108 relations: Alsace, Alsatian dialect, Amana Colonies, Americas, Ashkenazi Jews, Austin, Texas, Carinthia, Central Bavarian, Central German, Chile, Colonia Tovar dialect, Community of True Inspiration, Dialect, Dialect continuum, Dutch language, Dutch Low Saxon, Early modern period, Early New High German, East Franconian German, East Low German, Education, Espírito Santo, Ethnologue, Friedrich Maurer (linguist), Frisian languages, Geographical distribution of German speakers, German Brazilians, German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue, German language, Germans, Hanseatic League, Hessian dialects, High Alemannic German, High Franconian German, High German consonant shift, High German languages, High Prussian dialect, Highest Alemannic German, History of German, Hutterite German, Iowa, Language, Latin script, Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects, Lexicon, Lingua franca, Linguistics, Llanquihue Lake, Lorraine Franconian, Low Alemannic German, ..., Low Franconian languages, Low German, Luther Bible, Luxembourg, Luxembourgish, Main (river), Martin Luther, Middle Low German, Missingsch, Moselle Franconian dialects, Mutual intelligibility, Norddeutscher Rundfunk, North Hesse, North Sea Germanic, North Upper Saxon, Northern Bavarian, Official script, Palatinate (region), Paraná (state), Pennsylvania German language, Petuh, Phonology, Pluricentric language, Poland, Rhine Franconian dialects, Rio de Janeiro (state), Rio Grande do Sul, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch German, Ripuarian language, Romania, Russia, San Antonio, Santa Catarina (state), Sathmar Swabian, Silesian German, South Franconian German, Southern Bavarian, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Standard German, Swabian German, Syntax, Texas, Thuringian dialect, Transylvanian Saxon dialect, Uerdingen line, University of Texas at Austin, Upper German, Upper Saxon German, Variety (linguistics), Venezuela, West Central German, West Germanic languages, West Low German, Wisconsin German, World War II, Wymysorys language, Yiddish. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
The Amana Colonies are seven villages on located in Iowa County in east-central Iowa, United States: Amana (or Main Amana), East Amana, High Amana, Middle Amana, South Amana, West Amana, and Homestead.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
Central Bavarian, also known as Central Austro-Bavarian, form a subgroup of Bavarian dialects in large parts of Austria and the German state of Bavaria along the Danube river, on the northern side of the Eastern Alps.
Central German (Mitteldeutsche Dialekte) is a group of High German dialects spoken from the Rhineland in the west to the former eastern territories of Germany.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German.
The Community of True Inspiration, also known as the True Inspiration Congregations, Inspirationalists, and the Amana Church Society) were a group of Germans, Swiss and Austrians from a number of backgrounds and socioeconomic areas who settled in West Seneca, New York, after purchasing land from an Indian reservation. They later moved to Amana, Iowa, when they became dissatisfied with the congestion of Erie County and the growth of Buffalo, New York.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch Low Saxon (Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: Nederlaands Leegsaksies) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
East Franconian (Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (Fränkisch) in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia, the northern part of the federal state of Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Meiningen, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim.
East Low German (Ostniederdeutsche Dialekte) is a group of Low German dialects spoken in north-eastern Germany as well as by minorities in northern Poland.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Friedrich Maurer (5 January 1898 – 7 November 1984) was a German linguist and medievalist.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
In addition to the German-speaking area (Deutscher Sprachraum) in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.
German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin.
From 1850 to 1875 the region around Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue in Southern Chile received some 6,000 German immigrants as part of a state-led colonization scheme.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hessian (Hessisch) is a West Central German group of dialects of the German language in the central German state of Hesse.
High Alemannic is a dialect of Alemannic German spoken in the westernmost Austrian state of Voralberg, on the border with Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
High Franconian (oberfränkische Dialekte) is a part of High German consisting of East Franconian and South Franconian.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
High Prussian (Hochpreußisch) is the group of East Central German dialects in former East Prussia, in present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Highest Alemannic (Hegschtalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German and is often considered to be part of the German language, even though mutual intelligibility with Standard German and other non-Alemannic German dialects is very limited.
The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift.
Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects are part of East Central German dialects spoken in the central and southern parts of Brandenburg as well as in Berlin.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lake Llanquihue is the second largest lake in Chile with an area of about.
Lorraine Franconian (Lorraine Franconian: Plàtt, lothrìnger Plàtt; francique lorrain, platt lorrain; Lothringisch) is an ambiguous designation for dialects of West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch), a group of High German dialects spoken in the Moselle department of the former north-eastern French region of Lorraine (See Linguistic boundary of Moselle).
Low Alemannic (Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German, which is part of Upper German.
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The Main (is a river in Germany. With a length of (including its 52 km long source river White Main), it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany (if the Weser and the Werra are considered as two separate rivers; together they are longer). The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Missingsch is a type of Low-German-coloured dialect or sociolect of German.
Moselle Franconian (German Moselfränkisch) is a group of West Central German dialects, part of the Central Franconian language area.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR; Northern German Broadcasting) is a public radio and television broadcaster, based in Hamburg.
North Hesse (Nordhessen) describes the northern part and historical heart of the German federal state of Hesse.
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.
North Upper Saxon (Nordobersächsisch) is a Central German dialect spoken in Eastern Germany.
Northern Bavarian is a dialect of the Bavarian language, together with Central Bavarian and Southern Bavarian.
An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.
The Palatinate (die Pfalz, Pfälzer dialect: Palz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany.
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
Pennsylvania German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania italic, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch,; often called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a variety of West Central German spoken by the Old Order Amish, Old Order Mennonites and other descendants of German immigrants in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine dialects.
Petuh (Petu) is a mixed language of Flensburg, a mixture of German, Low German, Danish, and Southern Jutish spoken in Flensburg on the German–Danish border.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Rhine Franconian (German), or Rhenish Franconian, is a dialect family of West Central German.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, spoken in parts of Brazil, is a Moselle Franconian variety derived primarily from the Hunsrückisch dialect of West Central German.
Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.
Sathmar Swabian is an Upper Swabian dialect of High German spoken in Romania in Satu Mare by the Sathmar Swabians, who are among the few Danube Swabians who are in fact Swabian.
Silesian German (Silesian German: Schläsche Sproache or Schläs'sche Sproche, Schlesisch) or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia.
South Franconian (Südfränkisch) is a High Franconian dialect which is spoken in the northernmost part of Baden-Württemberg in Germany, around Karlsruhe, Mosbach and Heilbronn.
Southern Bavarian, or Southern Austro-Bavarian, is a cluster of Upper German dialects of the Bavarian group.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria.
Transylvanian Saxon (Saxon: Siweberjesch-Såksesch or just Såksesch, or Siebenbürgisch-Sächsische Sprache) is the German dialect of the Transylvanian Saxons.
The Uerdingen Line (named after Uerdingen by Georg Wenker) is the isogloss within West Germanic languages that separates dialects which preserve the -k sound in the first person singular pronoun word "ik" (north of the line) from dialects in which the word final -k has changed to word final -ch in the word "ich" (IPA) (south of the line).
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).
Upper Saxon (Obersächsisch) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern German State of Saxony and in the adjacent parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
West Central German (Westmitteldeutsche Dialekte) belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
West Low German, also known as Low Saxon (Niedersächsisch or Westniederdeutsch; literally: Nether-saxon; Nedersassisch, Nedersaksies, Platduuts, Plat(t); Nedersaksisch) is a group of Low German (also Low Saxon; German: Niederdeutsch or Plattdeutsch, Dutch: Nederduits) dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark (in North Schleswig by the German minority).
The term Wisconsin German refers to both Wisconsin High German and to heritage dialects of German spoken in Wisconsin.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wymysorys (Wymysiöeryś), also known as Vilamovian or Wilamowicean, is a variety of High German, spoken in the small town of Wilamowice, Poland (Wymysoü in Wymysorys), on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland, near Bielsko-Biała.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.