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Georgian language

Index Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. [1]

142 relations: Abkhazia, Accusative case, Adjara, Adverbial case, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione, Alveolar consonant, Ancient Rome, Aramaic language, Arnold Chikobava, Article (grammar), Aspirated consonant, Azerbaijan, Back vowel, Basque language, Branching (linguistics), Cabinet of Georgia, Cambridge University Press, Catholic Church, Close vowel, Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Consonant cluster, Creaky voice, Dative case, Dative construction, Dental consonant, Dittionario giorgiano e italiano, Ejective consonant, Ergative case, Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language, Farshid Delshad, Fereydan, Focus (linguistics), Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Genitive case, Georgia (country), Georgian Braille, Georgian calendar, Georgian calligraphy, Georgian dialects, Georgian grammar, Georgian numerals, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgian scripts, Georgians, German language, Glottal consonant, Grammatical gender, ..., Guria, Iakob Tsurtaveli, Imereti, Imerkhevi, Indo-European languages, Instrumental case, Iran, Israel, Ivane Javakhishvili, Kakheti, Kartli, Kartvelian languages, Kevin Tuite, Khevi, Khevsureti, Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Iberia, Labial consonant, Lateral consonant, Latin, Laz language, Laz people, Lechkhumi, Leonti Mroveli, List of Georgian surnames, Literary language, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Cornelius Fronto, Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik, Meskheti, Mid vowel, Mingrelian language, Mingrelians, Morphological derivation, Morphophonology, Movable type, Mtiuleti, Nasal consonant, Nominative case, Object–subject–verb, Object–verb–subject, Official language, Old Georgian language, Open vowel, Oxford University Press, Palimpsest, Pavle Ingorokva, Pharnavaz I of Iberia, Pitch-accent language, Polypersonal agreement, Possession (linguistics), Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Pro-drop language, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Kartvelian language, Pshavi, Racha, Relative clause, Rhotic consonant, Rize, Romanization of Georgian, Rome, Russia, Russian language, Saingilo, Samegrelo, Screeve, Shota Rustaveli, South Ossetia, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Svan language, Svaneti, Svans, Syncope (phonology), The Knight in the Panther's Skin, Topic and comment, Turkey, Tusheti, Ukraine, United States, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb–object–subject, Verb–subject–object, Vigesimal, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Writing system. Expand index (92 more) »


Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.

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Adverbial case

The adverbial case (abbreviated) is a noun case in Abkhaz and Georgian with a function similar to that of the translative and essive cases in Finnic languages.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione

Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione (literally "Iberian or Georgian Alphabet with Prayers") is the first book printed in the Georgian language using movable type in 1629 at Palazzo di Propaganda Fide.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Arnold Chikobava

Arnold Chikobava (არნოლდ ჩიქობავა) (March 14, 1898 – November 5, 1985) was a Georgian linguist and philologist best known for his contributions to Caucasian studies and for being one of the most active critics of Nicholas Marr's controversial monogenetic "Japhetic" theory of language.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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No description.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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Branching (linguistics)

In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.

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Cabinet of Georgia

The Cabinet of Georgia is an executive council of government ministers in Georgia.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples

The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in Rome is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work and related activities.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Creaky voice

In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Dative construction

The dative construction is a grammatical way of constructing a sentence, using the dative case.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dittionario giorgiano e italiano

Dittionario giorgiano e italiano is a dictionary in the Georgian language and Italian language.

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Ejective consonant

In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.

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Ergative case

The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.

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Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language

The Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language (ქართული ენის განმარტებითი ლექსიკონი) is one of major explanatory dictionaries of the Georgian language.

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Farshid Delshad

Farshid Delshad (Persian: فرشید دلشاد) is an affiliated researcher and scholar of linguistic and Iranian Studies.

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Fereydan (فریدن, ფერეიდანი, Փերիա) is a region of Isfahan Province, Iran.

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Focus (linguistics)

Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgian Braille

Georgian Braille is a braille alphabet used for writing the Georgian language.

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Georgian calendar

The Georgian calendar (ქართული კალენდარი) is the ancient or modern calendar of Georgia.

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Georgian calligraphy

Georgian calligraphy (ქართული კალიგრაფია kartuli k'aligrapia) is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing of the Georgian language using its three Georgian scripts.

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Georgian dialects

Georgian (ქართული, Kartuli) is a Kartvelian language spoken by about 4.1 million people, primarily in Georgia but also in Russia, northern Turkey, in previously Georgian-controlled territories and the diaspora, such as in Iran, Azerbaijan and Europe.

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Georgian grammar

The Georgian language belongs to the Kartvelian family.

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Georgian numerals

The Georgian numerals are the system of number names used in Georgian, a language spoken in the country of Georgia.

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Georgian Orthodox Church

The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

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Georgian scripts

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.

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The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Guria (გურია) is a region (mkhare) in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea.

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Iakob Tsurtaveli

Jacob of Tsurtavi (იაკობ ცურტაველი, Iakob Tsurtaveli) also known as Jacob the Priest (იაკობ ხუცესი, Iakob Khutsesi) was the 5th-century Georgian religious writer and priest from Tsurtavi, then the major town of Gogarene and the Lower Iberia.

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Imereti (Georgian: იმერეთი) is a region in Georgia situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni River.

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Imerkhevi is a valley in the north of the Şavşat district in the Artvin Province of Turkey, along the border with Georgia.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Ivane Javakhishvili

Prince Ivane Javakhishvili (ივანე ჯავახიშვილი, 11 April 1876 – 18 November 1940) was a Georgian historian and a linguist whose voluminous works heavily influenced the modern scholarship of the history and culture of Georgia.

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Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.

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Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.

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Kartvelian languages

The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.

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Kevin Tuite

Kevin Tuite (Irish: Caoimhín de Tiúit; born April 3, 1954) is a full Professor of Anthropology at the Université de Montréal.

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Khevi (ხევი) is a small historical-geographic area in northeastern Georgia.

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Khevsureti (Georgian: ხევსურეთი, a land of valleys) is a historical-ethnographic region in eastern Georgia.

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Kingdom of Georgia

The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.

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Kingdom of Iberia

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laz language

The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.

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Laz people

The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.

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Lechkhumi (Georgian: ლეჩხუმი, Lečxumi) is a historic province in northwestern Georgia which comprises the area along the middle basin of the Rioni and Tskhenistskali and also the Lajanuri river valley.

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Leonti Mroveli

Leonti Mroveli (ლეონტი მროველი) was the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, presumably an ecclesiastic.

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List of Georgian surnames

This is the list of surnames of Georgian people.

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Literary language

A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Marcus Cornelius Fronto

Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100late 160s), best known as Fronto, was Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and advocate.

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Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik

The Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik (also translated as The Passion of Saint Shushanik; Georgian: წამებაჲ წმიდისა შუშანიკისი დედოფლისაჲ, Ts’amebay Ts’midisa Shushanikisi Dedop’lisai) is the earliest surviving extant piece of Georgian literature.

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Meskheti (მესხეთი), also known as Samtskhe (სამცხე), is in a mountainous area of Moschia in southwestern Georgia.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Mingrelian language

Mingrelian or Megrelian (მარგალური ნინა margaluri nina) is a Kartvelian language spoken in Western Georgia (regions of Samegrelo and Abkhazia), primarily by Mingrelians.

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The Megrelians (Megrelian: მარგალი, margali; მეგრელები: megrelebi) or Mingrelians are an ethnic subgroup of Georgians that mostly live in Samegrelo region of Georgia.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Mtiuleti (მთიულეთი; literally, "the land of mountains") is a historical province in eastern Georgia, on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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In linguistic typology, object–subject–verb (OSV) or object–agent–verb (OAV) is a classification of languages, based on whether the structure predominates in pragmatically-neutral expressions.

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In linguistic typology, object–verb–subject (OVS) or object–verb–agent (OVA) is a rare permutation of word order.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Old Georgian language

Old Georgian (ძველი ქართული ენა dzveli kartuli ena, Old Georgian: ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႳႪႨ, enay kartuli) the literary language of Georgian monarchies in the 5th century.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.

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Pavle Ingorokva

Pavle Ingorokva (Georgian: პავლე ინგოროყვა) (January 1, 1893 in Poti – November 20, 1983 in Tbilisi) was a Georgian historian, philologist, and public benefactor.

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Pharnavaz I of Iberia

Pharnavaz I (ფარნავაზ I) was a king of Kartli, an ancient Georgian kingdom known as Iberia in the Classical antiquity.

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Pitch-accent language

A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.

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Polypersonal agreement

In linguistics, polypersonal agreement or polypersonalism is the agreement of a verb with more than one of its arguments (usually up to four).

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Possession (linguistics)

Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Pro-drop language

A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Proto-Kartvelian language

The Proto-Kartvelian language, or Common Kartvelian (წინარექართველური ენა, ts'inarekartveluri ena), is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Kartvelian languages, which was spoken by the ancestors of the modern Kartvelian peoples.

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Pshavi (ფშავი) is a small historic region of northern Georgia, nowadays part of the Mtskheta-Mtianeti mkhare, ("region"), and lying chiefly among the southern foothills of the Greater Caucasus mountains along the Pshavis Aragvi River and the upper reaches of the Iori River in the neighbouring region of Tianeti to the south-east.

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Racha (also Račha,, Račʼa) is a highland area in western Georgia, located in the upper Rioni river valley and hemmed in by the Greater Caucasus mountains.

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Relative clause

A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

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Romanization of Georgian

Romanization of Georgian is the process of transliterating the Georgian language from the Georgian script into the Latin script.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Saingilo (საინგილო) is a 19th-century term that is used to indicate parts of the districts of Balakan, Zaqatala and Qakh—territory of 4,780 km2—currently parts of Azerbaijan, populated by the ethnic Georgians—Ingiloi.

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Samegrelo (სამეგრელო Samegrelo; სამარგალო Samargalo; მარგალონა Margalona, Segān) is a historic province in the western part of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi.

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Screeve is a term of grammatical description in traditional Georgian grammars that roughly corresponds to tense–aspect–mood marking in the Western grammatical tradition.

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Shota Rustaveli

Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი, c. 1160—after c. 1220), mononymously known simply as Rustaveli, was a medieval Georgian poet.

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South Ossetia

South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Svan language

The Svan language (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people.

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Svaneti or Svanetia (Suania in ancient sources) (სვანეთი Svaneti) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country.

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The Svans (სვანი, Svani) are an ethnic subgroup of the Georgians (Kartvelians)Stephen F. Jones.

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Syncope (phonology)

In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

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The Knight in the Panther's Skin

The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი literally "one with a skin of a tiger") is a Georgian medieval epic poem, written in the 12th century by Georgia's national poet Shota Rustaveli.

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Topic and comment

In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Tusheti (თუშეთი) is an historic region in northeast Georgia.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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In linguistic typology, a Verb–object–subject or Verb–object–agent language – commonly abbreviated VOS or VOA – is one in which the most-typical sentences arrange their elements in that order which would (in English) equate to something like "Ate oranges Sam.".

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In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).

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The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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Redirects here:

Georgian (language), Georgian Language, Georgian Language and Alphabet, Georgian phonology, Georigan languge, ISO 639:geo, ISO 639:ka, ISO 639:kat, Kartuli, Kartuli Ena, Middle Georgian, Middle Georgian language, Mtavruli, Nuclear Georgian language, ქართული, ქართული ენა.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_language

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