308 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, A. J. Ayer, Abitur, Absolute idealism, Absolute monarchy, Abstract and concrete, Abstract particulars, Academy, Aenesidemus (book), Aesthetics, Aether (classical element), Age of Enlightenment, Alexandre Kojève, Alexis de Tocqueville, Allen W. Wood, Analytic philosophy, Anaxagoras, Andy Blunden, Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Atheism, Aufheben, Authoritarianism, Bamberg, Baruch Spinoza, Base and superstructure, Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, Being, Benedetto Croce, Berlin, Bern, Bernard Bosanquet (philosopher), Bertrand Russell, British idealism, Bruno Bauer, Brussels, Cambridge University Press, Carl von Clausewitz, Cartesian Meditations, Category (Kant), Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, Charles Taylor (philosopher), Chinese Communist Revolution, Cholera, Christian Garve, Civil society, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Communism, Communitarianism, Concept, ..., Consciousness, Conservatism, Consistory (Protestantism), Continental philosophy, Contradiction, Course (education), Critical philosophy, Cyril O'Regan, D. Reidel, David Hume, David Strauss, Dialectic, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctorate, Domenico Losurdo, Dorotheenstadt cemetery, Duchy of Württemberg, Dutch Republic, Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium, Edgar Morin, Edmund Husserl, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Empiricism, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Epicurus, Epistemology, Eric Voegelin, Ernst Bloch, Evolution, Existentialism, Externalization, F. H. Bradley, Fall of man, Fascism, First declension, Francis Fukuyama, Frankfurt, Frederick C. Beiser, Frederick William III of Prussia, Free will, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Friedrich Hölderlin, Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, G. E. Moore, Geist, George Kline, German idealism, German philosophy, Ghost, Gillian Rose, Giovanni Gentile, GNU Free Documentation License, God is dead, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gotthard Günther, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Gustav Emil Mueller, György Lukács, Hans Küng, Hegel-Archiv, Hegelianism, Heidelberg University, Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus, Henri de Saint-Simon, Henry Clay Brockmeyer, Heraclitus, Herbert Marcuse, Hermeticism, Historical materialism, Historicism, Historism, History and Class Consciousness, Howard Kainz, Humboldt University of Berlin, Idealism, Identity (philosophy), Immanence, Immanuel Kant, Ineffability, Isaiah Berlin, Italian Fascism, Jacques Derrida, Jakarta, Jakob Böhme, Jakob Friedrich Fries, Jakob Schlesinger, James Black Baillie, James Hutchison Stirling, Jean Hyppolite, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jena, Jesus, Johan Ludvig Heiberg (poet), Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Heinrich Voss, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John McDowell, John Niemeyer Findlay, John Russon, Jon Mills (psychologist), Joseph de Maistre, Josiah Royce, Judith Butler, Kantianism, Karl Barth, Karl Löwith, Karl Ludwig von Haller, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Karl Rosenkranz, Karl von Hegel, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger, Kingdom of Prussia, Knowledge, Kreuzberg, Kuno Fischer, Lawrence Stepelevich, Lectures on Aesthetics, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Lectures on the Philosophy of History, Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Left-wing politics, Leipzig, Leonard Hobhouse, Liberal democracy, Life of Jesus (Hegel), Logic, Logical positivism, Ludwig Boltzmann, Ludwig Feuerbach, Marxism, Marxists Internet Archive, Master of Arts, Master–slave dialectic, Materialism, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Max Stirner, Meister Eckhart, Metaphysics, Mysticism, Nachlass, Napoleon, Naturphilosophie, Neoconservatism, Nous, Nuremberg, Object (philosophy), Objective idealism, OmniScriptum, On the Soul, On War, Ontology, Order of the Red Eagle, Other (philosophy), Otto Pöggeler, Panlogism, Paris, Particular, Peter Singer, Phaedo, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philosophy, Philosophy of history, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of self, Plato, Plotinus, Political consciousness, Political philosophy, Political science, Positive liberty, Prague, Privatdozent, Process theology, Proclus, Protestantism, Prussia, Psychoanalysis, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationality, Raya Dunayevskaya, Reality, Reason, Reason and Revolution, Rechtsstaat, Rector (academia), Reductionism, Reign of Terror, Republic (Plato), Revolutionary, Right Hegelians, Right-wing politics, Robert B. Pippin, Robert Brandom, Robert C. Solomon, Romanticism, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Rudy Rucker, Russian Revolution, Søren Kierkegaard, Science of Logic, Shlomo Avineri, Simone de Beauvoir, Sittlichkeit, Slavoj Žižek, Soul, Sovereign state, Space, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State (polity), Stuttgart, Subject (philosophy), Substance theory, Subtraction, Tübinger Stift, The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy, The End of History and the Last Man, The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism, The Open Society and Its Enemies, The Phenomenology of Spirit, The Secret of Hegel, Theodor W. Adorno, Theology, Thesis, antithesis, synthesis, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Timaeus (dialogue), Time, Transcendence (philosophy), Universal (metaphysics), Universe, Université du Québec, University, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, University of Jena, University of Pittsburgh, University of Tübingen, Vienna, Vienna Circle, Vincent Descombes, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Walter Terence Stace, Würzburg, Weimar, Western Marxism, Western philosophy, Wilfrid Sellars, William Wallace (philosopher), Young Hegelians, Zbigniew Pełczyński, 19th-century philosophy. Expand index (258 more) » « Shrink index
A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Abitur is a qualification granted by university-preparatory schools in Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia.
Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy "chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both German idealist philosophers of the 19th century, Josiah Royce, an American philosopher, and others, but, in its essentials, the product of Hegel".
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Abstract particulars are metaphysical entities which are both abstract objects and particulars.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Aenesidemus is a German book published anonymously by Professor Gottlob Ernst Schulze of Helmstedt in 1792.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexandre Kojève (28 April 1902 – 4 June 1968) was a Russian-born French philosopher and statesman whose philosophical seminars had an immense influence on 20th-century French philosophy, particularly via his integration of Hegelian concepts into twentieth century continental philosophy.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Allen William Wood (born October 26, 1942) is an American philosopher specializing in the work of Immanuel Kant and German Idealism, with particular interests in ethics and social philosophy.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Andy Blunden (born 11 October 1945) is an Australian writer and Marxist philosopher based in Melbourne.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Aufheben or Aufhebung is a German word with several seemingly contradictory meanings, including "to lift up", "to abolish", "cancel" or "suspend", or "to sublate".
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Bernard Bosanquet, FBA (14 June 1848 – 8 February 1923) was a British philosopher and political theorist, and an influential figure on matters of political and social policy in late 19th and early 20th century Britain.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
A species of absolute idealism, British idealism was a philosophical movement that was influential in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Bruno Bauer (6 September 180913 April 1882) was a German philosopher and historian.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology (Méditations cartésiennes: Introduction à la phénoménologie) is a book by the philosopher Edmund Husserl, based on four lectures he gave at the Sorbonne, in the Amphithéatre Descartes on February 23 and 25, 1929.
In Kant's philosophy, a category (Categorie in the original or Kategorie in modern German) is a pure concept of the understanding (Verstand).
Charles Eugene (German: Carl Eugen; 11 February 1728 – 24 October 1793), Duke of Württemberg, was the eldest son, and successor, of Charles Alexander; his mother was Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis.
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian Garve (7 January 1742 – 1 December 1798) was one of the best-known philosophers of the late Enlightenment along with Immanuel Kant and Moses Mendelssohn.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Claude Adrien Helvétius (26 January 1715 – 26 December 1771) was a French philosopher, freemason and littérateur.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
In Protestant usage, a consistory designates certain ruling bodies in various churches.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
In classical logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions.
In higher education in Canada and the United States, a course is a unit of teaching that typically lasts one academic term, is led by one or more instructors (teachers or professors), and has a fixed roster of students.
Attributed to Immanuel Kant, the critical philosophy (kritische Philosophie) movement sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification of knowledge; criticism, for Kant, meant judging as to the possibilities of knowledge before advancing to knowledge itself (from the Greek kritike (techne), or "art of judgment").
Cyril J. O'Regan (born 1952) is an Irish Catholic intellectual and the Catherine F. Huisking Professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Friedrich Strauss (Strauß; January 27, 1808 in Ludwigsburg – February 8, 1874 in Ludwigsburg) was a German liberal Protestant theologian and writer, who influenced Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Domenico Losurdo (14 November 1941 – 28 June 2018) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and historian.
The Dorotheenstadt cemetery, officially the "Cemetery of the Dorotheenstadt and Friedrichswerder Parishes", is a landmarked Protestant burial ground located in the Berlin district of Mitte which dates to the late 18th century.
The Duchy of Württemberg (Herzogtum Württemberg) was a duchy located in the south-western part of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium is a gymnasium in Stuttgart established in 1686.
Edgar Morin (born Edgar Nahoum on 8 July 1921) is a French philosopher and sociologist who has been internationally recognized for his work on complexity and "complex thought" (pensée complexe), and for his scholarly contributions to such diverse fields as media studies, politics, sociology, visual anthropology, ecology, education, and systems biology.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) is a work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published in 1820, though the book's original title page dates it to 1821.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (abbreviated as EPS or simply Encyclopaedia; Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, EPW, translated as Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline) by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (first published in 1817, second edition 1827, third edition 1830), is a work that presents an abbreviated version of Hegel's systematic philosophy in its entirety, and is the only form in which Hegel ever published his entire mature philosophical system.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Eric Voegelin (born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin;; January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a German-born American political philosopher.
Ernst Bloch (July 8, 1885 – August 4, 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
In Freudian psychology, externalization (or externalisation) is an unconscious defense mechanism by which an individual "projects" his or her own internal characteristics onto the outside world, particularly onto other people.
Francis Herbert Bradley OM (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher.
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The first declension is a category of declension that consists of mostly feminine nouns in Latin and Ancient Greek with the defining feature of a long ā (analysed as either a part of the stem or a case-ending).
Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frederick Charles Beiser (born November 27, 1949) is an American author and professor of philosophy at Syracuse University.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (2 July 1724 – 14 March 1803) was a German poet.
Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (20 March 1770 – 7 June 1843) was a German poet and philosopher.
Friedrich Philipp Immanuel Niethammer (6 March 1766 – 1 April 1848), later Ritter von Niethammer, was a German theologian, philosopher and Lutheran educational reformer.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
Geist is a German noun with a degree of importance in German philosophy.
George Louis Kline (March 3, 1921 – October 21, 2014) was a philosopher, translator (esp. of Russian philosophy and poetry), and prominent American specialist in Russian and Soviet philosophy, author of more than 300 publications, including two monographs, six edited or co-edited anthologies, more than 165 published articles, book chapters, and encyclopedia entries, over 55 translations, and 75 reviews.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz through Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers.
In folklore, a ghost (sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith) is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living.
Gillian Rosemary Rose (née Stone; 20 September 1947 – 9 December 1995) was a British scholar who worked in the fields of philosophy and sociology.
Giovanni Gentile (30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician.
The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project.
"God is Dead" (German:; also known as the Death of God) is a widely quoted statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Gotthard Günther (15 June 1900 – 29 November 1984), was a German (Prussian) philosopher.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
Gustav Emil Mueller (May 12, 1898 – July 10, 1987) was a Hegelian scholar and philosopher, who received a doctorate in philosophy in 1923 from the University of Bern.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
Hans Küng (born 19 March 1928) is a Swiss Catholic priest, theologian, and author.
The Hegel Archives (German: Hegel-Archiv) were founded in 1958 in North Rhine-Westphalia to encourage historical-critical efforts to study the collected works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus (3 July 1796, in Pfaffroda – 22 September 1862, in Dresden) was a German philosopher best known for his exegetical work on philosophy, such as his characterisation of Hegel's dialectic ("an sich", "fuer sich", "an sich und fuer sich") positing a triad of "thesis–antithesis–synthesis.".
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessman whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.
Henry Clay Brockmeyer (born August 12, 1826 near Petershagen, Prussia; died St. Louis, Missouri, July 26, 1906) was a German-American poet, philosopher, and politician.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
Historism is a philosophical and historiographical theory, founded in 19th-century Germany (as Historismus) and especially influential in 19th- and 20th-century Europe.
History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics (Geschichte und Klassenbewußtsein – Studien über marxistische Dialektik) is a 1923 book by the Hungarian philosopher György Lukács, in which the author re-emphasizes Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's influence on Karl Marx, analyses the concept of class consciousness, and attempts a philosophical justification of Bolshevism.
Howard P. Kainz (born 1933) is professor emeritus at Marquette University, Milwaukee.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
In philosophy, identity, from ("sameness"), is the relation each thing bears only to itself.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Ineffability is concerned with ideas that cannot or should not be expressed in spoken words (or language in general), often being in the form of a taboo or incomprehensible term.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jakob Böhme (1575 – 17 November 1624) was a German philosopher, Christian mystic, and Lutheran Protestant theologian.
Jakob Friedrich Fries (23 August 1773 – 10 August 1843) was a German post-KantianTerry Pinkard, German Philosophy 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp.
Jakob Schlesinger, also Johann Jakob Schlesinger (born January 13, 1792, in Worms; died May 12, 1855, in Berlin) was a German painter and restorer.
Sir James Black Baillie, (24 October 1872 – 9 June 1940) was a British moral philosopher and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds.
James Hutchison Stirling (22 June 1820 – 19 March 1909) was a Scottish idealist philosopher and physician.
Jean Hyppolite (January 8, 1907 – October 26, 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of France's most prominent post-war thinkers.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johan Ludvig Heiberg (14 December 1791 – 25 August 1860), Danish poet, playwright, literary critic, literary historian son of the political writer Peter Andreas Heiberg (1758–1841), and of the novelist, afterwards the Baroness Gyllembourg-Ehrensvärd, was born in Copenhagen.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
Johann Heinrich Voss (Johann Heinrich Voß,; 20 February 1751 – 29 March 1826) was a German classicist and poet, known mostly for his translation of Homer's Odyssey (1781) and Iliad (1793) into German.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Henry McDowell (born 7 March 1942) is a South African philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh.
John Niemeyer Findlay (25 November 1903 – 27 September 1987), usually cited as J. N. Findlay, was a South African philosopher.
John Russon (born 1960) is a Canadian philosopher, working primarily in the tradition of Continental Philosophy.
Jon Mills is a Canadian philosopher, psychoanalyst, and clinical psychologist.
Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
Josiah Royce (November 20, 1855 – September 14, 1916) was an American objective idealist philosopher.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Karl Barth (–) was a Swiss Reformed theologian who is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century.
Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 – 26 May 1973) was a German philosopher, a student of Husserl and Heidegger.
Karl Ludwig von Haller (1 August 1768 – 20 May 1854) was a Swiss jurist.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz (April 23, 1805 – July 14, 1879) was a German philosopher and pedagogue.
Karl Ritter von Hegel (7 June 1813, in Nuremberg – 5 December 1901, in Erlangen) was a German historian.
Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger (28 November 1780, Schwedt – 20 October 1819, Berlin) was a German philosopher and academic.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Kreuzberg, a part of the combined Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg borough located south of Mitte since 2001, is one of the best-known areas of Berlin, Germany.
Ernst Kuno Berthold Fischer (23 July 1824 – 5 July 1907) was a German philosopher, a historian of philosophy and a critic.
Lawrence S. Stepelevich (born 1930) is an American philosopher associated with a renewed interest in the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, particularly since the fall of the Soviet Union, with less emphasis placed on Marx's interpretations than had previously been the case.
Lectures on Aesthetics (LA; Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik, VÄ) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on aesthetics given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in Heidelberg in 1818 and in Berlin in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29.
Lectures on the History of Philosophy (LHP; Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie, VGPh, delivered 1819, 1820, 1825–6, 1827–8, 1829–30, and 1831) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on the history of philosophy given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (LPH;, VPW), is a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), originally given as lectures at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828, and 1830.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (LPR; Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion, VPR) outlines his ideas on Christianity as a form of self-consciousness.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (8 September 1864 – 21 June 1929) was a British liberal political theorist and sociologist, who has been considered one of the leading and earliest proponents of social liberalism.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Life of Jesus (Das Leben Jesu) is one of the earliest works by G. W. F. Hegel.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher whose greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms (such as mass, charge, and structure) determine the physical properties of matter (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion).
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
The master–slave dialectic is the common name for a famous passage of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, though the original German phrase, Herrschaft und Knechtschaft, is more properly translated as Lordship and Bondage.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.
Eckhart von Hochheim (–), commonly known as Meister Eckhart or Eckehart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia (now central Germany) in the Holy Roman Empire.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Nachlass (older spelling Nachlaß) is a German word, used in academia to describe the collection of manuscripts, notes, correspondence, and so on left behind when a scholar dies.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Naturphilosophie ("philosophy of nature" or "nature-philosophy" in German) is a term used in English-language philosophy to identify a current in the philosophical tradition of German idealism, as applied to the study of nature in the earlier 19th century.
Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
Objective idealism is an idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived.
Omniscriptum Publishing Group, formerly known as VDM Verlag Dr.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
Vom Kriege is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife Marie von Brühl in 1832.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
The Order of the Red Eagle (Roter Adlerorden) was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia.
In phenomenology, the terms the Other and the Constitutive Other identify the other human being, in their differences from the Self, as being a cumulative, constituting factor in the self-image of a person; as their acknowledgement of being real; hence, the Other is dissimilar to and the opposite of the Self, of Us, and of the Same.
Otto Pöggeler (12 December 1928 in Attendorn – 10 December 2014) was a German philosopher.
In philosophy, panlogism is a Hegelian doctrine that holds that the universe is the act or realization of Logos.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
In metaphysics, particulars are defined as concrete, spatiotemporal entities as opposed to abstract entities, such as properties or numbers.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
Phædo or Phaedo (Φαίδων, Phaidōn), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
The philosophy of self defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Following the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx outlined the workings of a political consciousness.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level.
Process theology is a type of theology developed from Alfred North Whitehead's (1861–1947) process philosophy, most notably by Charles Hartshorne (1897–2000) and John B. Cobb (b. 1925).
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Raya Dunayevskaya, born Raya Shpigel (Ра́я Шпи́гель; May 1, 1910 – June 9, 1987), later Rae Spiegel, also known by the pseudonym Freddie Forest, was the American founder of the philosophy of Marxist Humanism in the United States of America.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory is a 1941 book by the philosopher Herbert Marcuse, in which the author discusses the social theories of the philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx.
Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence.
A rector ("ruler", from meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
The Right Hegelians (Rechtshegelianer), Old Hegelians (Althegelianer), or the Hegelian Right (die Hegelsche Rechte), were those followers of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the early 19th century who took his philosophy in a politically and religiously conservative direction.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert Buford Pippin (born September 14, 1948) is an American philosopher.
Robert Boyce Brandom (born March 13, 1950) is an American philosopher who teaches at the University of Pittsburgh.
Robert C. Solomon (September 14, 1942 – January 2, 2007) was an American professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught for more than 30 years.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.
Rudolf von Bitter Rucker (born March 22, 1946) is an American mathematician, computer scientist, science fiction author, and one of the founders of the cyberpunk literary movement.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Science of Logic (SL; Wissenschaft der Logik, WL), first published between 1812 and 1816, is the work in which Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel outlined his vision of logic.
Shlomo Avineri (Hebrew: שלמה אבינרי) (born 1933 in Bielsko, then an ethnic German town, Poland) is an Israeli political scientist.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" or "ethical order" furthered by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in his 1807 work Phenomenology of Spirit and his 1820/21 work Elements of the Philosophy of Right (PR).
Slavoj Žižek (born 21 March 1949) is a Slovenian continental philosopher.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.
The Tübinger Stift is a hall of residence and teaching; it is owned and supported by the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg, and located in the university city of Tübingen, in South West Germany.
The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy (Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie, 1801) was the first major work of Hegel's to break with Schelling.
The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay "The End of History?", published in the international affairs journal The National Interest.
"The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" (Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus) is a 1796/97 essay of unknown authorship.
The Open Society and Its Enemies is a work on political philosophy by the philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author presents a "defence of the open society against its enemies", and offers a critique of theories of teleological historicism, according to which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws.
The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.
The Secret of Hegel: Being the Hegelian System in Origin, Principle, Form and Matter is the full title of an important work on the philosophical system of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) by James Hutchison Stirling (1820-1909), a Scottish idealist philosopher.
Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis (These, Antithese, Synthese; originally: Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis) is often used to describe the thought of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The Université du Québec is a system of ten provincially run public universities in Quebec, Canada.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, FAU) is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany.
Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.
Vincent Descombes (born 1943) is a French philosopher.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
Walter Terence Stace (17 November 1886 – 2 August 1967) was a British civil servant, educator, public philosopher and epistemologist, who wrote on Hegel, mysticism, and moral relativism.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
Western Marxism is Marxist theory arising from Western and Central Europe in the aftermath of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and the ascent of Leninism.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 – July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher and prominent developer of critical realism, who "revolutionized both the content and the method of philosophy in the United States".
William Wallace (11 May 1844 – 18 February 1897) was a Scottish philosopher and academic who became fellow of Merton College and White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at Oxford University.
The Young Hegelians (Junghegelianer), or Left Hegelians (Linkshegelianer), or the Hegelian Left (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.
Zbigniew Pełczyński, OBE (born 29 December 1925) is a Polish-born British political philosopher and academic.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
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