309 relations: Acts of Union 1800, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Alan Bennett, Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Alison Weir, Allan Ramsay (artist), American Enlightenment, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Anne, Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn, Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom, Antonia Fraser, Arch-Treasurer, Argent, Arsenic, Assassination of Spencer Perceval, Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, Azure (heraldry), Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse, Bannister Truelock, Battle of Camden, Battle of Guilford Court House, Battle of Trafalgar, Battle of Waterloo, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Battles of Saratoga, Bishop of Oxford, Boston Harbor, Boston Tea Party, Braunschweig, British Agricultural Revolution, British Emperor, British general election, 1768, British general election, 1784, Buckingham Palace, Canaletto, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Caroline of Ansbach, Caroline of Brunswick, Cataract, Catholic Church in the United Kingdom, Cato, a Tragedy, Cecilia Underwood, 1st Duchess of Inverness, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chapel Royal, Charlemagne, Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, ..., Charles Grant Robertson, Charles James Fox, Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Charles, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlotte, Princess Royal, Cheltenham, Christopher Hibbert, Church of England, Civil list, Coat of arms of Ireland, Congress of Vienna, Constantine II of Greece, Crown Estate, Crown land, Cultural depictions of George III of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, Dementia, Division of the field, Dorothea Jordan, Dowager, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duke of Edinburgh, Dutch Republic, Earl of Chatham, Early modern France, East India Company, Edward III of England, Edward Walpole, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elizabeth II, English claims to the French throne, Enlightenment in Spain, Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha, Erskine May, Explanatory Charter, Felipe VI of Spain, Fidei defensor, First French Empire, Fleur-de-lis, Fox–North coalition, Francis Willis (physician), Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Frederick I of Sweden, Frederick I of Württemberg, Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Frederick North, Lord North, Frederick VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Frederick, Prince of Wales, French Consulate, French First Republic, French Revolution, George Grenville, George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George IV of the United Kingdom, George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Gordon Riots, Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, Gules, Habeas corpus, Hannah Lightfoot, Harald V of Norway, Heir apparent, Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos, Henry Luttrell, 2nd Earl of Carhampton, Herbert Butterfield, History of New York City (1665–1783), Holy Roman Empire, Horace Walpole, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Hanover, House of Lords, House of Welf, Hyde Park, London, Impalement (heraldry), Industrial Revolution, Intolerable Acts, James Hadfield, Jeremy Black (historian), Johannes Vermeer, Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein (1632–1701), John Adams, John Brooke (British historian), John Burgoyne, John C. 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The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia;; 13 August 1792 – 2 December 1849) was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover as spouse of William IV of the United Kingdom.
Alan Bennett (born 9 May 1934) is an English playwright, screenwriter, actor and author.
Albert II or V of Brandenburg-Ansbach (18 September 1620 – 22 October 1667) was a German prince, who was Margrave of Ansbach from 1634 until his death.
Alison Weir (born 8 July 1951) is a British writer of history books, and latterly historical novels, mostly in the form of biographies about British royalty.
Allan Ramsay (13 October 171310 August 1784) was a prominent Scottish portrait-painter.
The American Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the 17th to 18th century, which led to the American Revolution, and the creation of the American Republic.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Schwerin, 1 July 1627 – Halle, 11 December 1669) was a German noblewoman, a member of the House of Mecklenburg and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels.
Anne, Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn (née Anne Luttrell, later Horton; 24 January 1743 – 28 December 1808) was a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn.
Institutional Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom has its origins in the English and Irish Reformations under King Henry VIII and the Scottish Reformation led by John Knox.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, (née Pakenham; born 27 August 1932) is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
An Arch-Treasurer is a chief treasurer, specifically the great treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Spencer Perceval, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was shot and killed in the lobby of the House of Commons in London, at about 5:15 pm on Monday 11 May 1812.
Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, (28 September 173514 March 1811), styled Earl of Euston between 1747 and 1757, was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era.
Augustus of Saxe-Weissenfels (Dresden, 13 August 1614 – 4 June 1680, Halle), was a Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt of the House of Wettin and administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
Éléonore Marie Desmier d'Olbreuse (3 January 1639 – 5 February 1722) was the wife of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Bannister Truelock conspired to assassinate George III of the United Kingdom in 1800 along with James Hadfield.
The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence).
The Battle of Guilford Court House was a battle fought on March 15, 1781, at a site which is now in Greensboro, the county seat of Guilford County, North Carolina, during the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.
Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.
The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.
Although in the past the style of British Emperor has been (retroactively) applied to a few mythical and historical rulers of Great Britain, Ireland or the United Kingdom, it is sometimes used as a colloquialism to designate either Plantagenet and Tudor caesaropapism or, more frequently, the British sovereign during the period of the Raj.
The 1768 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 13th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.
The 1784 British general election resulted in William Pitt the Younger securing an overall majority of about 120 in the House of Commons of Great Britain, having previously had to survive in a House which was dominated by his opponents.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was Queen consort of Great Britain as the wife of King George II.
Caroline of Brunswick (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was Queen of the United Kingdom by marriage to King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
The Catholic Church in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in communion with the Pope.
Cato, a Tragedy is a play written by Joseph Addison in 1712, and first performed on 14 April 1713.
Cecilia Underwood, 1st Duchess of Inverness (born Lady Cecilia Letitia Gore; – 1 August 1873) was the second wife of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, sixth son of King George III.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
In both the United Kingdom and Canada, a Chapel Royal refers not to a building but to a distinct body of priests and singers who explicitly serve the spiritual needs of the sovereign.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, FRS (29 September 1699 – 24 April 1751) was a British nobleman and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Sir Charles Grant Robertson (1869 – 29 February 1948) was a British academic historian.
Charles James Fox (24 January 1749 – 13 September 1806), styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger.
Field Marshal Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 3rd Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Aubigny, (22 February 1735 – 29 December 1806), styled Earl of March until 1750, was a British Army officer and politician.
Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon.
Charles William, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (German: Karl Wilhelm, 16 October 1652, in Zerbst – 3 November 1718, in Zerbst), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was a British queen consort and wife of King George III.
Charlotte, Princess Royal (Charlotte Augusta Matilda; 29 September 1766 – 5 October 1828), was Queen of Württemberg as the wife of King Frederick I. She was the first daughter and fourth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and his wife Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Cheltenham, also known as Cheltenham Spa, is a regency spa town and borough which is located on the edge of the Cotswolds, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Gloucestershire, England.
Christopher Hibbert (born Arthur Raymond Hibbert) MC (5 March 1924 – 21 December 2008), was an English author, historian and biographer.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantine II (Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II,; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "Sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
George III of the United Kingdom has featured in many examples of popular culture.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
In heraldry, the field (background) of a shield can be divided into more than one area, or subdivision, of different tinctures, usually following the lines of one of the ordinaries and carrying its name (e.g. a shield divided in the shape of a chevron is said to be parted "per chevron").
Dorothea Jordan (22 November 17615 July 1816) also known as Mrs Jordan, was an Anglo-Irish actress, courtesan, and the mistress and companion of the future King William IV of the United Kingdom, for 20 years while he was Duke of Clarence.
A dowager is a widow who holds a title or property—a "dower"—derived from her deceased husband.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a substantive title that has been created three times for members of the British royal family since 1726.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Earl of Chatham, in the County of Kent, was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Sir Edward Walpole KB PC (Ire) (1706 – 12 January 1784) was a British politician, and a younger son of Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698), was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851) was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death.
Ernest I, called "Ernest The Pious" (Altenburg, Duchy of Saxe-Weimar 25 December 1601 – Schloss Friedenstein, Gotha, 26 March 1675), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Altenburg.
Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough, (8 February 1815 – 17 May 1886) was a British constitutional theorist.
The Explanatory Charter was a supplement to the royal charter of the Province of Massachusetts Bay issued by King George I on August 26, 1725.
Felipe VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
The Fox–North coalition was a government in Great Britain that held office during 1783.
Francis Willis (17 August 1718 – 5 December 1807) was a Lincolnshire physician and clergyman, famous for his treatment of George III.
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (full name: Friederike Louise Caroline Sophie Charlotte Alexandrine) (3 March 1778 – 29 June 1841) was a German princess who became, by marriage, princess of Prussia, princess of Solms-Braunfels, Duchess of Cumberland in Britain and Queen of Hanover (in Germany) as the consort of Ernest Augustus I of Hanover (the fifth son and eighth child of King George III).
Frederick I (Fredrik I; 28 April 1676 – 5 April 1751) was prince consort of Sweden from 1718 to 1720, and King of Sweden from 1720 until his death and (as Frederick I) also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730.
Frederick I (Friedrich Wilhelm Karl; 6 November 1754 – 30 October 1816) was the last Duke of Würtemberg, then briefly Elector of Württemberg, and was later elevated to the status of King of Württemberg, by Napoleon I. He was known for his size: at and about.
Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (15 July 1646 Gotha, Duchy of Saxe-Gotha – 2 August 1691 Friedrichswerth), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (28 July 1676, in Gotha – 23 March 1732, in Altenburg), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (14 April 1699 in Gotha – 10 March 1772 in Gotha), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790 was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.
Frederick VI (30 July 1769 – 2 April 1829) reigned as Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1820 until his death in 1829.
Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death.
Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (May 10, 1711 in Weferlingen – February 26, 1763 in Bayreuth), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG (1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham, (17 June 1753 – 11 February 1813), known as The 3rd Earl Temple between 1779 and 1784, was a British statesman.
George William Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Gordon Riots of 1780 was a massive anti-Catholic protest in London against the Papists Act of 1778, which was intended to reduce official discrimination against British Catholics.
Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford PC (4 August 1721 – 26 October 1803), known as Viscount Trentham from 1746 to 1754 and as The Earl Gower from 1754 to 1786, was a British politician from the Leveson-Gower family.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Hannah Lightfoot (12 October 1730 – before December 1759) the 'Fair Quaker' who is said to have been the first wife of George III of the United Kingdom.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, (30 May 1757 – 15 February 1844) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister from 1801 to 1804.
Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos, KB (17 January 1708 – 28 November 1771), known from 1727 to 1744 by the courtesy title Marquess of Carnarvon, was the second son of the 1st Duke of Chandos and his first wife Mary Lake.
General Henry Lawes Luttrell, 2nd Earl of Carhampton PC (7 August 1743 – 25 April 1821) was a politician and soldier.
Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.
The history of New York City (1665–1783) began with the establishment of English rule over Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London.
In heraldry, impalement is a form of heraldic combination or marshalling of two coats of arms side by side in one divided heraldic shield or escutcheon to denote a union, most often that of a husband and wife (and in certain cases, same-sex married couples), but also for unions of ecclesiastical, academic/civic and mystical natures.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
James Hadfield or Hatfield (1771/1772 – 23 January 1841) attempted to assassinate George III of the United Kingdom in 1800 but was acquitted of attempted murder by reason of insanity.
Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.
Johannes Vermeer (October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life.
Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein (27 August 1632 – 28 September 1701), was Sovereign Countess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen from 1648 to 1701.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Brooke (born 4 May 1920) is a British historian.
General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, dramatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792.
John C. G. Röhl (born 31 May 1938) is a British historian.
John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (18 October 1654 – 22 March 1686) succeeded his father Albert II as margrave of Ansbach in 1667.
John Frith (b. c. 1760 - fl. 1791) was an Englishman who believed himself to be St Paul.
Johann Georg I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (Weimar, 12 July 1634 – hunting accident, Eckhartshausen, Marksuhl, 19 September 1686).
John Steven Watson FRSE (20 March 1916 Hebburn-on-Tyne, Co. Durham – 12 June 1986 London) was an English historian who served as Principal of the University of St Andrews from 1966-86.
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, (25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792) was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762–1763) under George III.
John VI of Anhalt-Zerbst (Zerbst, 24 March 1621 – Zerbst, 4 July 1667), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
John Wilkes (17 October 1725 – 26 December 1797) was an English radical, journalist, and politician.
Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kew Palace is a British royal palace in Kew Gardens on the banks of the Thames up river from London.
The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
The King's Library was one of the most important collections of books and pamphlets of the Age of Enlightenment.
The King's Observatory (called for many years the Kew Observatory) is a Grade I listed building in Richmond, London.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung.
Lady Augusta Murray (27 January 1768 – 5 March 1830) was the first wife of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of George III.
Lady Sarah Lennox (14 February 1745 – August 1826) was the most notorious of the famous Lennox Sisters, daughters of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond.
Lavinia Jannetta Horton Ryves, née Lavinia Serres (16 March 1797 – 7 December 1871), was a British woman claiming to be a member of the British royal family, calling herself "Princess Lavinia of Cumberland".
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg,, Low German Lümborg, Latin Luneburgum or Lunaburgum, Old High German Luneburc, Old Saxon Hliuni, Polabian Glain), also called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony.
Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London, England.
Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (27 June 1888 – 19 August 1960) was a British historian of Polish-Jewish background.
The United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (known formally in the United Kingdom as Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St James's) is the official representative of the President and the Government of the United States of America to the Queen and Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
This is a list of British monarchs by longevity since the Union of the Crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1603.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a list of monarchs who have been described as mentally ill in some way by historians past or present.
The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801), the Kingdom of England (871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542).
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in southwest London, England, forms part of Outer London and is the only London borough on both sides of the River Thames.
Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels (2 September 1648 – 7 January 1681) was a German noblewoman.
Margaret Nicholson (c. 1750 – 14 May 1828) was an Englishwoman who assaulted King George III in 1786.
Margrethe II (Margrethe 2.,; Margreta 2.; Margrethe II; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark; as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence.
Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (née Maria Walpole; 10 July 1736 – 22 August 1807) was Countess Waldegrave from 1759 to 1766 as the wife of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave, and a member of the British royal family from 1766 as the wife of Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh.
The Massachusetts Government Act (14 Geo. 3 c. 45) was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, receiving royal assent on 20 May 1774.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Middlesex is a former constituency.
The Ministry of "All the Talents" was a national unity government formed by Lord Grenville on his appointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 11 February 1806, following the death of William Pitt the Younger.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Sir Nicholas Robert Hytner (born 7 May 1956) is an English theatre director, film director, and film producer.
Sir Nigel Barnard Hawthorne (5 April 1929 – 26 December 2001) was an English actor.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
Norfolk House, at 31 St James's Square, Westminster, was built in 1722 for Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775 in a final attempt to avoid a full-on war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America.
Olivia Serres (3 April 1772 – 21 November 1834), known as Olive, was a British painter and writer, born at Warwick.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke (1 December 16906 March 1764) was an English lawyer and politician who served as Lord Chancellor.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
The Port of Boston, (AMS Seaport Code: 0401, UN/LOCODE: US BOS), is a major seaport located in Boston Harbor and adjacent to the City of Boston.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, (Adolphus Frederick; 24 February 1774 – 8 July 1850) was the tenth child and seventh son of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Alfred (22 September 1780 – 20 August 1782) was a member of the British Royal Family as the fourteenth child and ninth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843) was the sixth son and ninth child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.
Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, (Edward Augustus;In The London Gazette, the Prince is called simply 'Prince Edward' 25 March 1739 – 17 September 1767) was the younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom and the second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (Henry Frederick;He is called simply "(His Royal Highness) Prince Henry" in the London Gazette;;; 7 November 1745 – 18 September 1790) was the sixth child and fourth son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III.
Prince Octavius (23 February 1779 – 3 May 1783) was the thirteenth child and eighth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (15 January 1776 – 30 November 1834) was a great-grandson of King George II and nephew and son-in-law of King George III of the United Kingdom.
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, (William Henry; 25 November 1743 – 25 August 1805), was a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of King George III of the United Kingdom.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom (7 August 1783 – 2 November 1810) was the fifteenth child and sixth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his wife Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel; 25 July 1797 – 6 April 1889) was the wife of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the tenth-born child, and seventh son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (30 November 1719 – 8 February 1772) was Princess of Wales by marriage to Frederick, Prince of Wales.
Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom (8 November 1768 – 22 September 1840) was the sixth child and second daughter of King George III and Queen Charlotte.
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (7 January 1796 – 6 November 1817) was the only child of the British king George IV, who was still Prince of Wales during her lifetime, and Caroline of Brunswick.
Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe Louise of Saxe-Eisenach (13 April 1662 – 9 September 1696), was a German princess member of the House of Wettin and through her two marriages was Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach (from 1681 to 1686) and Electress of Saxony (from 1692 to 1694).
Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg (Halle, 10 October 1619 – Gotha, 20 December 1680), was a princess of Saxe-Altenburg and, by marriage, duchess of Saxe-Gotha.
Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom (22 May 1770 – 10 January 1840) was the seventh child and third daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia (Friederike Charlotte Ulrike Katharina; 7 May 1767 – 6 August 1820) was a Prussian and British princess.
Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (13 October 1679 – 11 October 1740) was, by birth, a Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst and, by marriage, a Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (25 April 1776 – 30 April 1857) was the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom (Sophia Matilda; 3 November 1777 – 27 May 1848) was the twelfth child and fifth daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Sophie Karoline Marie; 7 October 1737 – 22 December 1817) was Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), later Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, was a German princess and the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The Proclamation of Rebellion, officially titled A Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition, was the response of George III of Great Britain to the news of the Battle of Bunker Hill at the outset of the American Revolutionary War.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
Richard Hurd (13 January 1720 – 28 May 1808) was an English divine and writer, and bishop of Worcester.
The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of citizens of England.
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, (7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828) was a British statesman and Prime Minister (1812–27).
Richard Romney Sedgwick (29 May 1894 – 20 January 1972) was a British historian, civil servant and diplomat.
The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British Royal Family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British high command for North America to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War.
The Saxon Steed (Sachsenross, Niedersachsenross, Welfenross, Westfalenpferd;; Low Saxon: Witte Peerd) is a heraldic motif associated with Lower Saxony and Westphalia.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
Sedition and seditious libel were criminal offences under English common law, and are still criminal offences in Canada.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Siege of Charleston was a major engagement fought between March 29 to May 12, 1780 during the American Revolutionary War.
The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
Sir George Otto Trevelyan, 2nd Baronet, (20 July 1838 – 17 August 1928) was a British statesman and author.
Sophia Dorothea of Celle (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the repudiated wife of future King George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II.
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (– 28 June 1757) was a Queen consort in Prussia as spouse of Frederick William I.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels (also: Sophie; 23 June 1654 in Halle an der Saale – 31 March 1724 in Zerbst) was a member of the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin, and a princess of Saxe-Weissenfels and Querfurt by birth and by marriage Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp (5 December 1630 in Gottorp – 12 December 1680 in Coswig) was regent of Anhalt-Zerbst in during the minority of her son from 1667 until 1674.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's lower chamber of Parliament.
Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1809 until his assassination in May 1812.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
St James's Church, Piccadilly, also known as St James's Church, Westminster, and St James-in-the-Fields, is an Anglican church on Piccadilly in the centre of London, United Kingdom.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
St James's Square is the only square in the exclusive St James's district of the City of Westminster.
The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
Stamp duty is a tax that is levied on documents.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The Madness of George III is a 1991 play by Alan Bennett.
The Madness of King George is a 1994 British biographical historical comedy-drama film directed by Nicholas Hytner and adapted by Alan Bennett from his own play, The Madness of George III.
The Music Lesson or Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman by Johannes Vermeer, is a painting of young female pupil receiving the titular music lesson.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The North Briton was a radical newspaper published in 18th century London.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, commonly known as Drury Lane, is a West End theatre and Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, London, England.
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century.
Thomas Secker (21 September 1693 – 3 August 1768) was the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England.
Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath KG PC (13 September 1734 – November 1796) was a British politician who held office under George III serving as Southern Secretary, Northern Secretary and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The 1807 United Kingdom general election was the third general election to be held after the Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Weymouth is a seaside town in Dorset, England, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Berry (1774–1851) was an English genealogist.
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, (14 April 1738 – 30 October 1809) was a British Whig and Tory politician of the late Georgian era.
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, (25 October 1759 – 12 January 1834) was a British Whig statesman.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne, (2 May 1737 – 7 May 1805), known as The Earl of Shelburne between 1761 and 1784, by which title he is generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister in 1782–83 during the final months of the American War of Independence.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
William Herschel's 40-foot telescope, also known as the Great Forty-Foot telescope, was a reflecting telescope constructed between 1785 and 1789 at Observatory House in Slough, England.
Farmer George, Geo. 3, George III, George III "the Mad" of the United Kingdom, George III Guelph, George III of Britain, George III of Corsica, George III of England, George III of Great Britain, George III of Great Britain and Hanover, George III of Great Britain and Ireland, George III of Hanover, George III of Scotland, George III of the UK, George III of the Untied Kingdom, George III, King of Great Britain, George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland, George III, King of the United Kingdom, George Iii, George William Frederick, George iii, George iii of the united kingdom, George the Third, His Majesty King George III, King George 3, King George 3 of the United Kingdom, King George III, King George III of Great Britain, King George III of the United Kingdom, King george the 3rd, List of titles and honours of King George III, Mad King George.