121 relations: Albert Einstein, American Institute of Physics, American Physical Society, Argonne National Laboratory, Arthur Compton, Assistant professor, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Associate professor, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Bachelor of Arts, Bell Labs, Boston, Braxton Craven, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Camp Upton, Charles Edison, Chemistry, Chief of Naval Operations, Colonel (United States), Columbia University, Cornell University, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Science, Duke University, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Eldorado Mining and Refining, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Eugene T. Booth, Eugene Wigner, Francis G. Slack, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fritz Strassmann, G. N. Glasoe, Graphite, Harold Urey, Hendrik Lorentz, Henry DeWolf Smyth, Herbert L. Anderson, Howard Lee McBain, Hugh Stott Taylor, Humboldt University of Berlin, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Italian Racial Laws, James Bryant Conant, James Chadwick, John R. Dunning, John Tyndall, Johns Hopkins University, ..., Joseph Larmor, K-25, Kenneth Nichols, Lee Alvin DuBridge, Leo Szilard, Leslie Groves, Lise Meitner, Long Island, Lyman James Briggs, Major general (United States), Manhattan Project, Mark Oliphant, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Max Born, Max Planck, Mihajlo Pupin, Mineola, New York, MIT Radiation Laboratory, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Defense Research Committee, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron cross section, Neutron moderator, New London, Connecticut, Nicholas Murray Butler, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Physical Review, Physicist, Physics, Piezoelectricity, Princeton University, Pupin Hall, Rear admiral (United States), S-1 Executive Committee, Sigma Xi, Signal Corps (United States Army), Stanford Caldwell Hooper, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, The New York Times, Trinity, North Carolina, U.S. National Geodetic Survey, United Kingdom, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Vannevar Bush, Walter Zinn, Walther Nernst, Wellesley College, Werner Heisenberg, West Newton, Massachusetts, William Hallock, William Howell Pegram, World War I, Yale University. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Assistant professor is an academic rank used in universities or colleges in the United States, Canada, and some other countries.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy (ASN) is the title given to certain civilian senior officials in the United States Department of the Navy.
Associate professor (frequently capitalized as Associate Professor) is an academic title that can have different meanings.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Braxton Craven (August 22, 1822 – November 7, 1882) was an American educator.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Camp Upton was an installation of the United States Army during World War I. During World War II it was used to incarcerate American citizens of Japanese descent.
Charles Edison, (August 3, 1890 – July 31, 1969) was a son of Thomas Edison and Mina Miller Edison.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.
Duke University is a private, non-profit, research university located in Durham, North Carolina.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
The Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited company was originally organized in 1927 as Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to develop a gold mine in Manitoba.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Eugene Theodore Booth, Jr. (28 September 1912 – 6 March 2004) was an American nuclear physicist.
Eugene Paul "E.
Francis Goddard Slack (November 1, 1897 in – February 2, 1985) was an American physicist.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for the discovery of deuterium.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.
Henry DeWolf "Harry" Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and bureaucrat.
Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.
Howard Lee McBain (July 20, 1880 – May 7, 1936) was an American political scientist.
Sir Hugh Stott Taylor KBE FRS (6 February 1890 – 17 April 1974) was an English chemist primarily interested in catalysis.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.
James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
John Ray Dunning (September 24, 1907 – August 25, 1975) was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs.
John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
Sir Joseph Larmor FRS FRSE DCL LLD (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942) was an Irish physicist and mathematician who made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the electron theory of matter.
K-25 was the codename given by the Manhattan Project to the program to produce enriched uranium for atomic bombs using the gaseous diffusion method.
Major General Kenneth David Nichols (13 November 1907 – 21 February 2000), also known by Nick, was an army officer in the United States Army, and a civil engineer who is notable for his classified works in the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb during World War II, as Deputy District Engineer to James C. Marshall, and from 13 August 1943 as the District Engineer of the Manhattan Engineer District.
Lee Alvin DuBridge (1901–1994) was an American educator and physicist, best known as president of the California Institute of Technology ("Caltech") (1946–1969.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
Lyman James Briggs (May 7, 1874 – March 25, 1963) was an American engineer, physicist and administrator.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph.D., LL.D. (Serbian Cyrillic: Михајло Идворски Пупин,; 4 October 1858Although Pupin's birth year is sometimes given as 1854 (and Serbia and Montenegro issued a postage stamp in 2004 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of his birth), peer-reviewed sources list his birth year as 1858. See.
Mineola is a village in Nassau County, Long Island, New York, United States.
The Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave and radar research laboratory located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (US).
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) is the United States Navy's full-spectrum research, development, test and evaluation, engineering and fleet support center for submarines, autonomous underwater systems, and offensive and defensive weapons systems associated with undersea warfare.
Nebraska Wesleyan University (NWU) is a private, coeducational university located in Lincoln, Nebraska, United States.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States.
Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Pupin Physics Laboratories, also known as Pupin Hall is home to the physics and astronomy departments of Columbia University in New York City and a National Historic Landmark.
Rear admiral in the United States refers to two different ranks of commissioned officers — one-star flag officers and two-star flag officers.
The Uranium Committee was a committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that succeeded the Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into the S-1 Section of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941, and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942.
Sigma Xi: The Scientific Research Honor Society (ΣΞ) is a non-profit honor society for scientists and engineers which was founded in 1886 at Cornell University by a junior faculty member and a handful of graduate students.
The United States Army Signal Corps (USASC) develops, tests, provides, and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces.
Stanford Caldwell Hooper (August 16, 1884 – April 6, 1955) was a Rear Admiral of the United States Navy, and a noted radio pioneer who has been called "the Father of Naval Radio".
Swarthmore is a borough in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon & Schuster in 1987.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Trinity is a city in Randolph County, North Carolina, United States.
The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly the United States Survey of the Coast (1807–1836), United States Coast Survey (1836–1878), and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) (1878–1970), is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science and engineering.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Walter Henry Zinn (December 10, 1906 – February 14, 2000) was a nuclear physicist who was the first director of the Argonne National Laboratory from 1946 to 1956.
Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Wellesley College is a private women's liberal arts college located west of Boston in the town of Wellesley, Massachusetts, United States.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
West Newton is a village of the City of Newton, Massachusetts and is one of the oldest of the thirteen Newton villages.
William Hallock, Ph.
William Howell Pegram (August 18, 1846 – April 30, 1928) was a U.S. chemist and educator.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.