158 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Abraham Ortelius, Age of Discovery, Andreas Vesalius, Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, Architecture, Aristotle, Arras, Astrolabe, Astrology, Astronomical clock, Astronomical rings, Astronomy, Atlas, Atlas (mythology), Atlas of Mauretania, Austrian National Library, Belgium, Blackletter, Bourgeoisie, Brethren of the Common Life, British Library, Calendar, Calligraphy, Canon law, Cartography, Catholic Church, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Christian, Chronology, Compass (drawing tool), Conus mercator, Coroner, Cosmography, County of Flanders, County of Mark, Crimea, Duchy of Brabant, Duchy of Jülich, Duchy of Westphalia, Duisburg, Dynasty, Earth's magnetic field, Earthquake, Eclipse, Edward Wright (mathematician), Engraving, Equirectangular projection, Erasmus, Faculty of Theology, Old University of Leuven, ..., Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Fortification, Franciscans, Franciscus Monachus, Frankfurt Book Fair, Frederik de Wit, Gall–Peters projection, Gangelt, Gaspard van der Heyden, Geert Groote, Gemma Frisius, Geographer, Geometry, George Cassander, Gerardus Mercator, Germany, Globe, Globe Museum, Globes, Gore (segment), Gospel, Great Council of Mechelen, Habsburg Netherlands, Henricus Hondius II, Henry VIII of England, History of cartography, Holy Roman Empire, Humanism, Iceland, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, Inquisition, Isatis tinctoria, Italic script, Jacob van Deventer (cartographer), Jacob Ziegler, Jacobus Latomus, Jan Janssonius, Jean Carondelet, Joan Blaeu, Joannes Molanus, Jodocus Hondius, John Dee, John William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Juanelo Turriano, Julian day, Latin, Leuven, Liberal arts education, Lithuania, Livonia, Logic, London, Lotharingia, Low Franconian languages, Lutheranism, Macropedius, Magister degree, Marshal, Martin Frobisher, Martin Luther, Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands), Mauretania, Mechelen, Mercator (ship), Mercator 1569 world map, Mercator projection, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle, Norway, Old Testament, Old University of Leuven, Oronce Finé, Ostend, Pedro Nunes, Philip Melanchthon, Plantin Press, Plantin-Moretus Museum, Pliny the Elder, Protestantism, Prussia, Ptolemy, Quadrivium, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rhetoric, Rhumb line, Roman law, Ruard Tapper, Rumold Mercator, Rupelmonde, Sarmatians, Scholasticism, Scriptorium, Snake, Styria (Slovenia), Surveying, Sweden, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Time, Titan (mythology), Transylvania, Trigonometry, Trivium, Types of volcanic eruptions, United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Universe, University of Chicago Press, University of Duisburg, University of Duisburg-Essen, Volcano. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.
Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (20 August 151721 September 1586), Comte de La Baume Saint Amour, was a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century".
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.
Astronomical rings (Latin: annuli astronomici), also known as Gemma's rings, are an early astronomical instrument.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.
In Greek mythology, Atlas (Ἄτλας, Átlas) was a Titan condemned to hold up the sky for eternity after the Titanomachy.
Atlas was a legendary king of Mauretania, the land of the Mauri in antiquity roughly corresponding with modern Maghreb.
The Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Brethren of the Common Life (Latin: Fratres Vitae Communis, FVC) was a Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
A pair of compasses, also known simply as a bow compass, is a technical drawing instrument that can be used for inscribing circles or arcs.
Conus mercator, common name the trader cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.
Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the cosmos or universe, describing both heaven and Earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy).
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Mark (Grafschaft Mark, Comté de La Marck colloquially known as Die Mark) was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
The Duchy of Jülich (Herzogtum Jülich; Hertogdom Gulik; Duché de Juliers) comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries.
The Duchy of Westphalia (Herzogtum Westfalen) was a historic territory in the Holy Roman Empire, which existed from 1180.
Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
Edward Wright (baptised 8 October 1561; died November 1615) was an English mathematician and cartographer noted for his book Certaine Errors in Navigation (1599; 2nd ed., 1610), which for the first time explained the mathematical basis of the Mercator projection, and set out a reference table giving the linear scale multiplication factor as a function of latitude, calculated for each minute of arc up to a latitude of 75°.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
The equirectangular projection (also called the equidistant cylindrical projection, geographic projection, or la carte parallélogrammatique projection, and which includes the special case of the plate carrée projection or geographic projection) is a simple map projection attributed to Marinus of Tyre, who Ptolemy claims invented the projection about AD 100.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
The Old University of Leuven was established in 1425 with Faculties of Arts, Medicine, Law; however, the university did not have a Faculty of Theology initially.
Ferdinando II de' Medici (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) was grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franciscus Monachus, (c. 1490-1565) was born Frans Smunck in Mechelen (or Malines) in the Duchy of Brabant (in modern-day Belgium).
The Frankfurt Book Fair (FBF; Frankfurter Buchmesse) is the world's largest trade fair for books, based both on the number of publishing companies represented, and the number of visitors.
Frederick de Wit (1629/1630 – 1706) was a cartographer and artist who drew, printed and sold maps.
The Gall–Peters projection is a rectangular map projection that maps all areas such that they have the correct sizes relative to each other.
Gangelt is a municipality in the district of Heinsberg, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Gaspard van der Heyden (also known as Gaspar à Myrica) (c. 1496–c. 1549) was a goldsmith, engraver, master printer and builder of precision astronomical instruments including terrestrial and celestial globes from Leuven, Belgium.
Gerard Groote (October 1340 – 20 August 1384), otherwise Gerrit or Gerhard Groet, in Latin Gerardus Magnus, was a Dutch Roman Catholic deacon, who was a popular preacher and the founder of the Brethren of the Common Life.
Gemma Frisius (born Jemme Reinerszoon; December 9, 1508 – May 25, 1555), was a Dutch physician, mathematician, cartographer, philosopher, and instrument maker.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
George Cassander (or Cassant) (1513 – 3 February 1566) was a Flemish theologian.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A globe is a spherical model of Earth, of some other celestial body, or of the celestial sphere.
The Globe Museum (Globenmuseum), in the Palais Mollard, Vienna, Austria, is part of the Austrian National Library.
Globes (גלובס) is a Hebrew-language daily evening financial newspaper, the largest and the oldest of its kind in Israel.
A gore is a sector of a curved surface or the curved surface that lies between two close lines of longitude on a globe and may be flattened to a plane surface with little distortion.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
From the 15th century onwards, the Great Council of the Netherlands at Mechelen (Dutch: De Grote Raad der Nederlanden te Mechelen; French: le grand conseil des Pays-Bas à Malines; German: der Grosse Rat der Niederlände zu Mecheln) was the highest court in the Burgundian Netherlands.
Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.
Henricus Hondius II or Hendrik Hondius the Younger (1597 – 16 August 1651) was a Dutch engraver, cartographer and publisher.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
Isatis tinctoria, also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae.
Italic script, also known as chancery cursive, is a semi-cursive, slightly sloped style of handwriting and calligraphy that was developed during the Renaissance in Italy.
Jacob Roelofs van Deventer (c. 1500/1505 in Kampen – 1575 in Cologne) was a Dutch cartographer of the Renaissance.
The humanist and theologian Jacob Ziegler (c. 1470/71 — August 1549) of Landau in Bavaria, was an itinerant scholar of geography and cartographer, who lived a wandering life in Europe.
Jacobus Latomus (or Jacques Masson) (ca. 1475, Cambron – 29 May 1544, Leuven)Juhász, 320.
Johannes Janssonius (1588, Arnhem – buried July 11, 1664, Amsterdam) (born Jan Janszoon, in English also Jan Jansson) was a Dutch cartographer and publisher who lived and worked in Amsterdam in the 17th century.
Jean II Carondelet (1469 in Dôle – 7 February 1545 in Mechelen), was a Burgundian cleric, politician, jurist and one of the most important advisors to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Joan Blaeu (23 September 1596 – 21 December 1673) was a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu.
Joannes Molanus (1533–1585), often cited simply as Molanus, is the Latinized name of Jan Vermeulen or Van der Meulen, an influential Counter Reformation Catholic theologian of Louvain University, where he was Professor of Theology, and Rector from 1578.
Jodocus Hondius (Latinized version of his Dutch name: Joost de Hondt) (14 October 1563 – 12 February 1612) was a Flemish engraver and cartographer.
John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.
Johann Wilhelm of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (Johann Wilhelm, Herzog zu Kleve, Jülich und Berg) (28 May 1562 – 25 March 1609) was a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
Juanelo Turriano (Gianello Torriano; born Giovanni Torriani, c. 1500 — 1585) was an Italo-Spanish clockmaker, engineer and mathematician.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leuven or Louvain (Louvain,; Löwen) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Georgius Macropedius (1487, possibly 23 April, to the end of July 1558), also known as Joris van Lanckvelt, was a Dutch humanist, schoolmaster and 'the greatest Latin playwright of the 16th century'.
A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Sir Martin Frobisher (c. 1535 – 22 November 1594) was an English seaman and privateer who made three voyages to the New World looking for the North-west Passage.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mary of Austria (15 September 1505 – 18 October 1558), also known as Mary of Hungary, was queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of King Louis II, and was later Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
Mechelen (Malines, traditional English name: MechlinMechelen has been known in English as Mechlin, from where the adjective Mechlinian is derived. This name may still be used, especially in a traditional or historical context. The city's French name Malines had also been used in English in the past (in the 19th and 20th century) however this has largely been abandoned. Meanwhile, the Dutch derived Mechelen began to be used in English increasingly from late 20th century onwards, even while Mechlin remained still in use (for example a Mechlinian is an inhabitant of this city or someone seen as born-and-raised there; the term is also the name of the city dialect; as an adjective Mechlinian may refer to the city or to its dialect.) is a city and municipality in the province of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel (adjacent) and Battel (a few kilometers away), as well as the villages of Walem, Heffen, Leest, Hombeek, and Muizen. The Dyle (Dijle) flows through the city, hence it is often referred to as the Dijlestad ("City on the river Dijle"). Mechelen lies on the major urban and industrial axis Brussels–Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. Inhabitants find employment at Mechelen's southern industrial and northern office estates, as well as at offices or industry near the capital and Zaventem Airport, or at industrial plants near Antwerp's seaport. Mechelen is one of Flanders' prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden.
The barquentine Mercator was designed by the Antarctic explorer Adrien de Gerlache (1866–1934) as a training ship for the Belgian merchant fleet.
The Mercator world map of 1569 is titled Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata (Renaissance Latin for "New and more complete representation of the terrestrial globe properly adapted for use in navigation").
The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569.
Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle (1486–1550) was a Burgundian politician who served as a close trusted advisor to Emperor Charles V. He was made suzerain of the imperial city of Besançon and held an influential position in the Netherlands.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Old University of Leuven (or of Louvain) is the name historians give to the university, or studium generale, founded in Leuven, Brabant (then part of the Burgundian Netherlands, now part of Belgium), in 1425.
Oronce Finé (or Fine; Latin: Orontius Finnaeus or Finaeus; Oronzio Fineo; 20 December 1494 – 8 August 1555) was a French mathematician and cartographer.
Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.
Pedro Nunes (Latin: Petrus Nonius; 1502 – 11 August 1578) was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family.
Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.
The Plantin Press at Antwerp was one of the focal centers of the fine printed book in the 16th century.
The Plantin-Moretus Museum (Plantin-Moretusmuseum) is a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium which focuses on the work of the 16th century printers Christophe Plantin and Jan Moretus.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
In navigation, a rhumb line, rhumb, or loxodrome is an arc crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, that is, a path with constant bearing as measured relative to true or magnetic north.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Ruard Tapper (1487–1559) was a Dutch theologian of the Catholic Reformation, and a chancellor of Leuven University.
Rumold Mercator (1545–1599) was a cartographer and the son of cartographer Gerardus Mercator.
Rupelmonde is a town in the municipality of Kruibeke, in the Belgian province of East Flanders.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Styria (Štajerska), also Slovenian Styria (Slovenska Štajerska) or Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska; Untersteiermark), is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ("Theatre of the World") is considered to be the first true modern atlas.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Jülich-Cleves-Berg was the name of two former territories across the modern German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the modern Dutch province of Gelderland.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The old University of Duisburg was a university in Duisburg.
The University of Duisburg-Essen (Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Atlas Cosmographicae, Geert de Kremer, Geradus Mercator, Gerard Mercator, Gerard de Cremer, Gerard de Cremere, Gerard de Kremer, Gerhard Kramer, Gerhard Kremer, Gerhard Mercator, Gerhardt Mercator, Gerhardus Mercator, Gheert Cremer, Mercator, Gerardus, Mercatorian.