341 relations: Abraham Gottlob Werner, Absolute dating, Acasta Gneiss, Accretion (astrophysics), Accretionary wedge, Aeromagnetic survey, Age of the Earth, Al-Biruni, Alfred Wegener, Allegheny Mountains, Amber, American Philosophical Society, Analogue modelling (geology), Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anticline, Argon–argon dating, Asbestos, Asthenosphere, Atmosphere, Australopithecus, Avalanche, Avicenna, Avulsion (river), Basalt, Batholith, Bed (geology), Bedrock, Biogeochemistry, Biostratigraphy, Birefringence, Borehole, Boudinage, Boundary layer, Brill Publishers, Brownfield land, Building code, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Canada, Catastrophism, Cenozoic, Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Chemical compound, Chlorine, Chronostratigraphy, Civil engineering, Clastic rock, ..., Clay, Climate change, Closure temperature, Compression (geology), Computer simulation, Conoscopy, Continent, Continental drift, Convection, Convergent boundary, Copper, Core drill, Core sample, Country rock (geology), Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Critical taper, Cross-bedding, Cross-cutting relationships, Crust (geology), Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystal twinning, Crystallization, Crystallography, Debris flow, Deformation (mechanics), Dendrochronology, Deposition (geology), Depositional environment, Dike (geology), Dike swarm, Dinosaur, Discipline (academia), Divergent boundary, Drift (geology), Early Muslim conquests, Earth, Earth science, Earth system science, Earthquake, Economic geology, Electrical resistivity tomography, Electron microprobe, Engineering geology, Environmental geology, Environmental science, Erosion, Evolution, Evolutionary history of life, Experiment, Exploration geophysics, Extensional tectonics, Fabric (geology), Facies, Fault (geology), Field research, Fielding Hudson Garrison, Flood, Fluid inclusions, Fold (geology), Foliation (geology), Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Fossil, Gemstone, Geoarchaeology, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Geodesy, Geography, Geologic map, Geologic map of Georgia (U.S. state), Geologic modelling, Geological Society of America, Geologist, Geology of India, Geology of Mars, Geology of the Grand Canyon area, Geology of the Moon, Geometallurgy, Geomicrobiology, Geomorphology, Geomythology, Geophysical survey, Geophysical survey (archaeology), Geophysics, Geoprofessions, Geotechnical engineering, Glacier, Glaciology, Global warming, Glossary of geology, Gold, Grand Canyon, Ground-penetrating radar, Groundwater, Habitat, Hadean, Halite, Hawaiian Islands, Helium, Historical geology, History of Earth, Holocene, Hominini, Homo sapiens, Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogeology, Hydrothermal vent, Ice core, Igneous rock, Incompressible surface, Indian subcontinent, Inner core, International Union of Geological Sciences, Intrusive rock, Iran, Isopach map, Isotope geochemistry, James Hutton, Jean-André Deluc, Journal of Geophysical Research, K–Ar dating, Laccolith, Landscape, Landslide, Lanthanide, Late Heavy Bombardment, Lava, Lava tube, Law of included fragments, Law of superposition, Lithification, Lithology, Lithosphere, Lithostratigraphy, Logos, Magma, Magma chamber, Mantle (geology), Mantle convection, Maria fold and thrust belt, Marine geology, Mars, Meander, Mesozoic, Metabolic pathway, Metal, Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Meteorology, Mica, Micropaleontology, Mid-ocean ridge, Mineral, Mineralogy, Mining, Mining geology, Mountain, Museum, Natural gas, Natural hazard, Natural resource, Natural satellite, Natural science, Neptunism, Nicolas Steno, Oceanography, Oldest dated rocks, Online Etymology Dictionary, Optical microscope, Optical mineralogy, Optically stimulated luminescence, Organic matter, Outer core, Outline of geology, Paleoclimatology, Paleontology, Paleozoic, Palynology, Pedology, Perlite, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Persian people, Petrographic microscope, Petroleum, Petroleum geologist, Petroleum geology, Petrology, Petrophysics, Phoenix (spacecraft), Phosphate, Photosynthesis, Physical geography, Planetary geology, Plasticity (physics), Plate tectonics, Pleochroism, Pliny the Elder, Pluton, Plutonism, Polymath, Principle of faunal succession, Principle of lateral continuity, Principle of original horizontality, Principles of Geology, Pumice, Quartz, Quaternary, Quaternary geology, Radiocarbon dating, Radiometric dating, Radionuclide, Relative dating, River, River channel migration, Rock (geology), Rock cycle, Roman Empire, Royal Society of Edinburgh, S-wave, Salt, San Andreas Fault, Science and Civilisation in China, Sea level, Seafloor spreading, Sediment, Sedimentary basin, Sedimentary rock, Sedimentology, Seismic tomography, Seismic wave, Seismology, Shear zone, Shen Kuo, Silicon dioxide, Sill (geology), Silt, Simon Winchester, Sinkhole, Slave Craton, Snowball Earth, Soil liquefaction, Soil science, Solar System, Solid earth, Space exploration, Species, Speleology, Stable isotope ratio, Stereographic projection, Stratigraphy, Stratum, Stream restoration, Structural geology, Structure of the Earth, Subduction, Subsidence, Sulfur, Superficial deposits, Syncline, Systems geology, Tectonics, Terrestrial planet, The Map that Changed the World, Theophrastus, Thermochronology, Thin section, Thrust fault, Timeline of geology, Topographic map, Transform fault, Tsunami, Ulisse Aldrovandi, Uniformitarianism, Uranium–lead dating, Uranium–thorium dating, Vertebrate, Volcanic ash, Volcanic rock, Volcano, Volcanology, Water resources, Weathering, Well drilling, Well logging, William Maclure, William Smith (geologist), Xenolith, Year, Zeolite. 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Abraham Gottlob Werner (25 September 174930 June 1817) was a German geologist who set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and propounded a history of the Earth that came to be known as Neptunism.
Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology.
The Acasta Gneiss is a tonalite gneiss in the Slave craton in Northwest Territories, Canada.
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
An accretionary wedge or accretionary prism forms from sediments accreted onto the non-subducting tectonic plate at a convergent plate boundary.
An aeromagnetic survey is a common type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer aboard or towed behind an aircraft.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Alfred Lothar Wegener (–) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.
The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
Analogue modelling is used in geology to understand geological processes such as faulting and the emplacement of igneous intrusions, using various materials such as sand, clay, silicone and paraffin wax.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core.
Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
In sedimentary geology and fluvial geomorphology, avulsion is the rapid abandonment of a river channel and the formation of a new river channel.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock) is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock (also called plutonic rock), larger than in area, that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust.
Salto del Fraile Formation, Peru. Beds are the layers of sedimentary rocks that are distinctly different from overlying and underlying subsequent beds of different sedimentary rocks.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).
Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.
Boudinaged quartz vein in shear foliation, Starlight Pit, Fortnum Gold Mine, Western Australia. Boudinage is a geological term for structures formed by extension, where a rigid tabular body such as hornfels, is stretched and deformed amidst less competent surroundings.
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Brownfield land is a term used in urban planning to describe any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not or, in North America, more specifically to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.
A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Catastrophism was the theory that the Earth had largely been shaped by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was a British queen consort and wife of King George III.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In radiometric dating, closure temperature or blocking temperature refers to the temperature of a system, such as a mineral, at the time given by its radiometric date.
In geology, the term compression refers to a set of stress directed toward the center of a rock mass.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Conoscopy (from Ancient Greek κῶνος (konos) "cone, spinning top, pine cone" and σκοπέω (skopeo) "examine, inspect, look to or into, consider") is an optical technique to make observations of a transparent specimen in a cone of converging rays of light.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A core drill is a drill specifically designed to remove a cylinder of material, much like a hole saw.
A core sample is a cylindrical section of (usually) a naturally occurring substance.
Country rock is a geological term meaning the rock native to an area.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
In mechanics and geodynamics, a critical taper is the equilibrium angle made by the far end of a wedge-shaped agglomeration of material that is being pushed by the near end.
In geology, cross-bedding is layering within a stratum and at an angle to the main bedding plane.
Cross-cutting relationships is a principle of geology that states that the geologic feature which cuts another is the younger of the two features.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Debris flows are geological phenomena in which water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form thick, muddy deposits on valley floors.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
A dike swarm or dyke swarm is a large geological structure consisting of a major group of parallel, linear, or radially oriented dikes intruded within continental crust.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
In geology, drift is the name for all material of glacial origin found anywhere on land or at sea, including sediment and large rocks (glacial erratic).
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.
An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials.
Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods, such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic at the surface of the Earth to measure the physical properties of the subsurface, along with the anomalies in those properties.
Extensional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed, and the tectonic processes associated with, the stretching of a planetary body's crust or lithosphere.
In geology, a rock's fabric describes the spatial and geometric configuration of all the elements that make it up.
In geology, a facies (pronounced variously as, or; plural also 'facies') is a body of rock with specified characteristics, which can be any observable attribute of rocks such as their overall appearance, composition, or condition of formation, and the changes that may occur in those attributes over a geographic area.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Colonel Fielding Hudson Garrison, MD (November 5, 1870 – April 18, 1935) was an acclaimed medical historian, bibliographer, and librarian of medicine.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Trapped in a time capsule the same size as the diameter of a human hair, the ore-forming liquid in this inclusion was so hot and contained so much dissolved solids that when it cooled, crystals of halite, sylvite, gypsum, and hematite formed. As the samples cooled, the fluid shrank more than the surrounding mineral, and created a vapor bubble. Source: USGS Fluid inclusions are microscopic bubbles of liquid and gas that are trapped within crystals.
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.
Foliation in geology refers to repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Geoarchaeology is a multi-disciplinary approach which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography, geology and other Earth sciences to examine topics which inform archaeological knowledge and thought.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.
The geologic map of Georgia (a state within the United States) is a special-purpose map made to show geological features.
Geologic modelling, Geological modelling or Geomodelling is the applied science of creating computerized representations of portions of the Earth's crust based on geophysical and geological observations made on and below the Earth surface.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
The geology of India is diverse.
The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars.
The geology of the Grand Canyon area includes one of the most complete and studied sequences of rock on Earth.
The geology of the Moon (sometimes called selenology, although the latter term can refer more generally to "lunar science") is quite different from that of Earth.
Geometallurgy relates to the practice of combining geology or geostatistics with metallurgy, or, more specifically, extractive metallurgy, to create a spatially or geologically based predictive model for mineral processing plants.
Geomicrobiology is the scientific field at the intersection of geology and microbiology.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geomythology is the study of alleged references to geological events in mythology.
Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.
In archaeology, geophysical survey is ground-based physical sensing techniques used for archaeological imaging or mapping.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Geoprofessions is a term coined by the Geoprofessional Business Association to connote various technical disciplines that involve engineering, earth and environmental services applied to below-ground (“subsurface”), ground-surface, and ground-surface-connected conditions, structures, or formations.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
This page is a glossary of geology.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Historical geology or paleogeology is a discipline that uses the principles and techniques of geology to reconstruct and understand the geological history of Earth.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Portrait of Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (after the picture by Juehl, in the Library at Geneva) Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
In mathematics, an incompressible surface, in intuitive terms, is a surface, embedded in a 3-manifold, which has been simplified as much as possible while remaining "nontrivial" inside the 3-manifold.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of geology.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
An isopach map illustrates thickness variations within a tabular unit, layer or stratum.
Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon the study of natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
Jean-André Deluc or de Luc (8 February 1727 – 7 November 1817) was a Swiss geologist, natural philosopher and meteorologist.
The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
A laccolith is a sheet intrusion (or concordant pluton) that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The Late Heavy Bombardment (abbreviated LHB and also known as the lunar cataclysm) is an event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, at a time corresponding to the Neohadean and Eoarchean eras on Earth.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow.
The law of included fragments is a method of relative dating in geology.
The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy.
Lithification (from the Ancient Greek word lithos meaning 'rock' and the Latin-derived suffix -ific) is the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Lithostratigraphy is a sub-discipline of stratigraphy, the geological science associated with the study of strata or rock layers.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of the Earth.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
The Maria fold and thrust belt (MFTB) is a portion of the North American Cordillera orogen in which geological structures accommodate roughly north-south to northwest-southeast vergent Mesozoic age crustal shortening.
Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mining geology is an applied science which combines the principles of economic geology and mining engineering to the development of a defined mineral resource.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
A museum (plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neptunism, a superseded scientific theory of geology proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner (1749-1817) in the late 18th century, proposed rocks formed from the crystallisation of minerals in the early Earth's oceans.
Nicolas Steno (Niels Steensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Stenonis or Nicolaus Stenonius; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 – Aber, James S. 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2012.) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The oldest dated rocks on Earth, as an aggregate of minerals that have not been subsequently broken down by erosion or melted, are more than 4 billion years old, formed during the Hadean Eon of Earth's geological history.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties.
In physics, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a method for measuring doses from ionizing radiation.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.
Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content, typically formed by the hydration of obsidian.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope used in petrology and optical mineralogy to identify rocks and minerals in thin sections.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A petroleum geologist is an earth scientist who works in the field of petroleum geology, which involves all aspects of oil discovery and production.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
Petrophysics (from the Greek πέτρα, petra, "rock" and φύσις, physis, "nature") is the study of physical and chemical rock properties and their interactions with fluids.
Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pleochroism (from Greek πλέων, pléōn, "more" and χρῶμα, khrôma, "color") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
In geology, a pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock (called a plutonic rock) that is crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
Plutonism (or volcanism) is the geologic theory that the igneous rocks forming the Earth originated from intrusive magmatic activity, with a continuing gradual process of weathering and erosion wearing away rocks, which were then deposited on the sea bed, re-formed into layers of sedimentary rock by heat and pressure, and raised again.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
The principle of faunal succession, also known as the law of faunal succession, is based on the observation that sedimentary rock strata contain fossilized flora and fauna, and that these fossils succeed each other vertically in a specific, reliable order that can be identified over wide horizontal distances.
The principle of lateral continuity states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous.
The Principle of Original Horizontality states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity.
Principles of Geology: being an attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation is a book by the Scottish geologist Charles Lyell that was first published in 3 volumes from 1830–1833.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Quaternary geology is the branch of geology that study developments from 2.6 million years ago onwards.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. estimated age).
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
River channel migration is the geomorphological process that involves the lateral migration of an alluvial river channel across its floodplain.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the time-consuming transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly through California.
Science and Civilisation in China (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995).
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.
Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions.
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
A shear zone is a very important structural discontinuity surface in the Earth's crust and upper mantle.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Simon Winchester, (born 28 September 1944) is a British-American author and journalist.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
The Slave Craton is an Archaean craton in the north-western Canadian Shield, in Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth surface's became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago).
Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology).
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
In geometry, the stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Stream restoration or river restoration, sometimes called river reclamation in the UK, describes a set of activities that help improve the environmental health of a river or stream.
Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Superficial deposits refer to geological deposits typically of less than 2.6 million years old.
In structural geology, a syncline is a fold with younger layers closer to the center of the structure.
Systems geology emphasizes the nature of geology as a system – that is, as a set of interacting parts that function as a whole.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Map that Changed the World is a book by Simon Winchester about English geologist William Smith and his great achievement, the first geological map of England and Wales.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thermochronology is the study of the thermal evolution of a region of a planet.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
A thrust fault is a break in the Earth's crust, across which older rocks are pushed above younger rocks.
Timeline of geology.
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.
A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Ulisse Aldrovandi (11 September 1522 – 4 May 1605) was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe.
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.
Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldestBoltwood, B.B., 1907, On the ultimate disintegration products of the radio-active elements.
Uranium–thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique established in the 1960s which has been used since the 1970s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Well drilling is the process of drilling a hole in the ground for the extraction of a natural resource such as ground water, brine, natural gas, or petroleum, for the injection of a fluid from surface to a subsurface reservoir or for subsurface formations evaluation or monitoring.
Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record (a well log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole.
William Maclure (27 October 1763 – 23 March 1840) was an Americanized Scottish geologist, cartographer and philanthropist.
William 'Strata' Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) was an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map.
A xenolith ("foreign rock") is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
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