104 relations: Adolf Hitler, Allied-occupied Germany, Allies of World War II, Anschluss, Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, Austria-Hungary, Austro-Prussian War, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic Treaty, 1972, Berlin Declaration (1945), British Empire, Bundestag, Cameroon, Cisleithania, Confederation, Constitution of the German Empire, Das Dritte Reich, Der Spiegel, Dutch Empire, East Germany, East Prussia, Emperor, Encyclopædia Britannica, Exclusive mandate, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal State of Austria, Flensburg, Flensburg Government, Former eastern territories of Germany, Frankfurt Constitution, French colonial empire, French Fourth Republic, Geneva Conventions, German colonial empire, German Confederation, German Empire, German Instrument of Surrender, German language, German nationalism, German Question, German Revolution of 1918–19, German revolutions of 1848–49, Germans, Germany, Germany (disambiguation), Greater Germanic Reich, Hall of Mirrors, Hans Lammers, History of Germany since 1990, Holy Roman Empire, ..., Imperialism, Jus sanguinis, Karl Dönitz, Kellogg–Briand Pact, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Saxony, Länder, List of monarchs of Prussia, Luxembourg, Namibia, Nation state, National colours of Germany, National liberalism, Nazi Germany, North German Confederation, Nuremberg trials, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Oder–Neisse line, Otto von Bismarck, Palace of Versailles, Pan-Germanism, Polish People's Republic, Polynesia, Popular sovereignty, Potsdam Conference, Presidency, Province of Posen, Province of Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, Prussia (region), Reichstag (German Empire), Russian Empire, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, Sprachraum, States of Germany, Succession of states, Tanzania, The System (Nazism), Togo, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Unification of Germany, United Kingdom, United States, Wehrmacht, Weimar Constitution, Weimar Republic, West Germany, West Prussia, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William I, German Emperor, World War I, World War II. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (23 April 1876 – 30 May 1925) was a German cultural historian and writer, best known for his controversial 1923 book Das Dritte Reich (The Third Reich), which promoted German nationalism and was a strong influence on the Conservative Revolutionary movement and later the Nazi Party.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) is the shorthand name for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (Vertrag über die Grundlagen der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).
By the Berlin Declaration (Berliner Erklärung/Deklaration) of 5 June 1945,Officially, the "Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority with respect to Germany by the Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic".
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
The Constitution of the German Empire (Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1918, from 16 April 1871, coming into effect on 4 May 1871.
Das Dritte Reich (3) is a 1923 book by German author Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, the ideology of which heavily influenced the Nazi Party.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal State of Austria (Austrian German: Bundesstaat Österreich ; colloquially known as the Ständestaat, "Corporate State") was a continuation of the First Austrian Republic between 1934 and 1938 when it was a one-party state led by the clerico-fascist Fatherland Front.
Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Flensburg Government (Flensburger Regierung), also known as the Flensburg Cabinet (Flensburger Kabinett), the Dönitz Government (Regierung Dönitz), or the Schwerin von Krosigk Cabinet (Kabinett Schwerin von Krosigk), was the short-lived government of Nazi Germany during a period of three weeks around the end of World War II in Europe.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
The German colonial empire (Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Germany (officially the Federal Republic of Germany) is a European country.
The Greater Germanic Reich (Großgermanisches Reich), fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation (Großgermanisch Reich der Deutschen Nation) is the official state name of the political entity that Nazi Germany tried to establish in Europe during World War II.
The Hall of Mirrors (Grande Galerie or Galerie des Glaces) is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.
Hans Heinrich Lammers (27 May 18794 January 1962) was a German jurist and prominent Nazi politician.
The history of Germany since 1990 spans the period following the Reunification of Germany, when West Germany and East Germany were reunited after being divided during the Cold War.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
The Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris, officially General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy) is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them".
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
Länder (singular Land) or Bundesländer (singular Bundesland) is the name for (federal) states in 2 German-speaking countries.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The national colours of the Federal Republic of Germany are officially black, red, and gold, defined with the adoption of the West German flag as a tricolour with these colours in 1949.
National liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal policies and issues with elements of nationalism and/or a term used to describe a series of European political parties that have been especially active in the 19th century in several national contexts from Central Europe to the Nordic countries and Southeast Europe.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
A presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation.
The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.
The Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Provinz Schleswig-Holstein) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
The Reichstag (Diet of the Realm or Imperial Diet) was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In linguistics, a sprachraum ("language space") is a geographical region where a common first language (mother tongue), with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
"The System" (German: Das System) was a derogatory term used by the Nazis to denote contemptuously the Weimar Republic, whose official name was German Reich (Deutsches Reich), and its institutions.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Province of West Prussia (Provinz Westpreußen; Zôpadné Prësë; Prusy Zachodnie) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1824 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); it also briefly formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia until 1919/20.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.