382 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Adolf Ulrik Wertmüller, African Americans, Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Hamilton, Alexandria, Virginia, Alien and Sedition Acts, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American gentry, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Ancient Rome, Anglicanism, Annapolis, Maryland, Annotation, Anthony Wayne, Appleby Grammar School, Archeological Society of Virginia, Arthur St. Clair, Articles of Confederation, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Atlantic slave trade, Attempted theft of George Washington's head, Augustine Washington, Augustine Washington Jr., Avalon Project, Baltimore, Bank run, Battle of Brandywine, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Battle of Fort Necessity, Battle of Fort Washington, Battle of Germantown, Battle of Groton Heights, Battle of Jumonville Glen, Battle of Princeton, Battle of the Chesapeake, Battle of the Monongahela, Battle of White Plains, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Battles of Saratoga, Belligerent, Benedict Arnold, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Lincoln, Benjamin Tallmadge, Betty Washington Lewis, Bloodletting, Boston campaign, Braddock Expedition, ..., Brazil nut, British America, British West Indies, Burning of Washington, Burwell Bassett, C. Vann Woodward, Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Cathartic, Cato Institute, Charles Bulfinch, Charles Lee (general), Charles O'Hara, Charles Washington, Chief Justice of the United States, Christie's, Christopher Hitchens, Church of England, Churchwarden, College of William & Mary, Colony of Virginia, Commander-in-chief, Commanding General of the United States Army, Commissariat, Congress Hall, Constitutional Convention (United States), Continental Army, Continental Congress, Conway Cabal, Covenanter, Culpeper County, Virginia, Culper Ring, Daniel Morgan, David Hackett Fischer, David Reed (pioneer), David Rittenhouse, De Young Museum, Deism, Delaware River, Democratic-Republican Party, Democratic-Republican Societies, Dictionary of American Biography, Don Higginbotham, Douglas Southall Freeman, Durham boat, East River, Edmond-Charles Genêt, Edmund Randolph, Edward Braddock, Edward Vernon, Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis, Electoral College (United States), Electoral history of George Washington, Elisha C. 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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Adolf Ulrik Wertmüller (February 18, 1751 — October 5, 1811) was a Swedish painter whose notable works include Danaë receiving Jupiter in a Shower of Gold.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
The American gentry were members of the American upper classes, particularly early in the settlement of the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
An annotation is a metadatum (e.g. a post, explanation, markup) attached to location or other data.
Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was a United States Army officer and statesman.
Appleby Grammar School is a mixed secondary school and sixth form in Appleby-in-Westmorland, Cumbria for students aged 11 to 18.
The Archeological Society of Virginia is a non-profit organization that focuses on archaeological projects in Virginia for over 50 years.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
In 1830, an attempt was made to steal the skull from the remains of George Washington, which resided in a tomb at Mount Vernon.
Augustine Washington Sr. (November 12, 1694 – April 12, 1743) was the father of the first U.S. President George Washington.
Augustine Washington Jr. (1720–1762) was an American soldier, planter, and politician.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.
The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy, including support from the British led by Captain Alexander McKillop, against the United States for control of the Northwest Territory (an area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and southwest of the Great Lakes).
The Battle of Fort Necessity (also called the Battle of the Great Meadows) took place on July 3, 1754, in what is now the mountaintop hamlet of Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
The Battle of Fort Washington was a battle fought in New York on November 16, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War between the United States and Great Britain.
The Battle of Germantown was a major engagement in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Groton Heights (also known as the Battle of Fort Griswold, and occasionally called the Fort Griswold massacre) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought on September 6, 1781 between a small Connecticut militia force led by Lieutenant Colonel William Ledyard and the more numerous British forces led by Brigadier General Benedict Arnold and Lieutenant Colonel Edmund Eyre.
The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754, near what is present-day Hopwood and Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777.
The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as the Battle of the Virginia Capes or simply the Battle of the Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War that took place near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay on 5 September 1781.
The Battle of the Monongahela (also known as the Battle of Braddock's Field and the Battle of the Wilderness) took place on 9 July 1755, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, at Braddock's Field in what is now Braddock, Pennsylvania, east of Pittsburgh.
The Battle of White Plains was a battle in the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 28, 1776, near White Plains, New York.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.
Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who fought heroically for the American Continental Army—then defected to the enemy in 1780.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin Lincoln (January 24, 1733 (O.S. January 13, 1732) – May 9, 1810) was an American army officer.
Benjamin Tallmadge (February 25, 1754 – March 7, 1835) was an American military officer, spymaster, and politician.
Elizabeth "Betty" Washington Lewis (June 20, 1733 – March 31, 1797) was the younger sister of George Washington and the only sister to live to adulthood.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
The Boston campaign was the opening campaign of the American Revolutionary War, taking place primarily in the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock's campaign or, more commonly, Braddock's Defeat, was a failed British military expedition which attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne (modern-day downtown Pittsburgh) in the summer of 1755 during the French and Indian War.
The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and also the name of the tree's commercially harvested edible seeds.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat and the British Virgin Islands.
The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812.
Burwell Bassett, Jr. (March 18, 1764 – February 26, 1841) was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1787 to 1789, and the Virginia Senate from 1794 to 1805.
Comer Vann Woodward (November 13, 1908 – December 17, 1999) was a Pulitzer-prize winning American historian focusing primarily on the American South and race relations.
The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (c.23) (also known as Chesterfield's Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Charles Bulfinch (August 8, 1763 – April 15, 1844) was an early American architect, and has been regarded by many as the first native-born American to practice architecture as a profession.
Charles Lee (– 2 October 1782) served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence.
General Charles O'Hara (1740 – 25 February 1802) was a British military officer who served in the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, and French Revolutionary War, and later served as Governor of Gibraltar.
Charles Washington (May 2, 1738 – September 16, 1799) was the youngest brother of United States President George Washington.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
Christie's is a British auction house.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A churchwarden is a lay official in a parish or congregation of the Anglican Communion, usually working as a part-time volunteer.
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the Army in 1903, there was generally recognized to be a single senior-most officer in the United States Army (and its predecessor the Continental Army), even though there was not a statutory office as such.
A commissariat is a department or organization commanded by a commissary or by a corps of commissaries.
Congress Hall, located in Philadelphia at the intersection of Chestnut and 6th Streets, served as the seat of the United States Congress from December 6, 1790 to May 14, 1800.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
The Conway Cabal was a group of senior Continental Army officers in late 1777 and early 1778 who aimed to have George Washington replaced as commander-in-chief of the Army during the American Revolutionary War.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
Culpeper County is a county located in the central region of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Culper Ring was a spy ring organized by American Major Benjamin Tallmadge under orders from General George Washington in the summer of 1778, during the British occupation of New York City at the height of the American Revolutionary War.
Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and politician from Virginia.
David Hackett Fischer (born December 2, 1935) is University Professor and Earl Warren Professor of History at Brandeis University.
David Reed (born circa 1747 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and died September 30, 1824 in Washington County, Pennsylvania) was an American pioneer in the early history of Pennsylvania.
David Rittenhouse (April 8, 1732 – June 26, 1796) was an American astronomer, inventor, clockmaker, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman, and public official.
The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, commonly referred as the de Young, is a fine arts museum located in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, and one of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco along with the Legion of Honor.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
Democratic-Republican Societies were local political organizations formed in the United States in 1793-94 to promote republicanism and democracy and to fight aristocratic tendencies.
The Dictionary of American Biography was published in New York City by Charles Scribner's Sons under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS).
Don Higginbotham (May 22, 1931 – June 22, 2008) was an American historian and Dowd Professor of History and Peace, War, and Defense at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Douglas Southall Freeman (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953) was an American historian, biographer, newspaper editor, and author.
The Durham boat was a large wooden, flat-bottomed, double-ended freight boat which was in use on many of the interior waterways of North America beginning in the middle of the eighteenth century.
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City.
Edmond-Charles Genêt (January 8, 1763July 14, 1834), also known as Citizen Genêt, was the French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney and politician.
Major General Edward Braddock (January 1695 – 13 July 1755) was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the 13 colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754–1763) which is also known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).
Admiral Edward Vernon (12 November 1684 – 30 October 1757) was an English naval officer.
Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis (March 31, 1779 – July 15, 1852), known as Nelly, was the granddaughter of Martha Washington and the step-granddaughter of George Washington.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
George Washington stood for public office five times, serving two terms in the Virginia House of Burgesses and two terms as President of the United States.
Elisha Cullen Dick, M.D. (March 15, 1762 – September 22, 1825) was a Virginia physician and political figure.
Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis—the flap at the base of the tongue that keeps food from going into the trachea (windpipe).
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Evacuation Day is a holiday observed on March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts (which includes the cities of Boston, Chelsea, and Revere, and the town of Winthrop)List of Massachusetts holidays and also by the public schools in Somerville, Massachusetts.
Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when British troops departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War.
The Fairfax Resolves was a set of resolutions adopted by a committee in Fairfax County in the colony of Virginia on July 18, 1774, in the early stages of the American Revolution.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.
Federal Hall is the name given to the first of two historic buildings located at 26 Wall Street, New York City.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
Ferry Farm, also known as George Washington Boyhood Home Site or Ferry Farm Site, is the name of the farm and home at which George Washington spent much of his childhood.
The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
The first inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States was held on Thursday, April 30, 1789 on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City, New York.
The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824.
The Forbes Expedition was a British military expedition led by Brigadier-General John Forbes in 1758, during the latter stages of the French and Indian War.
''Fort Cumberland, 1755'' (1878) Fort Cumberland (built 1754) was an 18th-century frontier fort at the current site of Cumberland, Maryland, USA.
Fort Duquesne (originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.
Fort Frederick was a fort in Albany, New York from 1676–1789.
Fort Le Boeuf, (often referred to as Fort de la Rivière au Bœuf), was a fort established by the French during 1753 on a fork of French Creek (in the drainage area of the River Ohio), in present-day Waterford, in northwest Pennsylvania.
Fort Lee Historic Park is located atop a bluff of the Hudson Palisades overlooking Burdett's Landing, known as Mount Constitution, in Fort Lee, New Jersey.
Fort Washington was a fortified position near the north end of Manhattan Island (now part of the New York City neighborhood of Washington Heights) and was located at the highest point on the island.
The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War that precipitated the end of the siege of Boston and the withdrawal of British troops from that city.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
François Joseph Paul de Grasse (13 September 1722 – 11 January 1788), also known as Comte de Grasse, was a career French officer who achieved the rank of admiral.
Fraunces Tavern is a landmark museum and restaurant in New York City, situated at 54 Pearl Street at the corner of Broad Street.
Fredericksburg is an independent city located in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben (born Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben; September 17, 1730 – November 28, 1794), also referred to as Baron von Steuben, was a Prussian and later an American military officer.
The fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory.
The United States Funding Act of 1790, the full title of which is "An Act making provision for the Debt of the United States", was passed on August 4, 1790 by the United States Congress as part of the Compromise of 1790, to address the issue of funding (i.e., debt service, repayment and retirement) of the domestic debt incurred by the Colonies; the States in rebellion; in independence; in Confederation, and subsequently the States' comprising and within, a single, sovereign, Federal Union.
General George Washington at Trenton is a large full-length portrait in oil painted in 1792 by the American artist John Trumbull of General George Washington at Trenton, New Jersey, on the night of January 2, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War.
The General of the Armies of the United States, or more commonly referred to as General of the Armies (abbreviated as GAS), is the highest possible rank in the United States Army.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Mason (sometimes referred to as George Mason IV; October 7, 1792) was a Virginia planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates, together with fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who refused to sign the Constitution.
The George Washington Birthplace National Monument is a national monument in Westmoreland County, Virginia, United States.
The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River between the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, and the borough of Fort Lee in New Jersey.
The George Washington Masonic National Memorial is a Masonic building and memorial located in Alexandria, Virginia, outside Washington, D.C. It is dedicated to the memory of George Washington, the first President of the United States and a Mason.
George Washington Parke Custis (April 30, 1781 – October 10, 1857) was a Virginia plantation owner, antiquarian, author and playwright.
George Washington's Farewell Address is a letter written by first President of the United States George Washington to "friends and fellow-citizens".
George Washington's resignation as commander-in-chief marked the end of Washington's military service in the American Revolutionary War and his return to civilian life at Mount Vernon.
George William Fairfax (January 2, 1724April 3, 1787) was a member of the landed gentry of late colonial Virginia and a planter.
Georgetown is a historic neighborhood and a commercial and entertainment district located in northwest Washington, D.C., situated along the Potomac River.
Germantown is an area in Northwest Philadelphia.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Gilbert Charles Stuart (born Stewart; December 3, 1755 – July 9, 1828) was an American painter from Rhode Island who is widely considered one of America's foremost portraitists.
Gordon Stewart Wood (born November 27, 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).
The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of Virginia, commonly known as "Grand Lodge of Virginia", claims to be the oldest independent masonic grand lodge in the United States with 34,000 members in over 300 lodges.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Gustavus Richard Brown (October 17, 1747 – September 30, 1804Ridgely pp 63-64) was a lifelong friend of George Washington, a physician, helped found the hospital department of the Continental Army, and a botanist.
'''Alexander Hamilton''' The Hamilton–Reynolds affair involved Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton who had a one-year affair with Maria Reynolds, the wife of James Reynolds, which began in 1791 and occurred during the time of George Washington's presidency.
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB, MP (16 April 1730 – 23 December 1795) was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795.
Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.
Major-General Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee III (January 29, 1756March 25, 1818) was an early American Patriot and politician who served as the ninth Governor of Virginia and as the Virginia Representative to the United States Congress.
Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War.
The history of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has its origins in the Church of England, a church which stresses its continuity with the ancient Western church and claims to maintain apostolic succession.
HMS Vulture was a 14 to 16-gun ship sloop of the ''Swan'' class, launched for the Royal Navy on 18 March 1776.
Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727April 10, 1806) was a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War.
The Virginia House of Burgesses was formed in 1642 by the General Assembly at the suggestion of then-Governor William Berkeley.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Hugh Mercer (17 January 1726 – 12 January 1777) was a Scottish soldier and physician.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
Independence Hall is the building where both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted.
The Intolerable Acts was the term invented by 19th century historians to refer to a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Israel Putnam (January 7, 1718 – May 29, 1790) was an American army general officer, popularly known as Old Put, who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775) during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre (October 24, 1701 – September 8, 1755) was a Canadian colonial military commander and explorer who held posts throughout North America in the 18th century.
James Craik (17276 February 1814) was Physician General (precursor of the Surgeon General) of the United States Army, as well as George Washington's personal physician and close friend.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Wilkinson (March 24, 1757 – December 28, 1825) was an American soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies.
Jared Sparks (May 10, 1789 – March 14, 1866) was an American historian, educator, and Unitarian minister.
Jay Atwell Parry (born October 12, 1950) is an American author.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
Jean-Antoine Houdon (25 March 1741 – 15 July 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor.
Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution.
Johann Gottlieb Rall (also spelled Rahl) (ca. 1726 – December 27, 1776) was a German colonel best known for his command of Hessian troops at the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John André (2 May 1750 – 2 October 1780) was a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British.
John Augustine Washington (1736–1787) was a member of the fifth Virginia Convention and a founding member of the Mississippi Land Company.
General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, dramatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792.
John Cadwalader (January 10, 1742 – February 10, 1786) was a commander of Pennsylvania troops during the American Revolutionary War.
John Clement Fitzpatrick (August 10, 1876 – February 10, 1940) was an archivist and an early American historian, widely regarded as an authority on George Washington.
John Forbes (5 September 1707 – 11 March 1759) was a British general in the French and Indian War.
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was a senior United States Army officer.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John Parke Custis ("Jacky") (27 November 1754 – 5 November 1781) was a Virginia planter and the son of Martha Washington and stepson of George Washington.
John Sullivan (February 17, 1740 – January 23, 1795) was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge.
John Trumbull (June 6, 1756November 10, 1843) was an American artist during the period of the American Revolutionary War and was notable for his historical paintings.
John Washington (1631–1677) was an English planter, soldier, and politician in colonial Virginia in North America.
Joseph Alexis Bailly (January 21, 1823 or 1825, Paris, France – June 15, 1883, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a French-born American sculptor who spent most of his career in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville (8 September 1718 – May 28, 1754) was a French Canadian military officer.
Joseph John Ellis (born July 18, 1943) is an American historian whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America.
The Journal of the Early Republic is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on the early culture and history of the United States from 1776–1861.
Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz (6 February 1758, Skoki, near Brest – 21 May 1841, Paris) was a Polish poet, playwright and statesman.
The Kanawha River is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 97 mi (156 km) long, in the U.S. state of West Virginia.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
The Lansdowne portrait is an iconic life-size portrait of George Washington painted by Gilbert Stuart in 1796.
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).
Lawrence Washington (1659 – February 1698), a colonial-era American, was the owner of a substantial Virginia plantation that he inherited from his father as the firstborn son under the law of primogeniture.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
A letter of marque and reprisal (lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture enemy vessels.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.
Lieutenant General George Washington is an equestrian statue of George Washington, at Washington Circle, Washington, D.C.
United States President George Washington appointed 39 Article III United States federal judges during his presidency,Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, passim.
This "List of Freemasons" page provides links to alphabetized lists of notable Freemasons.
Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer.
This is a list of American militia units that served on the Patriot side of the American Revolutionary War, listed by state.
The riverside village of Logstown (1725?, 1727–1758, also Logg's Town, French: Chiningue pronounced Shenango), near modern-day Baden, Pennsylvania, was a significant Native American settlement in Western Pennsylvania, and the site of the 1752 signing of the treaty of friendship between the Ohio Company and the First Nations occupying the region in the years leading up to the French and Indian Warduring which Logstown became nearly depopulated and abandoned.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Lucius Quinctius or Quintius Cincinnatus (– BC) was a Roman patrician, statesman, and military leader of the early Republic who became a legendary figure of Roman virtues—particularly Roman manliness and civic virtue—by the time of the Empire.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Martha Washington (née Dandridge; – May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first President of the United States.
Mary Ball Washington, born Mary Ball (November 30, 1708 – August 26, 1789), was the second wife of Augustine Washington, a planter in Virginia, and the mother of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and five other children.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
The Maryland State House is located in Annapolis, Maryland and is the oldest U.S. state capitol in continuous legislative use, dating to 1772.
Mason Locke Weems (October 11, 1759 – May 23, 1825), usually referred to as Parson Weems, was an American book agent and author who wrote the first biography of George Washington immediately after his death.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2.
Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.
Michael Novak (September 9, 1933 – February 17, 2017) was an American Catholic philosopher, journalist, novelist, and diplomat.
The Middlebrook encampment was a seasonal encampment of the Continental Army during the American War for Independence near Middle Brook in Bridgewater Township, New Jersey (between Martinsville and Bound Brook) in 1777 and again in 1778–79.
The Militia Acts of 1792 were a pair of statutes enacted by the second United States Congress in 1792.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
The Mingo people are an Iroquoian-speaking group of Native Americans made up of peoples who migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-18th century, primarily Seneca and Cayuga.
Morristown is a town and county seat of Morris County, New Jersey, United States.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States.
Mount Vernon was the plantation house of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and his wife, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington.
The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association is a non-profit organization that preserves and maintains the Mount Vernon estate originally owned by George Washington and family.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nassau Hall (or Old Nassau) is the oldest building at Princeton University in Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States.
Nathanael Greene (June 19, 1786, sometimes misspelled Nathaniel) was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
The National Gazette was a Democratic-Republican partisan newspaper that was first published on October 31, 1791.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D.C., United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993.
New Windsor is a town in Orange County, New York, United States.
The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 for control of New York City and the state of New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe and the Continental Army under General George Washington.
The Newburgh Conspiracy was what appeared to be a planned military coup by the Continental Army in March 1783, when the American Revolutionary War was at its end.
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt (c. 1717 – 15 October 1770), was a British courtier, member of parliament, and royal governor of the colony of Virginia from 1768 until his death in 1770.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory.
The oath of office of the President of the United States is the oath or affirmation that the President of the United States takes after assuming the presidency but before carrying out any duties of the office.
The Ohio Company, formally known as the Ohio Company of Virginia, was a land speculation company organized for the settlement by Virginians of the Ohio Country (approximately the present state of Ohio) and to trade with the Native Americans.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
The Panic of 1792 was a financial credit crisis that occurred during the months of March and April 1792, precipitated by the expansion of credit by the newly formed Bank of the United States as well as by rampant speculation on the part of William Duer, Alexander Macomb, and other prominent bankers.
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
Margaret "Peggy" Shippen (July 11, 1760 – August 24, 1804) was the second wife of General Benedict Arnold.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA), also known as a quinsy, is pus due to an infection behind the tonsil.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War to gain control of Philadelphia, which was then the seat of the Second Continental Congress.
Philip Morin Freneau (January 2, 1752 – December 18, 1832) was an American poet, nationalist, polemicist, sea captain and newspaper editor sometimes called the "Poet of the American Revolution".
Philip John Schuyler (November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel.
Portsmouth is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Potomac Company (spelled variously as Patowmack, Potowmack, Potowmac, and Compony) was created in 1785 to make improvements to the Potomac River and improve its navigability for commerce.
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay.
The president of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates that emerged as the first (transitional) national government of the United States during the American Revolution.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar.
The Quasi-War (Quasi-guerre) was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800.
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations.
Rembrandt Peale (February 22, 1778 – October 3, 1860) was an American artist and museum keeper.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
The Residence Act of 1790, officially titled An Act for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of the Government of the United States, was a United States federal statute adopted during the second session of the First United States Congress, and signed into law by President George Washington on July 16, 1790.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Richard Varick (March 15, 1753 – July 30, 1831) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 2nd Attorney General of New York and the 45th Mayor of New York City.
Robert Dinwiddie (1692 – 27 July 1770) was a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia from 1751 to 1758, first under Governor Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, and then, from July 1756 to January 1758, as deputy for John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun.
Robert Field (1769–1819) was a painter who was born in London, England, and died in Kingston, Jamaica.
Robert Robert Livingston (November 27, 1746 (Old Style November 16) – February 26, 1813) was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States.
A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Sally Cary Fairfax (1730 – 1811 in Bath, England) was the wife of George William Fairfax (1729–1787), a prominent member of the landed gentry of late colonial Virginia.
Samuel Adams (– October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Samuel Osgood (February 3, 1747 – August 12, 1813) was an American merchant and statesman born in North Andover, Massachusetts, parent town of the Andovers.
Samuel Washington (– September 26, 1781) was colonial American officer and politician who was the brother of United States President George Washington.
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British high command for North America to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The second inauguration of George Washington as President of the United States was held in the Senate Chamber of Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Monday, March 4, 1793.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Shenandoah Valley is a geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States.
The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The Slave Trade Act of 1794 was a law passed by the United States Congress that limited American involvement in the international slave trade.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
A sloop (from Dutch sloep, in turn from French chaloupe) is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Stafford County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
Sulgrave is a village and civil parish in South Northamptonshire, England, about north of Brackley.
The 1779 Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was an extended systematic military campaign during the American Revolutionary War against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four Amerindian nations of the Iroquois which had sided with the British.
Tanacharison or Tanaghrisson (c. 1700 – 4 October 1754) was a Native American leader who played a pivotal role in the beginning of the French and Indian War.
Tappan (pronounced tuh-PAN), Indian word meaning "tuphanne"—translation, "cold water"—is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Orangetown, Rockland County, New York, United States.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Washington Papers, also known as The Papers of George Washington, is a project dedicated to the publication of comprehensive letterpress and digital editions of George and Martha Washington’s papers.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
General Thomas Gage (10 March 1718/19 – 2 April 1787) was a British Army general officer and colonial official best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as British commander-in-chief in the early days of the American Revolution. Being born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion. In 1774 he was also appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War. After the Pyrrhic victory in the June Battle of Bunker Hill, he was replaced by General William Howe in October, 1775, and returned to Great Britain.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Tobias Lear (c. 1762 – October 11, 1816) is best known as the personal secretary to President George Washington.
Conotocaurious (Town Destroyer) was a nickname given to George Washington by Iroquois Native Americans in 1753.
The Townshend Acts were a series of British acts passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British American colonies in North America.
Tracheotomy, or tracheostomy, is a surgical procedure which consists of making an incision on the anterior aspect of the neck and opening a direct airway through an incision in the trachea (windpipe).
The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795, at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio; it followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Uniontown is a city in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, southeast of Pittsburgh and part of the Greater Pittsburgh Region.
The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.
The United States Bicentennial was a series of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid tribute to historical events leading up to the creation of the United States of America as an independent republic.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department (and occasionally War Office in the early years), was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army, also bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, and for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947.
United States military seniority is the method by which the United States Armed Forces determine precedence among commissioned officers, in particular those who hold the same rank.
The United States one-dollar bill ($1) is a denomination of United States currency.
The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service; Megan Brennan is the current Postmaster General.
The United States presidential election of 1792 was the second quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1796 was the third quadrennial presidential election.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
USS George Washington (CVN-73) is a United States Navy nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, the sixth carrier in the and the fourth US Navy ship named after George Washington, the first president of the United States.
Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight military encampments for the Continental Army’s main body, commanded by General George Washington.
Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.
Vermont Republic is a term used by historians to refer to the government of Vermont that existed from 1777 to 1791.
A vestryman is a member of his local church's vestry, or leading body.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia Conventions have been the assemblies of delegates elected for the purpose of establishing constitutions of fundamental law for the Commonwealth of Virginia superior to General Assembly legislation.
The Virginia Regiment was formed in 1754 by Virginia's Royal Governor Robert Dinwiddie, as a provincial corps.
The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government of the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in Richmond, the third capital city of the U.S. state of Virginia.
Wakefield is an incorporated town in Sussex County, Virginia, United States.
Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician who served as the 29th President of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Washington Circle is a traffic circle in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., United States.
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.
The Washington Monument is the centerpiece of intersecting Mount Vernon Place and Washington Place, an urban square in the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood north of downtown Baltimore, Maryland.
The Washington quarter is the present quarter dollar or 25-cent piece issued by the United States Mint.
Washington's Birthday is a United States federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday of February in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States, who was born on February 22, 1732.
Washington is a city in and the county seat of Washington County, Pennsylvania, United States, within the Greater Pittsburgh Region in the southwestern part of the state.
Westmoreland County is a county located in the Northern Neck of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Where's George? is a website that tracks the natural geographic circulation of American paper money.
The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington.
Wiley Thompson (September 23, 1781 – December 28, 1835) was a United States Representative from Georgia.
William Alexander, also known as Lord Stirling (1726 – 15 January 1783), was a Scottish-American Major General during the American Revolutionary War.
William Cushing (March 1, 1732 – September 13, 1810) was one of the original six associate justices of the United States Supreme Court, from September 27, 1789, until his death.
William Duer (March 18, 1743 – May 7, 1799) was a British-born American lawyer, developer, and speculator from New York City.
William Fairfax (1691–1757) was a political appointee of the British Crown and a politician: he was Collector of Customs in Barbados, and Chief Justice and governor of the Bahamas; he served as Customs agent in Marblehead, Massachusetts before being reassigned to the Virginia colony.
William Fitzhugh (August 24, 1741June 6, 1809) was an American planter and statesman who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress for Virginia in 1779.
William Heath (March 2, 1737 – January 24, 1814) was an American farmer, soldier, and political leader from Massachusetts who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British Army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence.
William Hunter (died August 14, 1761) was a colonial American newspaper publisher, book publisher, and printer for the colony of Virginia.
William Maclay (July 20, 1737April 16, 1804) was a politician from Pennsylvania during the eighteenth century.
WITF-FM (89.5 FM) is a non-commercial, public FM radio station licensed to serve Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Yorktown or Virginia campaign was a series of military maneuvers and battles during the American Revolutionary War that culminated in the decisive Siege of Yorktown in October 1781.
1776 (released in the United Kingdom as 1776: America and Britain At War) is a book written by David McCullough, first published by Simon & Schuster on May 24, 2005.
The First United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia.
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