217 relations: Academic Press, Adams–Williamson equation, Alfvén wave, American Geophysical Union, Ampere, Ancient history, André Deutsch, Astronomy, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric electricity, Aurora, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Geophysical Union, Chandler wobble, Classical mechanics, Climate, Coalescence (physics), College of DuPage, Conductivity (electrolytic), Continent, Convection, Convective heat transfer, Core–mantle boundary, Coriolis force, Cosmic ray, CRC Press, Creep (deformation), Crust (geology), Cryosphere, Dawn chorus (electromagnetic), De Magnete, Deep-focus earthquake, Dipole, Dynamo theory, Earth, Earth ellipsoid, Earth radius, Earth science, Earth system science, Earth's magnetic field, Earthquake engineering, Ekman spiral, Elasticity (physics), Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical resistivity tomography, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Environmental protection, ..., Equation of state, Equator, Era (geology), Eratosthenes, Evaporation, Exploration geophysics, Feng shui, Figure of the Earth, Fluid dynamics, Gamma spectroscopy, Geochronology, Geodesy, Geodetic astronomy, Geodynamics, Geographical pole, Geoid, Geology, Geomagnetic pole, Geomagnetic reversal, Geomagnetic secular variation, Geophysical fluid dynamics, Geophysical survey, Geopotential, Geothermal gradient, Glacier, Global Positioning System, Gravimeter, Gravimetry, Gravitational acceleration, Gravitational potential, Gravity, Gravity anomaly, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Groundwater, GRS 80, HarperCollins, Heat transfer, Hiss (electromagnetic), Hydrosphere, Hydrostatics, Ice sheet, Induced polarization, Inner core, Internal heating, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Intraplate earthquake, Ionosphere, Isaac Newton, Isostasy, Isotope, James David Forbes, Jean de Hautefeuille, Kelvin wave, Laschamp event, Latitude, Lightning, List of geophysicists, Lithosphere, Lodestone, Longitude, Lunar mare, Lunar Orbiter program, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Magma, Magnetic field, Magnetism, Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnetosphere, Magnetostratigraphy, Magnetotellurics, Mantle (geology), Mantle convection, Mantle plume, Mare Crisium, Mare Humorum, Mare Imbrium, Mare Nectaris, Mare Serenitatis, Mass concentration (astronomy), Meteorology, Mineral physics, Mohorovičić discontinuity, Moment of inertia, Moon, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academies Press, National academy, Natural hazard, Natural remanent magnetization, Natural resource, Natural science, Normal mode, Nutation, Oceanic basin, Outer core, Outline of geophysics, Oxford University Press, Paleomagnetism, Percolation, Permafrost, Phase diagram, Phase transition, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Physical geodesy, Physical geography, Physical oceanography, Physics, Planetary science, Plate tectonics, Post-glacial rebound, Post-perovskite, Potassium, Precession, Precipitation, Preliminary reference Earth model, Princeton University Press, Radar altimeter, Radioactive decay, Radiometric dating, Radionuclide, Reflection seismology, Reviews of Geophysics, Rheology, Rossby wave, S-wave, Salinity, Science (journal), Sea ice, Seafloor spreading, Seismic refraction, Seismic tomography, Seismic wave, Seismo-electromagnetics, Seismology, Seismometer, Silicate, Solar wind, Space probe, Specific gravity, Spontaneous potential, Springer Science+Business Media, Sprite (lightning), Structure of the Earth, Supercooling, Supersaturation, Taylor column, Telluric current, Thermal conduction, Thorium, Thunderstorm, Tide, Transient electromagnetics, University of California Press, University of Texas at Austin, Uranium, Van Allen radiation belt, Very-long-baseline interferometry, Viscosity, Volcanism, Volt, Walter de Gruyter, Water cycle, Whistler (radio), Wiley-Blackwell, William Gilbert (astronomer), Zhang Heng. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The Adams–Williamson equation, named after L. H. Adams and E. D. Williamson, is an equation used to determine density as a function of radius, more commonly used to determine the relation between the velocities of seismic waves and the density of the Earth's interior.
In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring force provided by an effective tension on the magnetic field lines.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
André Deutsch CBE (15 November 1917 in Budapest – 11 April 2000 in London) was a British publisher who founded an eponymous publishing company in 1951.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet).
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadian Geophysical Union/Union géophysique canadienne (or CGU) began as a society dedicated to the scientific study of the solid earth and has evolved into one that is concerned with all aspects of the physical study of Earth and its space environment, including the Sun and solar system.
The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth, which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coalescence is the process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a single daughter droplet, bubble or particle.
College of DuPage is a two-year community college in Glen Ellyn, Illinois.
Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.
The core–mantle boundary (CMB in the parlance of solid earth geophysicists) of the Earth lies between the planet's silicate mantle and its liquid iron-nickel outer core.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
The electromagnetic dawn chorus is a phenomenon that occurs most often at or shortly after dawn local time.
De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.
A deep-focus earthquake in seismology (also called a plutonic earthquake) is an earthquake with a hypocenter depth exceeding 300 km.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An Earth ellipsoid is a mathematical figure approximating the Earth's form, used as a reference frame for computations in geodesy, astronomy, and the geosciences.
Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind.
The Ekman spiral is a structure of currents or winds near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away from the boundary.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods, such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic at the surface of the Earth to measure the physical properties of the subsurface, along with the anomalies in those properties.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources, in such as the nuclear industry, geochemical investigation, and astrophysics.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geodetic astronomy or astro-geodesy is the application of astronomical methods into networks and technical projects of geodesy.
Geodynamics is a subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth.
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The geomagnetic poles are antipodal points where the axis of a best-fitting dipole intersects the Earth's surface.
A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same.
Geomagnetic secular variation refers to changes in the Earth's magnetic field on time scales of about a year or more.
Geophysical fluid dynamics, in its broadest meaning, refers to the fluid dynamics of naturally occurring flows, such as lava flows, oceans, and planetary atmospheres, on Earth and other planets.
Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.
Geopotential is the potential of the Earth's gravity field.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
A gravimeter is an instrument used to measure gravitational acceleration.
Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.
In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.
In classical mechanics, the gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that would be needed to move the object from a fixed reference location to the location of the object.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A gravity anomaly is the difference between the observed acceleration of free fall, or gravity, on a planet's surface, and the corresponding value predicted from a model of the planet's gravity field.
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
GRS 80, or Geodetic Reference System 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Electromagnetic hiss is a naturally occurring Extremely Low Frequency/Very Low Frequency electromagnetic wave (i.e., 300 Hz – 10 kHz) that is generated in the plasma of either the Earth's ionosphere or magnetosphere.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
Induced polarization (IP) is a geophysical imaging technique used to identify the electrical chargeability of subsurface materials, such as ore.
The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
Internal heat is the heat source from the interior of celestial objects, such as stars, brown dwarfs, planets, moons, dwarf planets, and (in the early history of the Solar System) even asteroids such as Vesta, resulting from contraction caused by gravity (the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism), nuclear fusion, tidal heating, core solidification (heat of fusion released as molten core material solidifies), and radioactive decay.
The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG; Union géodésique et géophysique internationale, UGGI) is an international non-governmental organisation dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth and its space environment using geophysical and geodetic techniques.
The term intraplate earthquake refers to a variety of earthquake that occurs within the interior of a tectonic plate; this stands in contrast to an interplate earthquake, which occurs at the boundary of a tectonic plate.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
James David Forbes (20 April 1809 – 31 December 1868) was a Scottish physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology.
Jean de Hautefeuille (20 March 1647 – 18 October 1724) was a French abbé, physicist and inventor.
A Kelvin wave is a wave in the ocean or atmosphere that balances the Earth's Coriolis force against a topographic boundary such as a coastline, or a waveguide such as the equator.
The Laschamp event was a short reversal of the Earth's magnetic field.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
This is a list of geophysicists, people who made notable contributions to geophysics, whether or not geophysics was their primary field.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
A lodestone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The lunar maria (singular: mare) are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions.
The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States from 1966 through 1967.
Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.
Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic geophysical method for inferring the earth's subsurface electrical conductivity from measurements of natural geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation at the Earth's surface.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
Mare Crisium (the "Sea of Crises") is a lunar mare located in the Moon's Crisium basin, just northeast of Mare Tranquillitatis.
Mare Humorum (the "Sea of Moisture") is a lunar mare.
Mare Imbrium (Latin for "Sea of Showers" or "Sea of Rains") is a vast lava plain within the Imbrium Basin on the Moon and is one of the larger craters in the Solar System.
Mare Nectaris ("Sea of Nectar") is a small lunar mare or sea (a volcanic lava plain noticeably darker than the rest of the Moon's surface) located south of Mare Tranquillitatis southwest of Mare Fecunditatis, on the near side of the moon.
Mare Serenitatis ("Sea of Serenity") is a lunar mare located to the east of Mare Imbrium on the Moon.
In astronomy and astrophysics, a mass concentration (or mascon) is a region of a planet or moon's crust that contains a large positive gravitational anomaly.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Mineral physics is the science of materials that compose the interior of planets, particularly the Earth.
The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities.
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.
Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is the permanent magnetism of a rock or sediment.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
Nutation (from Latin nūtātiō, "nodding, swaying") is a rocking, swaying, or nodding motion in the axis of rotation of a largely axially symmetric object, such as a gyroscope, planet, or bullet in flight, or as an intended behavior of a mechanism.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics: Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.
In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation (from Latin percōlāre, "to filter" or "trickle through") refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Post-perovskite (pPv) is a high-pressure phase of magnesium silicate (MgSiO3).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Preliminary reference Earth model (PREM) is a one-dimensional model representing the average Earth properties as a function of planetary radius.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A radar altimeter, electronic altimeter, reflection altimeter, radio altimeter (RADALT), low range radio altimeter (LRRA) or simply RA, used on aircraft, measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath an aircraft or spacecraft by timing how long it takes a beam of radio waves to reflect from the ground and return to the plane.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
Reviews of Geophysics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Geophysical Union.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
Rossby waves, also known as planetary waves, are a natural phenomenon in the atmospheres and oceans of planets that largely owe their properties to rotation of the planet.
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Seismic refraction is a geophysical principle (see refraction) governed by Snell's Law.
Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions.
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Seismo-electromagnetics are various electro-magnetic phenomena believed to be generated by tectonic forces acting on the earth's crust, and possibly associated with seismic activity such as earthquakes and volcanoes.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Spontaneous potential (SP), also called self potential, is a naturally occurring electric potential difference in the Earth, measured by an electrode relative to a fixed reference electrode.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges that occur high above thunderstorm clouds, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes flickering in the night sky.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
A Taylor column is a fluid dynamics phenomenon that occurs as a result of the Coriolis effect.
A telluric current (from Latin tellūs, "earth"), or Earth current, is an electric current which moves underground or through the sea.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Transient electromagnetics, (also time-domain electromagnetics / TDEM), is a geophysical exploration technique in which electric and magnetic fields are induced by transient pulses of electric current and the subsequent decay response measured.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
A whistler is a very low frequency or VLF electromagnetic (radio) wave generated by lightning.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.