209 relations: A. L. Rowse, Absolute monarchy, Act of Security 1704, Act of Settlement 1701, Acts of Union 1707, Age of Enlightenment, Agostino Steffani, Ahlden House, Albert Wolfgang, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt, Anne of Denmark, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Antonia Fraser, Argent, Artillery, Attitude (heraldry), Azure (heraldry), Baltic Sea, Baptism, Battle of Glen Shiel, Battle of Vienna, BBC Worldwide, Bombing of Hanover in World War II, Bremen-Verden, British general election, 1715, British royal family, Bubble Act, Cabinet (government), Caroline of Ansbach, Celle, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charlemagne, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charles II of Spain, Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, Charles Stanhope (1673–1760), Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charlotte of Bourbon, Christian III of Denmark, Coat of arms of Ireland, Coat of arms of Lower Saxony, Coronation riots, Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau, Delden, Division of the field, Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ..., Dutch Republic, Eilean Donan, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst, Elisabeth of Hesse, Electress Palatine, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, English claims to the French throne, Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Fidei defensor, First Lord of the Treasury, Fleur-de-lis, Franco-Dutch War, Frederick II of Denmark, Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, Frederick V of the Palatinate, Frederick William I of Prussia, G. K. Chesterton, George Frideric Handel, George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, George II of Great Britain, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Godfrey Kneller, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Government debt, Great Northern War, Great Turkish War, Gregorian calendar, Gules, Hanover, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Herrenhausen Gardens, Highness, History of the Constitution of the United Kingdom, Holy Roman Empire, House of Bourbon, House of Hanover, House of Lords, House of Stuart, House of Welf, Impalement (heraldry), Inheritance, Italy, Jacobite rising of 1715, Jacobitism, James Francis Edward Stuart, James II of England, James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope, James VI and I, John Cannon (historian), John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, John Erskine, Earl of Mar (1675–1732), John George, Elector of Brandenburg, John H. 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Alfred Leslie Rowse (4 December 1903 – 3 October 1997) was a British author and historian from Cornwall.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of England's Act of Settlement 1701.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agostino Steffani (25 July 165412 February 1728) was an Italian ecclesiastic, diplomat and composer.
Ahlden House (Schloss Ahlden) is a stately home at Ahlden on the Lüneburg Heath in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Albrecht Wolfgang, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe (27 April 1699 – 24 September 1748) was a ruler of the County of Schaumburg-Lippe.
Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt (30 July 1601 – 6 May 1659) was the daughter of Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Magdalena von Brandenburg.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, (née Pakenham; born 27 August 1932) is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
The Battle of Glen Shiel (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Ghleann Seile) was a battle in Glen Shiel, in the West Highlands of Scotland on 10 June 1719, between British Government troops (mostly Scots) and an alliance of Jacobites and Spanish, resulting in a victory for the Government forces.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
BBC Worldwide Ltd. was the wholly owned commercial subsidiary of the BBC, formed out of a restructuring of its predecessor BBC Enterprises in 1995.
The Bombing of Hannover was a series of eighty-eight air raids by RAF Bomber Command and the United States Army Air Forces on the German city of Hannover during World War II.
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.
The 1715 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 5th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.
Bubble Act 1720 (also Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation Act 1719) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed on 11 June 1720 that incorporated the Royal Exchange and London Assurance Corporation, but more significantly forbade the formation of any other joint-stock companies unless approved by royal charter.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was Queen consort of Great Britain as the wife of King George II.
Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, KG, PC (23 April 167519 April 1722), known as Lord Spencer from 1688 to 1702, was an English statesman and nobleman from the Spencer family.
Charles Stanhope (1673–1760) was an English barrister and politician.
Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, (18 April 167421 June 1738) was an English Whig statesman.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Charlotte of Bourbon (1546/1547 – 5 May 1582) was a Princess consort of Orange as the third spouse of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish.
Christian III (12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559) reigned as King of Denmark from 1534 until his death, and King of Norway from 1537 until his death.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
The coat of arms of the German federal-state of Lower Saxony shows a white Saxon steed (Sachsenross) on a red background.
The coronation riots of October 1714 were a series of riots in southern and western England in protest against the coronation of the first Hanoverian king of Britain, George I.
Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau (31 March 1576 in Delft – 15 March 1644 in Königsberg) was a countess of the Palatinate by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, and regent during the minority of her son from 1610 until 1611.
Delden is a town in the Dutch province of Overijssel and, since 2001, in the municipality of Hof van Twente.
In heraldry, the field (background) of a shield can be divided into more than one area, or subdivision, of different tinctures, usually following the lines of one of the ordinaries and carrying its name (e.g. a shield divided in the shape of a chevron is said to be parted "per chevron").
Princess Dorothea of Denmark (29 June 1546 – 6 January 1617) was the Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1561 until 1592 as the consort of Duke William the Younger.
Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (9 July 1511 – 7 October 1571) was the wife of King Christian III of Denmark and the queen consort of Denmark and Norway.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Eilean Donan (Eilean Donnain) is a small tidal island where three sea lochs meet, Loch Duich, Loch Long and Loch Alsh, in the western Highlands of Scotland.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst (15 September 1563 – 8 November 1607) was a princess of Anhalt by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
Elisabeth of Hesse (13 February 1539 – 14 March 1582) was a German noblewoman.
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (Ernest Augustus; 17 September 1674 – 14 August 1728) was the younger brother of George I of Great Britain.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698), was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851) was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death.
Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Ernst der Bekenner) (27 June 1497 – 11 January 1546), also frequently called Ernest the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often simply called the Dutch War (Guerre de Hollande; Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (Kurfürst Friedrich IV.; 5 March 1574 – 19 September 1610), only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous" (Friedrich Der Aufrichtige; French: Frédéric IV le juste).
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George I of Hesse-Darmstadt (10 September 1547 – 7 February 1596) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567 to 1596.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George William Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (17 February 1582, Celle – 12 April 1641, Hildesheim), ruled as Prince of Calenberg from 1635.
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
The Herrenhausen Gardens (Herrenhäuser Gärten) of Herrenhausen Palace, located in Herrenhausen, an urban district of Lower Saxony's capital of Hanover are made up of the Great Garden (Großer Garten), the Berggarten, the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten. The gardens are a heritage of the Kings of Hanover.
Highness (abbreviation HH, oral address Your Highness) is a formal style used to address (in second person) or refer to (in third person) certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty.
The Constitution of the United Kingdom has evolved over a long period of time beginning in the predecessor states to the United Kingdom and continuing to the present day.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
In heraldry, impalement is a form of heraldic combination or marshalling of two coats of arms side by side in one divided heraldic shield or escutcheon to denote a union, most often that of a husband and wife (and in certain cases, same-sex married couples), but also for unions of ecclesiastical, academic/civic and mystical natures.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Jacobite rising of 1715 (Bliadhna Sheumais) (also referred to as the Fifteen or Lord Mar's Revolt), was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart (also called the Old Pretender) to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope (c. 16735 February 1721) was a British statesman and soldier who effectively served as Chief Minister between 1717 and 1721.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
John Ashton Cannon (born Hertfordshire, 8 October 1926, died Newcastle upon Tyne 25 October 2012) was an English historian specialising in 18th-century British politics.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
John Erskine, Earl of Mar, KT (1675May 1732), Scottish Jacobite, was the eldest son of Charles, Earl of Mar (who died in 1689), from whom he inherited estates that were heavily loaded with debt.
John George of Brandenburg (Johann Georg) (11 September 1525 – 8 January 1598) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1571–1598) and a Duke of Prussia.
Sir John (Jack) Harold Plumb, (20 August 1911 – 21 October 2001) was a British historian, known for his books on British 18th century history.
John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, (13 October 16965 August 1743) was an English courtier and political writer and memoirist who was the eldest son of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, by his second wife, Elizabeth.
Joseph I (26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) (née Pierrepont) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet.
Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London, England.
The Leine (Old Saxon Lagina) is a river in Thuringia and Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Leineschloss (English: Leine Palace), situated on the Leine in Hanover, Germany, is the former residence of the Hanoverian kings and the current seat of the Landtag of Lower Saxony.
Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (27 June 1888 – 19 August 1960) was a British historian of Polish-Jewish background.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
The Elector of the Palatinate (Kurfürst von der Pfalz) ruled the Palatinate of the Rhine in the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from 915 to 1803.
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords.
Louis Moréri (25 March 1643 – 10 July 1680) was a French priest and encyclopedist.
Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt (Ludwig; 24 September 1577 – 27 July 1626) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626.
Ludwig VI, Elector Palatine (4 July 1539 in Simmern – 22 October 1583 in Heidelberg), was an Elector from the Palatinate-Simmern branch of the house of Wittelsbach.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Magdalene of Brandenburg, also Magdalene and Magdalen, (7 January 1582 – 4 May 1616) was the daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his third wife Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Magdalena of Lippe (25 February 1552, Detmold – 26 February 1587, Darmstadt) was a German noblewoman.
Majesty (abbreviation HM, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually kings or sultanss.
A marriage of state is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocs, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Grecian cultures in western society, and of similar antiquity in other civilizations.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Maximilian II (11 July 1662 – 26 February 1726), also known as Max Emanuel or Maximilian Emanuel, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
Petronilla Melusine von der Schulenburg, Countess of Walsingham (1 April 1693 – 16 September 1778) was the natural daughter of King George I of Great Britain and his longtime mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal.
Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal, Duchess of Munster (25 December 166710 May 1743) was a long-time mistress to King George I of Great Britain.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Nordhorn is the district seat of Grafschaft Bentheim in Lower Saxony's southwesternmost corner near the border with the Netherlands and the boundary with North Rhine-Westphalia.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
In heraldry, an orle is a subordinary consisting of a narrow band occupying the inward half of where a bordure would be, following the exact outline of the shield but within it, showing the field between the outer edge of the orle and the edge of the shield.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Philip Christoph von Königsmarck (4 March 1665 – 2 July 1694), also spelled Philipp, was a Swedish count of Brandenburgian extraction and a soldier.
Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, (22 September 169424 March 1773) was a British statesman, diplomat, man of letters, and an acclaimed wit of his time.
Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope FRS (30 January 1805 – 24 December 1875), styled Viscount Mahon between 1816 and 1855, was a British politician and historian.
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester (24 July 1689 – 30 July 1700) was the son of Princess Anne, later Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1702, and her husband, Prince George, Duke of Cumberland.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
The Principality of Calenberg was a dynastic division of the Welf duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg established in 1432.
The Principality of Göttingen (Fürstentum Göttingen) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire, with Göttingen as its capital.
The Principality of Grubenhagen was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled by the Grubenhagen line of the House of Welf from 1291.
The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
Ragnhild Marie Hatton (born in Bergen, Norway on 10 January 1913 – died in London on 16 May 1995) was professor of International History at the London School of Economics.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
The Royal Archives, also known as the Queen's Archives, is a division of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
The Septennial Act 1716 (1 Geo 1 St 2 c 38), also known as the Septennial Act 1715, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
His/Her Serene Highness (abbreviation: HSH, oral address: Your Serene Highness) is a style used today by the sovereign families of Liechtenstein and Monaco.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sophia Dorothea of Celle (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the repudiated wife of future King George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II.
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (– 28 June 1757) was a Queen consort in Prussia as spouse of Frederick William I.
The Act for the Naturalization of the Most Excellent Princess Sophia, Electress and Duchess Dowager of Hanover, and the Issue of her Body was an Act of the Parliament of England (4 & 5 Ann. c. 16.) in 1705.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631) was Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick II of Denmark.
The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, gender (for people born before October 2011), legitimacy, and religion.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Treaty of Hanover was developed in response to the Treaty of Vienna (April 30, 1725) in which King Philip V of Spain allied himself with Habsburg Austria after his daughter's engagement to Louis XV of France was broken off.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Treaty of Vienna was signed on 30 April 1725 between Emperor Charles VI of Austria and King Philip V of Spain.
The Triple Alliance was a treaty between the Dutch Republic, France and Great Britain, against Spain, attempting to maintain the agreement of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht.
In heraldry, variations of the field are any of a number of ways that a field (or a charge) may be covered with a pattern, rather than a flat tincture or a simple division of the field.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1717–1720) was a result of the ambitions of Bourbon King Philip V of Spain, his wife, Elisabeth Farnese, and his chief minister Giulio Alberoni to retake territories in Italy lost to the Habsburgs in Vienna, and perhaps even to claim the French throne.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist and author.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
Wilhelm (4 July 1535 – 20 August 1592), called William the Younger (Wilhelm der Jüngere), was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1559 until his death.
Descendants of George I of Great Britain, Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lueneburg, Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Luneburg, Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Geo. 1, Georg Ludwig, George I Hanover, George I of Britain, George I of England, George I of GB, George I of Great Britain and Ireland, George I of Hanover, George I of Ireland, George I of Scotland, George I of the UK, George I of the United Kingdom, George I, King of Great Britain, George Louis, George Louis of Hanover, George i of great britain, Georgite, HSH Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lueneburg, HSH Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Luneburg, HSH Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, King George I of Great Britain, Pudding King.