160 relations: Adjara, Adjaran dialect, Adjarians, Alexander Mikaberidze, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Apostles, Assyria, Autocephaly, Şavşat, Babylonian captivity, Bible, Black Sea Region, Byzantine Empire, Cappadocia, Caspian Sea, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Georgia, Caucasus, Christendom, Christianity in Georgia (country), Christianization of Iberia, Civilization, Colchis, Common Era, Cornell University Press, Culture of Georgia (country), Cyril Toumanoff, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Demographics of Georgia (country), Demographics of Georgia (U.S. state), Diauehi, Dvals, Early modern period, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ethnic group, European cuisine, Fereydan, Fereydunshahr, George V of Georgia, Georgia (country), Georgia within the Russian Empire, Georgian Americans, Georgian cuisine, Georgian dialects, Georgian era, Georgian Golden Age, Georgian language, Georgian Orthodox Church, ..., Georgian scripts, Georgians, Georgians in Turkey, Ghilman, Grigol Peradze, Guria, Hagiography, Hanafi, Haplogroup G-M201, Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup R1a, Haplogroup R1b, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Heraclius II of Georgia, Hereti, Herodotus, History of the Jews in Georgia, Homer, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Icon, Imereti, Imerkhevi, Ingiloy people, Iran, Iranian Georgians, Islam, Islam in Georgia (country), Italian National Institute of Statistics, Ithaca, Jacques de Vitry, Japheth, Javakheti, Javakhians, Jean Chardin, Josephus, Judaism, Kakheti, Kartli, Kartlos, Kartvelian languages, Keipi, Khevi, Khevsureti, Khevsurians, Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of Imereti, Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, Klarjeti, Laz language, Laz people, Lazistan Sanjak, Lechkhumi, List of Georgians, Lists of Georgian monarchs, Livy, London School of Economics, Mamluk, Meskheti, Meskhetians, Middle Ages, Milliyet, Mingrelian language, Mingrelians, Mithraism, Mongol Empire, Mtiuleti, Mushki, Neolithic, New York (state), North Ossetia-Alania, Official language, Ottoman Empire, Paganism, Peace of Acilisene, Peoples of the Caucasus, Persian language, Plutarch, Principality of Tao-Klarjeti, Pshavi, Qizilbash, Racha, Russian Empire, Russian Empire Census, Saingilo, Saint George, Saint Nino, Samegrelo, Secularism and irreligion in Georgia (country), South Ossetia, Soviet Union, State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia, Strabo, Sunni Islam, Svan language, Svaneti, Svans, Tacitus, Tamada, Taochi, Tbilisi, The Georgian Chronicles, Tiglath-Pileser I, Treaty of Georgievsk, Tusheti, Tushetians, Urartu, Western Asia, Zaqatala District, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (110 more) » « Shrink index
Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.
The Adjaran dialect (also called Ach'aruli, Acharuli, Adjaruli, Ajaruli, Adzharuli, Acharian, Adjarian, Ajarian, Adzharian, Acharan, Adjaran, Ajaran, Adzharan, Achar, Adjar, Ajar, and Adzhar / აჭარული) is one of the Georgian dialects.
The Adjarians (აჭარლები, Ačarlebi) are an ethnographic group of Georgians that mostly live in Adjara in south-western Georgia.
Alexander Mikaberidze (ალექსანდრე მიქაბერიძე; born 27 January 1978) is a Georgian lawyer, author and historian who specializes in Napoleonic studies, Russian history and Georgian history.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
Şavşat (Georgian: შავშეთი/Shavsheti) is a town and district of Artvin Province in the Black Sea region, between the cities of Artvin and Kars on the border with Georgia at the far eastern end of Turkey.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Georgia, since the 11th-century East–West Schism, has been composed mainly of Latin-Rite Catholics; Catholic communities of the Armenian Rite have existed in the country since the 18th century.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Christendom has several meanings.
Today 84% of the population in Georgia practices Orthodox '''Christianity''', primarily the Georgian Orthodox Church.
The Christianization of Iberia (ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language and alphabet.
Cyril Leo Heraclius, Prince Toumanoff (Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Byzantine Empire.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.
The demographic features of the population of Georgia include population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
The demographics of Georgia are inclusive of the ninth most populous state in the United States, with over 9.68 million people (2010 census), just over 3% of America's population.
Diauehi or Daiaeni (დიაოხი, Diaokhi) was a coalition of Georgian tribes, or kingdoms, located in northeastern Anatolia, that was formed in the 12th century BC in the post-Hittite period.
The Dvals (დვალები, Dvalebi; Туалтæ, Twaltæ) were an old people in the Caucasus, their lands lying on both sides of the central Greater Caucasus mountains, somewhere between the Darial and Mamison gorges.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries,.
Fereydan (فریدن, ფერეიდანი, Փերիա) is a region of Isfahan Province, Iran.
Fereydunshahr (فریدونشهر, მარტყოფი "Martqopi") is a city and capital of Fereydunshahr County, about 150 kilometres west of the city of Isfahan in the western part of Isfahan Province, Iran.
George V the Brilliant (გიორგი V ბრწყინვალე, Giorgi V Brtskinvale; also translated as the Illustrious, or Magnificent; 1286/1289–1346) was King of Georgia from 1299 to 1302 and again from 1314 until his death.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The country of Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.
Georgian Americans (tr) are Americans of full or partial Georgian ancestry.
Georgian cuisine (kartuli samzareulo) refers to the cooking styles and dishes created by Georgian people.
Georgian (ქართული, Kartuli) is a Kartvelian language spoken by about 4.1 million people, primarily in Georgia but also in Russia, northern Turkey, in previously Georgian-controlled territories and the diaspora, such as in Iran, Azerbaijan and Europe.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
The Georgian Golden Age (tr) describes a historical period in the High Middle Ages, spanning from roughly the late 11th to 13th centuries, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its power and development.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Georgians in Turkey (ქართველები თურქეთში) refers to citizens and denizens of Turkey who are, or descend from, ethnic Georgians who originate in Georgia.
Ghilman (singular غُلاَم,Other standardized transliterations: /.. plural غِلْمَان)Other standardized transliterations: /..
Saint Grigol Peradze (გრიგოლ ფერაძე) (St. Priest Martyr Grigol), (September 13, 1899 – December 6, 1942) was a famous Georgian ecclesiastic figure, theologian, historian, Archimandrite, PhD of History, Professor.
Guria (გურია) is a region (mkhare) in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
The Heinrich Böll Foundation (German: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung e.V., hbs) is a German, legally independent political foundation.
Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
The Kingdom of Hereti (ჰერეთის სამეფო), was a medieval monarchy which emerged in Caucasus on the Iberian-Albanian frontier.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები kartveli ebraelebi) are one of the oldest communities in Georgia, tracing their migration into the country during the Babylonian captivity in 6th century BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Imereti (Georgian: იმერეთი) is a region in Georgia situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni River.
Imerkhevi is a valley in the north of the Şavşat district in the Artvin Province of Turkey, along the border with Georgia.
Ingiloys (Hers) (ინგილოები/ჰერები) or Ingiloi are an ethnic group of Georgian descent, living in northwestern Azerbaijan.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian Georgians (ირანის ქართველები; گرجیهای ایران) are Iranian citizens who are ethnically Georgian, and are an ethnic group living in Iran.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Georgia was introduced in 654 when an army sent by the Third Caliph of Islam, Uthman, conquered Eastern Georgia and established Muslim rule in Tbilisi.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
Ithaca, Ithaki or Ithaka (Greek: Ιθάκη, Ithakē) is a Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, off the northeast coast of Kefalonia and to the west of continental Greece.
Jacques de Vitry (Jacobus de Vitriaco, c. 1160/70 – 1 May 1240) was a French canon regular who was a noted theologian and chronicler of his era.
Japheth (Ἰάφεθ; Iafeth, Iapheth, Iaphethus, Iapetus), is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, and subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Anatolia.
Javakheti (ჯავახეთი; Ջավախք, Javakhk) is a historical province in southern Georgia, corresponding to the modern Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda municipalities.
Javakhians (ჯავახები) are an ethnic subgroup of Georgians, mainly living in Javakheti.
Jean Chardin (16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.
Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
Kartlos is the eponymous ancestor of the Georgians (Kartvelians) in Georgian mythology, more specifically of the nation of Kartli (Caucasian Iberia).
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
A Keipi (ქეიფი) or festivity supra is a traditional banquet feast in Georgia.
Khevi (ხევი) is a small historical-geographic area in northeastern Georgia.
Khevsureti (Georgian: ხევსურეთი, a land of valleys) is a historical-ethnographic region in eastern Georgia.
Khevsurians in traditional dress (apr. 1900) Khevsurians (ხევსურები) are an ethnographical group of Georgians, mainly living in Khevsureti, on both sides of the Caucasus Mountain Chain in the watersheds of the rivers Aragvi and Argun.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kingdom of Imereti (იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.
The Klarjeti (კლარჯეთი) was a province of ancient and medieval Georgia, which is now part of the Turkey's Artvin Province.
The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
Lazistan (ლაზონა / Lazona, ლაზეთი / Lazeti, ჭანეთი / Ç'aneti; لازستان, Lazistān) was the Ottoman administrative name for the sanjak, under Trebizond Vilayet, comprising the Laz or Lazuri-speaking population on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
Lechkhumi (Georgian: ლეჩხუმი, Lečxumi) is a historic province in northwestern Georgia which comprises the area along the middle basin of the Rioni and Tskhenistskali and also the Lajanuri river valley.
This is a list of notable Georgians.
This article lists Georgian monarchs, and includes monarchs of the British Georgian era and monarchs of the former Kingdom of Georgia.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Meskheti (მესხეთი), also known as Samtskhe (სამცხე), is in a mountainous area of Moschia in southwestern Georgia.
Meskhetians (Meskhebi) are an ethnographic subgroup of Georgians who speak Meskhetian dialect of Georgian language and mostly live in the historical region of Meskheti, in southern Georgia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milliyet (Turkish for "nationality") is a major Turkish daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.
Mingrelian or Megrelian (მარგალური ნინა margaluri nina) is a Kartvelian language spoken in Western Georgia (regions of Samegrelo and Abkhazia), primarily by Mingrelians.
The Megrelians (Megrelian: მარგალი, margali; მეგრელები: megrelebi) or Mingrelians are an ethnic subgroup of Georgians that mostly live in Samegrelo region of Georgia.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mtiuleti (მთიულეთი; literally, "the land of mountains") is a historical province in eastern Georgia, on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains.
The Mushki were an Iron Age people of Anatolia who appear in sources from Assyria but not from the Hittites.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (p; Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон-Алани, Respublikæ Cægat Iryston-Alani) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Peace of Acilisene was a treaty between the East Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire sometime between 384 and 390 (usually dated to 387) which divided Greater Armenia between these two empires.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Principality of Tao-KlarjetiValeri Silogava, Kakha Shengelia.
Pshavi (ფშავი) is a small historic region of northern Georgia, nowadays part of the Mtskheta-Mtianeti mkhare, ("region"), and lying chiefly among the southern foothills of the Greater Caucasus mountains along the Pshavis Aragvi River and the upper reaches of the Iori River in the neighbouring region of Tianeti to the south-east.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
Racha (also Račha,, Račʼa) is a highland area in western Georgia, located in the upper Rioni river valley and hemmed in by the Greater Caucasus mountains.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Saingilo (საინგილო) is a 19th-century term that is used to indicate parts of the districts of Balakan, Zaqatala and Qakh—territory of 4,780 km2—currently parts of Azerbaijan, populated by the ethnic Georgians—Ingiloi.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint Nino (წმინდა ნინო, ts'minda nino; Սուրբ Նունե, Surb Nune; Αγία Νίνα, Agía Nína; sometimes St. Nune or St. Ninny) Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia (c. 296 – c. 338 or 340) was a woman who preached Christianity in Georgia, that resulted from the Christianization of Iberia.
Samegrelo (სამეგრელო Samegrelo; სამარგალო Samargalo; მარგალონა Margalona, Segān) is a historic province in the western part of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi.
Secularism and irreligion in Georgia was most popular in the 20th century when the country was part of the Soviet Union.
South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The State Minister's Office on Diaspora Issues of Georgia (დიასპორის საკითხებში საქართველოს სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატი, diasporis sakitkhebshi sakartvelos sakhelmtsipo ministris aparati) was a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Georgia in charge of establishing and maintaining contacts with the Georgian diaspora abroad.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Svan language (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people.
Svaneti or Svanetia (Suania in ancient sources) (სვანეთი Svaneti) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country.
The Svans (სვანი, Svani) are an ethnic subgroup of the Georgians (Kartvelians)Stephen F. Jones.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
A tamada (თამადა) is a Georgian toastmaster at a Georgian supra (feast) or at a wedding, corresponding to the symposiarch at the Greek symposion or the thyle at the Anglo-Saxon sumbel.
The Taochi, or Taochoi (ტაოხები, Taochebi) were a people of Anatolia in antiquity, known mainly from Greco-Roman ethnography.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Georgian Chronicles is a conventional English name for the principal compendium of medieval Georgian historical texts, natively known as Kartlis Tskhovreba (ქართლის ცხოვრება), literally "Life of Kartli", Kartli being a core region of ancient and medieval Georgia, known to the Classical and Byzantine authors as Iberia.
Tiglath-Pileser I (from the Hebraic form of 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒊹𒊏 Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Ešarra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC).
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
Tusheti (თუშეთი) is an historic region in northeast Georgia.
The Tushetians, or Tush, are a subgroup of Georgians who mainly live in Tusheti.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Zaqatala (italic, translit) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.