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George David Birkhoff

Index George David Birkhoff

George David Birkhoff (March 21, 1884 – November 12, 1944) was an American mathematician best known for what is now called the ergodic theorem. [1]

85 relations: Albert Einstein, Algebraic graph theory, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Mathematical Society, American Philosophical Society, Antisemitism, Bôcher Memorial Prize, Bernard Koopman, Birkhoff factorization, Birkhoff interpolation, Birkhoff's axioms, Birkhoff's theorem, Birkhoff–Grothendieck theorem, Black hole, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Charles B. Morrey Jr., Chromatic polynomial, Clarence Raymond Adams, David Widder, Differential equation, Doctor of Philosophy, E. H. Moore, Einstein field equations, Equidistribution theorem, Ergodic hypothesis, Ergodic theory, Euclidean geometry, Four color theorem, French Academy of Sciences, Functional analysis, Garrett Birkhoff, George D. Birkhoff House, George David Birkhoff Prize, Gian-Carlo Rota, Griffith Baley Price, Group (mathematics), Harvard University, Harvard University Press, Hassler Whitney, Henri Poincaré, Isador M. Sheffer, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Joseph L. Walsh, Kenneth P. Williams, Kip Thorne, Marshall Harvey Stone, Marston Morse, Mathematics, ..., Mathematics and art, Measure (mathematics), National Academies Press, National Academy of Sciences, National Historic Landmark, Newcomb Cleveland Prize, Norbert Wiener, Number theory, Oswald Veblen, Overisel Township, Michigan, Perfect fluid, Physics, Poincaré–Birkhoff theorem, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Princeton University, Probability theory, Radcliffe College, Raymond Woodard Brink, Riemann–Hilbert problem, Robert Daniel Carmichael, Rudolf Ernest Langer, Saunders Mac Lane, Schwarzschild metric, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Speed of light, Speed of sound, Springer Publishing, Stanislaw Ulam, Statistical mechanics, Three-body problem, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, United States, University of Chicago, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Yale University. Expand index (35 more) »

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Algebraic graph theory

Algebraic graph theory is a branch of mathematics in which algebraic methods are applied to problems about graphs.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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American Mathematical Society

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.

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American Philosophical Society

The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Bôcher Memorial Prize

The Bôcher Memorial Prize was founded by the American Mathematical Society in 1923 in memory of Maxime Bôcher with an initial endowment of $1,450 (contributed by members of that society).

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Bernard Koopman

Bernard Osgood Koopman (1900 – August 18, 1981) was a French-born American mathematician, known for his work in ergodic theory, the foundations of probability, statistical theory and operations research.

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Birkhoff factorization

In mathematics, Birkhoff factorization or Birkhoff decomposition, introduced by, is the factorization of an invertible matrix M with coefficients that are Laurent polynomials in z into a product M.

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Birkhoff interpolation

In mathematics, Birkhoff interpolation is an extension of polynomial interpolation.

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Birkhoff's axioms

In 1932, G. D. Birkhoff created a set of four postulates of Euclidean geometry in the plane, sometimes referred to as Birkhoff's axioms.

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Birkhoff's theorem

Birkhoff's theorem may refer to several theorems named for the American mathematician George David Birkhoff.

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Birkhoff–Grothendieck theorem

In mathematics, the Birkhoff–Grothendieck theorem classifies holomorphic vector bundles over the complex projective line.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society

The Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society is a quarterly mathematical journal published by the American Mathematical Society.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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Charles B. Morrey Jr.

Charles Bradfield Morrey Jr. (23 July 1907 – 29 April 1984) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the calculus of variations and the theory of partial differential equations.

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Chromatic polynomial

The chromatic polynomial is a graph polynomial studied in algebraic graph theory, a branch of mathematics.

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Clarence Raymond Adams

Clarence Raymond Adams (April 10, 1898 – October 15, 1965) was an American mathematician who worked on partial difference equations.

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David Widder

David Vernon Widder (25 March 1898 – 8 July 1990) was an American mathematician.

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Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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E. H. Moore

Eliakim Hastings Moore (January 26, 1862 – December 30, 1932), usually cited as E. H. Moore or E. Hastings Moore, was an American mathematician.

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Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

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Equidistribution theorem

In mathematics, the equidistribution theorem is the statement that the sequence is uniformly distributed on the circle \mathbb/\mathbb, when a is an irrational number.

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Ergodic hypothesis

In physics and thermodynamics, the ergodic hypothesis says that, over long periods of time, the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proportional to the volume of this region, i.e., that all accessible microstates are equiprobable over a long period of time.

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Ergodic theory

Ergodic theory (Greek: έργον ergon "work", όδος hodos "way") is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems.

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Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

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Four color theorem

In mathematics, the four color theorem, or the four color map theorem, states that, given any separation of a plane into contiguous regions, producing a figure called a map, no more than four colors are required to color the regions of the map so that no two adjacent regions have the same color.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

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Garrett Birkhoff

Garrett Birkhoff (January 19, 1911 – November 22, 1996) was an American mathematician.

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George D. Birkhoff House

The George D. Birkhoff House is a historic house located at 22 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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George David Birkhoff Prize

The George David Birkhoff Prize in applied mathematics is awarded – jointly by the American Mathematical Society (AMS) and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) – in honour of George David Birkhoff (1884–1944).

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Gian-Carlo Rota

Gian-Carlo Rota (April 27, 1932 – April 18, 1999) was an Italian-born American mathematician and philosopher.

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Griffith Baley Price

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Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hassler Whitney

Hassler Whitney (March 23, 1907 – May 10, 1989) was an American mathematician.

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Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

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Isador M. Sheffer

Isador Mitchell Sheffer (October 15, 1901–April 20, 1992) was an American mathematician best known for the Sheffer sequence of polynomials.

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Ivor Grattan-Guinness

Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and logic.

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Joseph L. Walsh

Joseph Leonard "Joe" Walsh (September 21, 1895 – December 6, 1973) was an American mathematician who worked mainly in the field of analysis.

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Kenneth P. Williams

Kenneth Powers Williams (August 25, 1887 in Urbana, Ohio – September 25, 1958) was a professor of mathematics at Indiana University, and a ROTC commander.

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Kip Thorne

Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics.

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Marshall Harvey Stone

Marshall Harvey Stone (April 8, 1903 – January 9, 1989) was an American mathematician who contributed to real analysis, functional analysis, topology and the study of Boolean algebras.

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Marston Morse

Harold Calvin Marston Morse (March 24, 1892 – June 22, 1977) was an American mathematician best known for his work on the calculus of variations in the large, a subject where he introduced the technique of differential topology now known as Morse theory.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mathematics and art

Mathematics and art are related in a variety of ways.

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Measure (mathematics)

In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.

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National Academies Press

The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Historic Landmark

A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.

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Newcomb Cleveland Prize

The Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is annually awarded to author(s) of outstanding scientific paper published in the Research Articles or Reports sections of Science.

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Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.

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Number theory

Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

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Oswald Veblen

Oswald Veblen (June 24, 1880 – August 10, 1960) was an American mathematician, geometer and topologist, whose work found application in atomic physics and the theory of relativity.

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Overisel Township, Michigan

Overisel Township is a civil township of Allegan County in the U.S. state of Michigan.

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Perfect fluid

In physics, a perfect fluid is a fluid that can be completely characterized by its rest frame mass density \rho_m; and isotropic pressure p. Real fluids are "sticky" and contain (and conduct) heat.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Poincaré–Birkhoff theorem

In symplectic topology and dynamical systems, Poincaré–Birkhoff theorem (also known as Poincaré–Birkhoff fixed point theorem and Poincaré's last geometric theorem) states that every area-preserving, orientation-preserving homeomorphism of an annulus that rotates the two boundaries in opposite directions has at least two fixed points.

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Pontifical Academy of Sciences

The Pontifical Academy of Sciences (Pontificia accademia delle scienze, Pontificia Academia Scientiarum) is a scientific academy of the Vatican City, established in 1936 by Pope Pius XI, and thriving with the blessing of the Papacy ever since.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

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Radcliffe College

Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as a female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College.

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Raymond Woodard Brink

Raymond Woodard Brink (4 January 1890 in Newark, New Jersey – 27 December 1973 in La Jolla, California) was an American mathematician.

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Riemann–Hilbert problem

In mathematics, Riemann–Hilbert problems, named after Bernhard Riemann and David Hilbert, are a class of problems that arise in the study of differential equations in the complex plane.

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Robert Daniel Carmichael

Robert Daniel Carmichael (March 1, 1879 – May 2, 1967) was an American mathematician.

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Rudolf Ernest Langer

Rudolf Ernest Langer (8 March 1894 – 11 March 1968) was an American mathematician, known for the Langer correction and as a president of the Mathematical Association of America.

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Saunders Mac Lane

Saunders Mac Lane (4 August 1909 – 14 April 2005) was an American mathematician who co-founded category theory with Samuel Eilenberg.

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Schwarzschild metric

In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.

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Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) is an academic association dedicated to the use of mathematics in industry.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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Springer Publishing

Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).

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Stanislaw Ulam

Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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Three-body problem

In physics and classical mechanics, the three-body problem is the problem of taking an initial set of data that specifies the positions, masses, and velocities of three bodies for some particular point in time and then determining the motions of the three bodies, in accordance with Newton's laws of motion and of universal gravitation, which are the laws of classical mechanics.

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Transactions of the American Mathematical Society

The Transactions of the American Mathematical Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of mathematics published by the American Mathematical Society.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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G. D. Birkhoff, G.D. Birkhoff, George Birkhoff, George D. Birkhoff, Theory of aesthetic value.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_David_Birkhoff

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