were a diverse group of sauropod dinosaurs which included Saltasaurus and Isisaurus.
In the geological timescale the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series.
The Toarcian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, an age or stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic.
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Tonian (from Greek τόνος (tónos), meaning "stretch") is the first geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era.
The Tortonian is in the geologic timescale an age or stage of the late Miocene that spans the time between 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma and 7.246 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago).
The Tournaisian is in the ICS geologic timescale the lowest stage or oldest age of the Mississippian, the oldest subsystem of the Carboniferous.
A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.
The Trans-Hudson orogeny or Trans-Hudsonian orogeny was the major mountain building event (orogeny) that formed the Precambrian Canadian Shield, the North American Craton (also called Laurentia), and the forging of the initial North American continent.
The Tremadocian is the lowest stage of Ordovician.
Treptichnus pedum (formerly named Phycodes pedum, Manykodes pedum by J. Dzik, and also known as Trichophycus pedum) is the preserved burrow of an animal rather than a fossil of that animal.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series.
Tyrannosauridae (or tyrannosaurids, meaning "tyrant lizards") is a family of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs that comprises two subfamilies containing up to thirteen genera, including the eponymous Tyrannosaurus.
The Tyrrhenian Stage is the last faunal stage of the Pleistocene in Italy.
Uintatheriidae is a family of extinct ungulate mammals that includes Uintatherium.
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of linear deformation and mountain building events that raised the Ural Mountains, starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, c. 323–299 and 299–251 Mya respectively, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic to early Jurassic times.
In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous.
A variorum is a work that collates all known variants of a text.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
The Venus of Lespugue is a Venus figurine, a statuette of a nude female figure of the Gravettian, dated to between 26,000 and 24,000 years ago.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The Visean, Viséan or Visian is an age in the ICS geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column.
A volcanic winter is a reduction in global temperatures caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid and water obscuring the Sun and raising Earth's albedo (increasing the reflection of solar radiation) after a large, particularly explosive volcanic eruption.
The Vredefort crater is the largest verified impact crater on Earth, more than across when it was formed.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies.
The Wenlock (sometimes referred to as the Wenlockian) is the second series of the Silurian.
William 'Strata' Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) was an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map.
In the geologic timescale, the Wordian is an age or stage of the Permian.
In the geologic timescale, the Wuchiapingian or Wujiapingian (from in the Liangshan area of Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province) is an age or stage of the Permian.
The Yilgarn Craton is a large craton that constitutes the bulk of the Western Australian land mass.
The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.
In the geologic timescale the Ypresian is the oldest age or lowest stratigraphic stage of the Eocene.
The Zanclean is the lowest stage or earliest age on the geologic time scale of the Pliocene.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
The Zirconian is the second Era within the Hadean Eon in a proposed revision of the Precambrian time scale.
Acastan, Age of rock, Eon (geology), Eon geology, Eukaryian, Fossils and the geological timescale, Geologic Time Scale, Geologic Timescale, Geologic column, Geologic eon, Geologic time, Geologic timescale, GeologicTimescale, Geological clock, Geological column, Geological eons, Geological scale, Geological time, Geological time period, Geological time scale, Geological timescale, Geology and Earth formation, Isuan, Jatulian, Methanian, Oxygenian, Period/Age, Pongolan, Prehistory of the earth, Prehistory of the world, Rodinian, Stratigraphic time scale, Stratigraphic timescale, Supereon (geology), Vaalbaran, Waucoban, Waucoban Series.