257 relations: A. P. Hill, Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Lincoln, Alabama, Alexandria, Virginia, Allan Nevins, Allan Pinkerton, Ambrose Burnside, American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Anaconda Plan, Andrew Johnson, Antoine-Henri Jomini, Arkansas, Arlington National Cemetery, Army of Northern Virginia, Army of the Potomac, Army of Virginia, Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, Bachelor of Science, Baltimore, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Battle Cry of Freedom (book), Battle of Antietam, Battle of Ball's Bluff, Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, Battle of Cerro Gordo, Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of Chapultepec, Battle of Churubusco, Battle of Contreras, Battle of Drewry's Bluff, Battle of Fredericksburg, Battle of Gaines's Mill, Battle of Glendale, Battle of Malvern Hill, Battle of Monterrey, Battle of Philippi (West Virginia), Battle of Rich Mountain, Battle of Seven Pines, Battle of South Mountain, Battle of Williamsburg, Benito Juárez, Boston Courier, Bowie knife, Brevet (military), Brigadier general (United States), Cadmus M. Wilcox, Calvary Church (Manhattan), Captain (United States O-3), ..., Carl Sandburg, Cascade Range, Cavalry tactics, Centreville, Virginia, Charles O'Conor (American politician), Charles Seaforth Stewart, Chesapeake Bay, Chickahominy River, Clement Vallandigham, Comanche, Commander-in-chief, Commanding General of the United States Army, Confederate States Army, Copperhead (politics), Council of war, Crimean War, CSS Virginia, Dabney H. Maury, David J. Eicher, Defeat in detail, Delaware River, Democratic Party (United States), Dennis Hart Mahan, Department of the Ohio, Dereliction of duty, Dominican Republic, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Dresden, Dysentery, Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Edwin Stanton, Edwin Vose Sumner, Electoral College (United States), Emancipation Proclamation, Equestrian statue, Filibuster (military), Fireboat, First Battle of Bull Run, First lieutenant, First Transcontinental Railroad, Fitz John Porter, Fordham University Press, Fort Delaware, Fort McClellan, Fort Monroe, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Frederick, Maryland, George B. McClellan (fireboat), George B. McClellan Jr., George C. Ludlow, George H. Pendleton, George McClellan (physician), Gettysburg Campaign, Governor of New Jersey, Grafton, West Virginia, Grover Cleveland, Harper's Magazine, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, Henry Halleck, Horatio Seymour, Horse tack, Hussar, Illinois Central Railroad, Investment (military), Ironclad warship, Irvin McDowell, Isaac Stevens, James M. McPherson, James River, Jefferson Davis, John B. Magruder, John C. Breckinridge, John Gibbon, John Pope (military officer), John Tyler, Joseph D. Bedle, Joseph E. Johnston, Jubal Early, Kanawha River, Kingdom of Saxony, Leesburg, Virginia, List of American Civil War generals (Union), List of Governors of New Jersey, List of United States Democratic Party presidential tickets, Lucius Robinson, Major general (United States), Malaria, Manassas, Virginia, Maryland, Maryland Campaign, Mayor of New York City, McClellan Butte, McClellan Gate, McClellan saddle, Mexican–American War, Milbridge, Maine, Mississippi River, Mormons, Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Napoleonic Wars, National Governors Association, National Union Party (United States), New Jersey, New Jersey State Library, New Orleans, New York City Fire Department, New York Herald, New York Post, New York State Department of Public Works, New York State Senate, Nice, Northern Virginia Campaign, Ohio and Mississippi Railway, Orange, New Jersey, Pacific Railroad Surveys, Pamunkey River, Panic of 1857, Peninsula Campaign, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Philadelphia City Hall, Pittsburgh, President of the United States, Prussia, Puget Sound, Quaker gun, Radical Republican, Rail transport, Randolph B. 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Grant, Union (American Civil War), Union Army, Union blockade, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States Army, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Congress Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, United States Constitution, United States House of Representatives, United States Military Academy, United States presidential election, 1860, United States presidential election, 1864, United States presidential election, 1884, United States Secretary of the Treasury, United States Secretary of War, University of California, University of Pennsylvania, Urbanna, Virginia, USS Galena (1862), Utah War, V Corps (Union Army), Virginia, Virginia Peninsula, Volunteer Army, Washington Territory, Washington's Birthday, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wheeling, West Virginia, Whig Party (United States), White House, Virginia, William A. 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Ambrose Powell Hill, Jr. (November 9, 1825April 2, 1865) was a Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 – March 5, 1971) was an American historian and journalist, known for his extensive work on the history of the Civil War and his biographies of such figures as Grover Cleveland, Hamilton Fish, Henry Ford, and John D. Rockefeller, as well as his public service.
Allan J. Pinkerton (25 August 1819 – 1 July 1884) was a Scottish American detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton National Detective Agency.
Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a United States Senator.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Anaconda Plan is the name applied to a U.S. Union Army outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
Antoine-Henri, Baron Jomini (6 March 177924 March 1869) was a Swiss officer who served as a general in the French and later in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the Napoleonic art of war.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Arlington National Cemetery is a United States military cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., in whose the dead of the nation's conflicts have been buried, beginning with the Civil War, as well as reinterred dead from earlier wars.
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War.
The Atlantic and Great Western Railroad began as three separate railroads: the Erie and New York City Railroad based in Jamestown, New York; the Meadville Railroad based in Meadville, Pennsylvania (renamed A&GW in April 1858); and the Franklin and Warren Railroad based in Franklin Mills, Ohio (renamed A&GW in January 1853).
A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier railroad and the oldest railroad in the United States, with its first section opening in 1830.
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era is a Pulitzer Prize-winning work on the American Civil War, published in 1988, by James M. McPherson.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
The Battle of Ball's Bluff in Loudoun County, Virginia on October 21, 1861, was one of the early battles of the American Civil War, where Union Army forces under Major General George B. McClellan, suffered a humiliating defeat.
The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson's Mill, took place on June 26, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as the first major engagement of the Seven Days Battles during the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Cerro Gordo, or Battle of Sierra Gordo, was an engagement that took place during the Mexican–American War on April 18, 1847.
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War (1861–1865), and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign.
The Battle of Chapultepec in September 1847 was a battle between the US Army and US Marine Corps against Mexican forces holding Chapultepec in Mexico City.
The Battle of Churubusco took place on August 20, 1847, while Santa Anna's army was in retreat from the Battle of Contreras (Padierna) during the Mexican–American War.
The Battle of Contreras, also known as the Battle of Padierna, took place on 19–20 August 1847, in the final encounters of the Mexican–American War.
The Battle of Drewry's Bluff, also known as the Battle of Fort Darling, or Fort Drewry, took place on May 15, 1862, in Chesterfield County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Fredericksburg was fought December 11–15, 1862, in and around Fredericksburg, Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Ambrose Burnside, as part of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Gaines's Mill, sometimes known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as the third of the Seven Days Battles (Peninsula Campaign) of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Glendale, also known as the Battle of Frayser's Farm, Frazier's Farm, Nelson's Farm, Charles City Crossroads, New Market Road, or Riddell's Shop, took place on June 30, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, on the sixth day of the Seven Days Battles (Peninsula Campaign) of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter's Farm, was fought on July 1, 1862, between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, led by Gen. Robert E. Lee, and the Union Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan.
In the Battle of Monterrey (September 21–24, 1846) during the Mexican–American War, General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North was defeated by the Army of Occupation, a force of United States Regulars, Volunteers and Texas Rangers under the command of General Zachary Taylor.
The Battle of Philippi formed part of the Western Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War, and was fought in and around Philippi, Virginia (now West Virginia) on June 3, 1861.
The Battle of Rich Mountain took place on July 11, 1861, in Randolph County, Virginia (now West Virginia) as part of the Operations in Western Virginia Campaign during the American Civil War.
The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of South Mountain—known in several early Southern accounts as the Battle of Boonsboro Gap—was fought September 14, 1862, as part of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862, in York County, James City County, and Williamsburg, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
The Boston Courier was an American newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts.
A Bowie knife is a pattern of fixed-blade fighting knife created by James Black in the early 19th century for Jim Bowie, who had become famous for his use of a large knife at a duel known as the Sandbar Fight.
In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox (May 20, 1824 – December 2, 1890) was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican–American War and also was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
Calvary Church is an Episcopal church located at 277 Park Avenue South on the corner of East 21st Street in the Gramercy Park neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, on the border of the Flatiron District.
In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain (abbreviated "CPT" in the USA and "Capt" in the USMC and USAF) is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3.
Carl August Sandburg (January 6, 1878 – July 22, 1967) was a Swedish-American poet, writer, and editor.
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.
For much of history, humans have used some form of cavalry for war and, as a result, cavalry tactics have evolved over time.
Centreville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States and a suburb of Washington, D.C. The population was 71,135 at the 2010 census.
Charles O'Conor (January 22, 1804 – May 12, 1884) was an American lawyer who was notable for his career as a trial advocate, and for his candidacy in the 1872 U.S. presidential election.
Charles Seaforth Stewart (April 11, 1823 – July 22, 1904) was a colonel in the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
The Chickahominy is an U.S. Geological Survey.
Clement Laird Vallandigham (July 29, 1820June 17, 1871) was an Ohio politician and leader of the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats during the American Civil War.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903, there was generally recognized to be a single senior-most officer in the United States Army (and its predecessor the Continental Army), even though there was not a statutory office as such.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
In the 1860s, the Copperheads were a vocal faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War and wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
CSS Virginia was the first steam-powered ironclad warship built by the Confederate States Navy during the first year of the American Civil War; she was constructed as a casemate ironclad using the raised and cut down original lower hull and engines of the scuttled steam frigate.
Dabney Herndon Maury (May 21, 1822 – January 11, 1900) was an officer in the United States Army, instructor at West Point, author of military training books, and a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
David John Eicher (born August 7, 1961) is an American editor, writer, and popularizer of astronomy and space.
Defeat in detail, or divide and conquer, is a military tactic of bringing a large portion of one's own force to bear on small enemy units in sequence, rather than engaging the bulk of the enemy force all at once.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Dennis Hart Mahan (April 2, 1802 – September 16, 1871) was a noted American military theorist, civil engineer and professor at the United States Military Academy at West Point from 1824-1871.
The Department of the Ohio was an administrative military district created by the United States War Department early in the American Civil War to administer the troops in the Northern states near the Ohio River.
Dereliction of duty is a specific offense under United States Code Title 10, Section 892, Article 92 and applies to all branches of the US military.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Doris Helen Kearns Goodwin (born January 4, 1943) is an American biographer, historian, and political commentator.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War consists of the major military and naval operations in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.
Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War.
Edwin Vose Sumner (January 30, 1797 – March 21, 1863) was a career United States Army officer who became a Union Army general and the oldest field commander of any Army Corps on either side during the American Civil War.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".
A filibuster or freebooter, in the context of foreign policy, is someone who engages in an (at least nominally) unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution.
A fireboat is a specialized watercraft with pumps and nozzles designed for fighting shoreline and shipboard fires.
The First Battle of Bull Run (the name used by Union forces), also known as the First Battle of Manassas.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
The First Transcontinental Railroad (also called the Great Transcontinental Railroad, known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.
Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter or Fitz-John Porter) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War.
The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences.
Fort Delaware is a harbor defense facility, designed by chief engineer Joseph Gilbert Totten and located on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River.
Fort McClellan, originally Camp McClellan, was a United States Army post located adjacent to the city of Anniston, Alabama established as Camp Shipp in 1898.
Fort Monroe (also known as the Fort Monroe National Monument) is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia—at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula, United States.
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County.
Frederick is a city in, and the county seat of, Frederick County in the U.S. state of Maryland.
The George B. McClellan was a fireboat operated by the FDNY from 1904 to 1954.
George Brinton McClellan Jr. (November 23, 1865November 30, 1940), was an American politician, statesman, author, historian and educator.
George Craig Ludlow (April 6, 1830 – December 18, 1900) was an American Democratic Party politician, who served as the 25th Governor of New Jersey from 1881 to 1884.
George Hunt Pendleton (July 19, 1825November 24, 1889) was an American politician and lawyer.
George McClellan (December 22, 1796 in Woodstock, Connecticut – May 9, 1847 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a 19th-century American surgeon.
The Gettysburg Campaign was a military invasion of Pennsylvania by the main Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee in summer 1863.
The Governor of the State of New Jersey is head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government.
Grafton is a city in — and the county seat of — Taylor County, West Virginia, USA.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897).
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
Harpers Ferry is a historic town in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States.
Henry Wager Halleck (January 16, 1815 – January 9, 1872) was a United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer.
Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810February 12, 1886) was an American politician.
Tack is a piece of equipment or accessory equipped on horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals.
A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.
The Illinois Central Railroad, sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad in the central United States, with its primary routes connecting Chicago, Illinois, with New Orleans, Louisiana, and Mobile, Alabama.
Investment is the military process of surrounding an enemy fort (or town) with armed forces to prevent entry or escape.
An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.
Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was a career American army officer.
Isaac Ingalls Stevens (March 25, 1818 – September 1, 1862) was the first Governor of Washington Territory, serving from 1853 to 1857.
James M. "Jim" McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis '86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University.
The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia.
Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865.
John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a career military officer who served in the armies of three nations.
John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was an American lawyer, politician, and soldier.
John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career United States Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars.
John Pope (March 16, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.
Joseph Dorsett Bedle, Sr. (January 5, 1831October 21, 1894) was an American Democratic Party politician, who served as the 23rd Governor of New Jersey from 1875 to 1878.
Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career United States Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), and Seminole Wars.
Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who became a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
The Kanawha River is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 97 mi (156 km) long, in the U.S. state of West Virginia.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
Leesburg is a historic town within and the county seat of Loudoun County, Virginia.
The following lists show the names, substantive ranks, and brevet ranks (if applicable) of all general officers who served in the United States Army during the Civil War, in addition to a small selection of lower-ranked officers who received brevets as general officers; while some 1,600 officers received or were nominated for brevets as general officers in the course of the war (or immediately following it for service during the war), only a small selection is listed here; only those who were killed in action, served as department heads within the army, had revoked or incomplete appointments or became U.S. President are listed here.
The Governor of New Jersey is the head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the modern Democratic Party of the United States.
Lucius Robinson (November 4, 1810March 23, 1891) was an American lawyer and politician.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Manassas (formerly Manassas Junction) is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
The Maryland Campaign—or Antietam Campaign—occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of New York City's government.
McClellan Butte is a prominent peak in the Cascade Range in King County, Washington 11 miles east of North Bend.
The McClellan Gate (sometimes known as the McClellan Arch) is a memorial to Major General George B. McClellan located inside Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, in the United States.
The McClellan saddle was a riding saddle designed by George B. McClellan, a career Army officer in the U.S. Army, after his tour of Europe as the member of a military commission charged with studying the latest developments in engineer and cavalry forces including field equipment.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Milbridge is a town in Washington County, Maine, United States at the mouth of the Narraguagus River.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
The Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest in Washington is a National Forest extending more than along the western slopes of the Cascade Range from the Canada–US border to the northern boundary of Mount Rainier National Park.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Governors Association (NGA) is an organization consisting of the governors of the states, territories and commonwealths of the United States.
The National Union Party was the temporary name used by the Republican Party for the national ticket in the 1864 presidential election which was held during the Civil War.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The New Jersey State Library, based in Trenton, New Jersey, was established in 1796 to serve the information needs of New Jersey's Governor, Legislature and courts.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The New York City Fire Department, officially the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY), is a department of the government of New York City that provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services to the five boroughs of New York City.
The New York Herald was a large-distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between May 6, 1835, and 1924 when it merged with the New-York Tribune.
The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.
The office of Superintendent of Public Works was created by an 1876 amendment to the New York State Constitution.
The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Assembly being the lower house.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September 1862 in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Ohio and Mississippi Railway (earlier the Ohio and Mississippi Rail Road), abbreviated O&M, was a railroad operating between Cincinnati, Ohio, and East St. Louis, Illinois, from 1857 to 1893.
The City of Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States.
The Pacific Railroad Surveys (1853–1855) consisted of a series of explorations of the American West to find possible routes for a transcontinental railroad across North America.
The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about long,U.S. Geological Survey.
The Panic of 1857 was a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy.
The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philadelphia City Hall is the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U.S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and part of the Salish Sea.
A Quaker gun is a deception tactic that was commonly used in warfare during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Randolph Barnes Marcy (April 9, 1812 – November 22, 1887) was an officer in the United States Army, chiefly noted for his frontier guidebook, the Prairie Traveler (1859), based on his own extensive experience of pioneering in the west.
The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia, in the United States, approximately in length.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
The Regular Army of the United States succeeded the Continental Army as the country's permanent, professional land-based military force.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Richmond and York River Railroad Company was incorporated under an act of the Virginia General Assembly on January 31, 1853.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
A rifled musket or rifle musket is a type of firearm made in the mid-19th century.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
Riverview Cemetery is a cemetery in the eastern United States, located in Trenton, New Jersey.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
Robert Edward "Rob" Lee Jr. (October 27, 1843 – October 19, 1914) was the youngest of three sons of Confederate General Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Randolph Custis, and the sixth of their seven children.
Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808May 7, 1873) was a U.S. politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States.
Samuel McClellan (4 January 1730 – 17 October 1807) was a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War.
In the Bible, a scapegoat is an animal which is ritually burdened with the sins of others then driven away.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
The Seven Days Battles were a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.
Sharpsburg is a town in Washington County, Maryland, United States, located approximately south of Hagerstown.
The Shenandoah Valley is a geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States.
The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from September 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War.
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican–American War.
Special Order 191 (series 1862) (the "Lost Dispatch," and the "Lost Order") was a general movement order issued by Confederate Army General Robert E. Lee on about September 9, 1862 during the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 – June 3, 1861) was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act.
Stephen Ward Sears (born July 27, 1932) is an American historian specializing in the American Civil War.
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.
Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln is a 2005 book by Pulitzer Prize-winning American historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, published by Simon & Schuster.
Thomas Hart Seymour (September 29, 1807September 3, 1868) was a Democratic politician and lawyer from Connecticut.
Thomas Jefferson University is a private university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County.
There is widespread disagreement among historians about the turning point of the American Civil War.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.
The Union blockade in the American Civil War was a naval strategy by the United States to prevent the Confederacy from trading.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a government panel in Washington during the American Civil War whose most controversial function was to investigate the cause of Union battle losses.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Presidential Election of 1860 was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1864, the 20th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1864.
The United States presidential election of 1884 was the 25th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1884.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Urbanna is a town in Middlesex County, Virginia, United States.
USS Galena was a wooden-hulled broadside ironclad built for the United States Navy during the American Civil War.
The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder,Poll, Richard D., and Ralph W. Hansen.
The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, USA, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay.
The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was an anti-Bolshevik army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920.
The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington.
Washington's Birthday is a United States federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday of February in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States, who was born on February 22, 1732.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Wheeling is a city in Ohio and Marshall counties in the U.S. state of West Virginia.
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States.
White House is an unincorporated community in New Kent County, Virginia, United States, on the south shore of the Pamunkey River.
William Augustus Newell (September 5, 1817August 8, 1901), was an American physician and politician, who was a three-term member of the United States House of Representatives, served as a Republican as the 18th Governor of New Jersey, and as the 11th Governor of the Washington Territory from 1880-1884.
William Dennison Jr.
William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819March 11, 1898) was an American inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer.
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852.
Woodstock is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States.
The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey.
Yorktown is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Virginia, United States.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
The 1864 Democratic National Convention was held at The Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois.
General McClellan, General mcclellan, George B McClellan, George B. McClellan (Southern Victory), George B. McClelland, George B. Mcclellan, George Brinton Macclellan, George Brinton McClellan, George Brinton McClellan, Sr., George MacClellan, George McClellan, George Mcclellan, Little Napoleon, M'Clellan, McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885.