15 relations: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Arabic, Baltic languages, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Friedrich Julius Richelot, Königsberg, Kmiecin, Moritz Cantor, Nowy Dwór Gdański, Old Prussian language, Oriental studies, Peter van Bohlen, Philology, Sanskrit, University of Königsberg.
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Universal German Biography) is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.
Friedrich Julius Richelot (6 November 1808 – 31 March 1875) was a German mathematician, born in Königsberg.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Kmiecin (Fürstenau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Nowy Dwór Gdański, within Nowy Dwór Gdański County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Moritz Benedikt Cantor (23 August 1829 – 10 April 1920) was a German historian of mathematics.
Nowy Dwór Gdański (Tiegenhof) is a town in Poland on the Tuja river in the Żuławy Wiślane region, capital of Nowy Dwór Gdański County, located in Pomeranian Voivodeship, with 10,171 inhabitants (2012).
Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Peter von Bohlen (9 March 1796, in Wüppels, in the Wangerland Gemeinde – 6 February 1840, in Halle) was a German Orientalist and Indologist.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The University of Königsberg (Albertus-Universität Königsberg) was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia.