676 relations: -ism, Aachen, Abrogans, Abseiling, Accusative case, Adelaide, Adelsverein, Affricate consonant, Afrikaans, Agent noun, Alberta, Alemanni, Alemannic German, Allgemeine Zeitung (Namibia), Alsace, Alsace bossue, Alsatian dialect, Alt code, Alveolar consonant, Amana Colonies, Amana German, American Sign Language, Americas, Amish, Ancient Greek, Anglo-Frisian languages, Angst, Ansatz, Anschluss, Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina, Antiqua (typeface class), Apartheid, Approximant consonant, Argentina, Article (grammar), Aryan, Ashkenazi Jews, Asia, Aspirated consonant, Australia, Australian English, Austria, Austrian German, Automat, Auxiliary verb, Azovsky Nemetsky National District, Österreichisches Wörterbuch, ß, Backpack, Baden-Württemberg, ..., Baltic Germans, Banat, Barossa German, Barossa Valley, Basel, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Bavaria, Bavarian language, Bühnendeutsch, BBC News, BBC World Service, Belgium, Benrath line, Bergish dialects, Berlin, Berlin, Wisconsin, Bertolt Brecht, Bildungsroman, Bilingual communes in Poland, Bismarck, North Dakota, Black Death, Blackletter, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brașov, Bratislava, Bratwurst, Brazil, Brazilian German, British Columbia, Brothers Grimm, Buda, Budapest, Burgenland, Canada, Canguçu, Capital ẞ, Captain Bluebear, Carinthia, Carl Schurz, Carl Spitteler, Carpathian Germans, Central Europe, Central Franconian dialects, Central German, Chancery (medieval office), Chicago, Chihuahua (state), Child prodigy, Chile, Cimbrian language, Cincinnati, Clause, Cognate, Coleslaw, Cologne, Colognian dialect, Colonia Tovar dialect, Comma, Compound (linguistics), Consonant cluster, Continuous and progressive aspects, Council for German Orthography, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish language, Danube Swabians, Das Erste, Dative case, Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf-Benrath, Delicatessen, Denglisch, Denmark, Dental fricative, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Deutsch, Deutsche Höhere Privatschule Windhoek, Deutsche Schule Pretoria, Deutsches Wörterbuch, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect, Dictionary, Diglossia, Diminutive, Diphthong, Domingos Martins, Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft, Doppelgänger, Dortmund, Dragon, Dramaturge, Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duden, Duisburg, Dunkard Township, Greene County, Pennsylvania, Durango, Dutch language, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Early New High German, East Bergish, East Central German, East Franconian German, East Germanic languages, East Prussia, Eastern Europe, Ecatepec de Morelos, Education, EES (rapper), Elbe, Elder Futhark, Electorate of Saxony, Elfriede Jelinek, Elias Canetti, English compound, English language, Epic poetry, Ersatz good, Erzgebirgisch, Espírito Santo, Ethnologue, Etymology, Europe, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, European Union, Faroese language, Fausto Cercignani, Feeding order, Figure of speech, Finite verb, First language, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Foreign language, Forest dieback, Fraktur, France, Franconia, Franconian languages, Frankfurt, Frankish language, Franz Kafka, Fredericksburg, Texas, French language, Fricative consonant, Friedrich Schiller, Friesland, Frisian languages, Fusional language, Future, Future perfect, Future tense, Görlitz, Günter Grass, Gemütlichkeit, Gemination, Genitive case, Geographical distribution of German speakers, George Oliver Curme, Georgslied, Gerhart Hauptmann, German Americans, German Braille, German Canadians, German dialects, German diaspora, German Empire, German Mexicans, German minority in Poland, German name, German New Guinea, German nouns, German orthography, German orthography reform of 1996, German South West Africa, German Standard German, German toponymy, German verbs, German-speaking Community of Belgium, German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia, Germanic languages, Germanic strong verb, Germanic umlaut, Germanic weak verb, Germanisation, Germanism (linguistics), Germans in the Czech Republic, Germans of Hungary, Germans of Romania, Germantown, Wisconsin, Germany, Glockenspiel, Gloss (annotation), Glossary, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Gore, New Zealand, Gothic language, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Grammar, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grand Est, Greek language, Guttural R, Habsburg Monarchy, Hamburg, Hanseatic League, Hartmann von Aue, Hebrew alphabet, Heilbronn, Heilbronn-Franken, Heiligenschein, Heinrich Böll, Heinrich Heine, Heinrich von Kleist, Hermann Hesse, Herta Müller, Hesse, Hessian dialects, High Alemannic German, High Franconian German, High German consonant shift, High German languages, High Prussian dialect, Highest Alemannic German, Hildebrandslied, Hinterland, History of German, History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, Hohenstaufen, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, Hutterite German, Hutterites, Icelandic language, Imperative mood, Indiana, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Inflection, Iowa, Irminones, Istvaeones, Italian language, Italy, Iwein, Jacob Grimm, Jan Hofer, Joachim Heinrich Campe, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kansas, Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, North Dakota, Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan Germans, Kerkrade dialect, Kiel, Wisconsin, Kindergarten, King Arthur, Kitchener, Ontario, Kitsch, Konrad Duden, Kraut, Krefeld, Kroondal, Kurrent, Labial consonant, Language, Language family, Language for specific purposes dictionary, Languages of Switzerland, Laranja da Terra, Last Judgment, Latin, Latin script, Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects, Leipzig, Leitmotif, Leontopodium nivale, Letter case, Letterhead, Lexicon, Liechtenstein, Limburgish, Lingua franca, Linguistics, List of German exonyms, List of German words of French origin, List of pseudo-German words adapted to English, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of terms used for Germans, List of territorial entities where German is an official language, Ljubljana, Loanword, Long s, Looting, Lorraine Franconian, Low Alemannic German, Low Franconian languages, Low German, Lower Austria, Lower Bavaria, Lower Franconia, Lower Rhine, Lower Saxony, Ludwigslied, Luther Bible, Luxembourg, Luxembourgish, Lyric poetry, Main-Franconian dialects, Manitoba, Marietta Slomka, Mark Twain, Martin Luther, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Mazatlán, Mòcheno language, Mecklenburg, Mennonites, Merchant, Merseburg charms, Metre (poetry), Meuse-Rhenish, Mexico City, Michael Clyne, Micronesia, Microsoft Windows, Middle Ages, Middle Franconia, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Migration Period, Milwaukee, Ministry of Education (Austria), Minnesota, Minority language, Missingsch, Modality (semiotics), Modern English, Modern Language Association, Monastery, Montana, Montreal, Moon, Morphology (linguistics), Moselle (department), Moselle Franconian dialects, Muenster, Texas, Munich, Munich, North Dakota, Muspilli, Mutual intelligibility, Names of Germany, Namibian Black German, Namibian Broadcasting Corporation, Nasal consonant, Nationalencyklopedin, Natural language, Nazi Party, Nazism, Nelly Sachs, Nelson, New Zealand, Netherlands, New Braunfels, Texas, New Testament, New Ulm, Minnesota, New York City, Nibelungenlied, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nominative case, Nordfriesland (district), North Dakota, North Frisian language, North Germanic languages, North Rhine-Westphalia, North Schleswig Germans, North Sea Germanic, North West (South African province), Northern Europe, Northern Germany, Norwegian language, Notker Labeo, Noun, Nuremberg, Ohio, Oklahoma, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Testament, Ontario, Operating system, Oral literature, Oregon, Organised persecution of ethnic Germans, Orthography, Ostsiedlung, Otto Basler, Outline of German expressions in English, Paganism, Palatal consonant, Palatine German language, Pan South African Language Board, Pancas, Paraguay, Paraná (state), Parenthetical referencing, Participle, Parzival, Passive voice, Paul Heyse, Penmanship, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania German language, Perfect (grammar), Peru, Pforzen buckle, Philology, Phonetics, Phonology, Pidgin, Pietism, Pittsburgh, Plautdietsch language, Pluperfect, Pluricentric language, Poland, Poltergeist, Pomerode, Prague, Present tense, Preterite, Principality, Printing press, Pronunciation, Proper noun, Puebla, Puhoi, Queensland, Quotation mark, Realis mood, Realpolitik, Region of Southern Denmark, Regional language, Regions of France, Reich, Renaissance humanism, Reutte District, Rhine, Rhine Franconian dialects, Rinderkennzeichnungs- und Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz, Rio Grande do Sul, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch German, Ripuarian language, Roe deer, Roman Empire, Romania, Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Russia, Russian language, Saale, Sachsenspiegel, Salzburg (state), Samnaun, Sans-serif, Sanskrit, Santa Catarina (state), Santa Maria de Jetibá, Santa Maria do Herval, Saskatchewan, Saterland, Saterland Frisian language, Sauerkraut, Saxony, São Paulo, Sütterlin, Schadenfreude, Schwa, Schwabacher, ScienceDirect, Scots language, Scriptorium, Second language, Secondary stress, Sentence (linguistics), Sibilant, Sibiu, Signed German, Sigurd, Silesia, Silesian German, Slavs, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sound change, South Africa, South Australia, South Dakota, South Franconian German, South Guelderish, South Thuringia, South Tyrol, Southern Germany, Spanish language, Spanish language in the United States, Sprachraum, St. Louis, Stage (theatre), Standard German, Standard language, Standardization, Stop consonant, Strasburg, North Dakota, Stuttgart, Styria, Subject–object–verb, Subjunctive mood, Swabia, Swabia (Bavaria), Swabian German, Sweden, Swedish language, Swiss German, Swiss Plateau, Swiss Standard German, Switzerland, Syllable, Synonym, Syntax, Tapachula, Tauber Franconia, Telephone directory, Texas, Texas German, Text corpus, The Blitz, The Daily Telegraph, Theodor Mommsen, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Mann, Thou, Thought experiment, Thuringia, Thuringian dialect, Timișoara, Topic and comment, Toronto, Transylvania, Transylvanian Saxon dialect, Trentino, Trill consonant, Tristan, Typeface, Tyrol (state), Uerdingen, Uerdingen line, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States Brewers' Association, University of Graz, Unserdeutsch language, Upper Austria, Upper Bavaria, Upper Franconia, Upper German, Upper Palatinate, Upper Saxon German, Uvular consonant, Uvular trill, V2 word order, Vancouver, Variety (linguistics), Velar consonant, Venezuela, Vienna, Vila Pavão, Vocabulary, Vogtland, Vogtländisch dialect, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voiced uvular fricative, Volga Germans, Vorarlberg, Vowel breaking, Vowel length, Vowel reduction, Walser German, Walther von der Vogelweide, Wanderlust, Wartburg, KwaZulu-Natal, Washington (state), Würzburg, West Central German, West Frisian language, West Germanic languages, Western Australia, Westphalian language, Wilhelm Grimm, Wilhelm Scherer, Wisconsin, Wolfram von Eschenbach, World language, World view, World war, World War I, World War II, Written language, Yenish language, Yiddish, Zacatecas, Zagreb, Zürich, ZDF, Zeitgeist, Zugzwang. Expand index (626 more) » « Shrink index
-ism is a suffix in many English words, originally derived from the Ancient Greek suffix -ισμός (-ismós), and reaching English through the Latin -ismus, and the French -isme.
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Abrogans, also German Abrogans or Codex Abrogans (St Gall, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. 911), is a Middle Latin–Old High German glossary, whose preserved copy in the Abbey Library of St Gall is regarded as the oldest preserved book in the German language.
An abseil, also called a rappel after its French name, is a controlled descent off a vertical drop, such as a rock face, using a rope.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia.
The Mainzer Adelsverein at Biebrich am Rhein (Verein zum Schutze Deutscher Einwanderer in Texas, "Society for the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas"), better known as the Mainzer Adelsverein ("Nobility Society of Mainz"), organized on April 20, 1842, was a colonial attempt to establish a new Germany within the borders of Texas.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
In linguistics, an agent noun (in Latin, nomen agentis) is a word that is derived from another word denoting an action, and that identifies an entity that does that action.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
The Allgemeine Zeitung (literally in English "General Newspaper") founded in 1916, is the oldest daily newspaper in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Alsace bossue (Alemannic and Frankish: S'Krumme Elsass, German: Krummes Elsass), is a territory of Bas-Rhin in Alsace, which includes the three former cantons of Sarre-Union, Drulingen and La Petite-Pierre (today all part of the canton of Ingwiller).
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
On IBM compatible personal computers, many characters not directly associated with a key can be entered using the Alt Numpad input method or Alt code: pressing and holding the ''Alt'' key while typing the number identifying the character with the keyboard's numeric keypad.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Amana Colonies are seven villages on located in Iowa County in east-central Iowa, United States: Amana (or Main Amana), East Amana, High Amana, Middle Amana, South Amana, West Amana, and Homestead.
Amana German (German: Amana-Deutsch or Kolonie-Deutsch) is a dialect of West Central German that is still spoken by several hundred people in the Amana Colonies in Iowa.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin).
In physics and mathematics, an ansatz (meaning: "initial placement of a tool at a work piece", plural ansätze; or ansatzes) is an educated guessIn his book on "The Nature of Mathematical Modelling", Neil Gershenfeld introduces ansatz, with interpretation "a trial answer", to be an important technique for solving differential equations.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austrian German (Österreichisches Deutsch), Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German (Österreichisches Standarddeutsch) or Austrian High German (Österreichisches Hochdeutsch), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria.
An automat is a fast food restaurant where simple foods and drink are served by vending machines.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Azovsky Nemetsky National District (Азо́вский Неме́цкий национа́льный райо́н; Deutscher Nationalkreis Asowo) is an administrativeLaw #467-OZ and municipalLaw #548-OZ district (raion), one of the thirty-two in Omsk Oblast, Russia.
The Österreichisches Wörterbuch (English: Austrian Dictionary), abbreviated ÖWB, is the official dictionary of the German language in the Republic of Austria.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
A backpack — also called bookbag, kitbag, knapsack, rucksack, rucksac, pack, sackpack or backsack — is, in its simplest form, a cloth sack carried on one's back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders, but there can be variations to this basic design.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
Barossa German (Barossadeutsch or Barossa-Deutsch) is a dialect of German, predominately spoken in the Barossa Valley region of South Australia.
The Barossa Valley is a valley in South Australia located northeast of Adelaide city centre.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.
Bühnendeutsch ("stage German") or Bühnenaussprache ("stage pronunciation") is a unified set of pronunciation rules for the German literary language used in the theatre of the German ''Sprachraum''.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
In German linguistics, the Benrath line (German: Benrather Linie) is the maken–machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original in maken (to make), while those to the south have the innovative (machen).
Bergish is the collection of local speech varieties of the Bergisches Land Region east of the Rhine in West Germany.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Berlin is a city in Green Lake and Waushara counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet.
In literary criticism, a Bildungsroman ("bildung", meaning "education", and "roman", meaning "novel"; English: "novel of formation, education, culture"; "coming-of-age story") is a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood (coming of age), in which character change is extremely important.
The bilingual status of gminas (communes) in Poland is regulated by the Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and on the Regional Languages, which permits certain gminas with significant linguistic minorities to introduce a second, auxiliary language to be used in official contexts alongside Polish.
Bismarck is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brașov (Corona, Kronstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Kruhnen, Brassó) is a city in Romania and the administrative centre of Brașov County.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Bratwurst is a type of German sausage made from veal, beef, or most commonly pork.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The German-based varieties spoken by German Brazilians together form a significant minority language in Brazil.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canguçu (population: 51,447) is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil.
Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the eszett (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography (ß).
Captain Bluebear (German: Käpt'n Blaubär) is a fictional character created by novelist and comic artist Walter Moers.
Carl Christian Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer.
Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler (24 April 1845 – 29 December 1924) was a Swiss poet who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1919 "in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring".
Carpathian Germans (Karpatendeutsche, Mantaken, kárpátnémetek or Felvidéki németek, karpatskí Nemci) are a group of ethnic Germans.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central Franconian (mittelfränkische Dialekte, mittelfränkische Mundarten, Mittelfränkisch) refers to the following continuum of West Central German dialects.
Central German (Mitteldeutsche Dialekte) is a group of High German dialects spoken from the Rhineland in the west to the former eastern territories of Germany.
Chancery is a general term for a medieval writing office, responsible for the production of official documents.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Cimbrian (Zimbar,; Zimbrisch; Cimbro) refers to any of several local Upper German varieties spoken in northeastern Italy.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Coleslaw (from the Dutch term koolsla meaning 'cabbage salad'), also known as cole slaw or slaw, is a salad consisting primarily of finely-shredded raw cabbage with a salad dressing, commonly either vinaigrette or mayonnaise.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Colognian or Kölsch (natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages.
Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
The Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung ("Council for German Orthography" or "Council for German Spelling"), or RdR, is the main international body regulating German orthography.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Danube Swabians (Donauschwaben) is a collective term for the German-speaking population who lived in various countries of southeastern Europe, especially in the Danube River valley.
Das Erste (The First) is the principal publicly owned television channel in Germany.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Benrath is a part of Düsseldorf in the south of the city.
A delicatessen or deli is a retail establishment that sells a selection of unusual or foreign prepared foods.
Denglisch (German spelling) or Denglish (English spelling) is a portmanteau of the German words Deutsch and Englisch (English), and can also be used to refer to a portmanteau of English and Dutch.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The dental fricative or interdental fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Deutsch or Deutsche may refer to.
The Deutsche Höhere Privatschule, or DHPS as it is commonly known, is a private school in Namibia.
Deutsche Internationale Schule Pretoria (DSP) is a German international school in The Willows, Pretoria, South Africa.
The Deutsches Wörterbuch (The German Dictionary), abbreviated DWB, is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the German language in existence.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Domingos Martins is the name of a municipality in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo.
The compound word gesellschaft (Association for Subordinate Officials of the Main Maintenance Building of the Danube Steam Shipping Electrical Services) is an example of the virtually unlimited compounding of nouns that is possible in many Germanic languages.
A doppelgänger (literally "double-goer") is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and usually seen as a harbinger of bad luck.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
A dramaturge or dramaturg is a literary adviser or editor in a theatre, opera, or film company that researches, selects, adapts, edits, and interprets scripts, libretti, texts, and printed programs (or helps others with these tasks), consults with authors, and does public relations work.
The Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was a medieval duchy of the Holy Roman Empire centered at Wittenberg, which emerged after the dissolution of the stem duchy of Saxony.
The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.
Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Dunkard Township is a township in Greene County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
East Bergish is a group of dialects of the Bergisches Land Region in West Germany.
East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.
East Franconian (Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (Fränkisch) in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia, the northern part of the federal state of Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Meiningen, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim.
The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Ecatepec, (Spanish once officially Ecatepec de Morelos, is a city and municipality in the State of Mexico. Both are usually known simply as "Ecatepec". The city is practically co-extensive with the municipality, with the city's 2005 population of 1,687,549 being 99.9% of the total municipal population of 1,688,258. The provisional population at the 2010 Census was 1,658,806. The city forms the most populous suburb of Mexico City (Ciudad de México) and the fifteenth suburb in the world in population. It is also Mexico's most populous municipality after Iztapalapa, Mexico City. The name "Ecatepec" is derived from Nahuatl, and means "windy hill" or "hill devoted to Ehecatl." It was also an alternative name or invocation to Quetzalcoatl. "Morelos" is the last name of José María Morelos, a hero of the Mexican War of Independence. Most inhabitants commute to Mexico City for work, and the Mexico City metro subway system was extended into Ecatepec. "San Cristóbal" (Saint Christopher) is the city's patron saint. His feast day is celebrated on July 25 each year. Points of interest include the newest Catholic Cathedral in Mexico, Sagrado Corazón de Jesús, several colonial era churches and the colonel edifice Casa de los virreyes.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
EES (also: eesy-ees/EeS/EeS, "Easy Eric Sell") is the stage name of Eric Sell a Namibian German Kwaito artist and rapper.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Elfriede Jelinek (born 20 October 1946) is an Austrian playwright and novelist.
Elias Canetti (Елиас Канети; 25 July 1905 – 14 August 1994) was a German-language author, born in Ruse, Bulgaria to a merchant family.
A compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An ersatz good is a substitute good, especially one that is considered inferior to the good it replaces.
Erzgebirgisch (Erzgebirgisch: Aarzgebèèrgsch) is a Central German dialect, spoken mainly in the central Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) in Saxony.
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Fausto Cercignani (born March 21, 1941) is an Italian scholar, essayist and poet.
In phonology and historical linguistics, feeding order is a situation in which rule A creates new contexts in which rule B can apply; it would not have been possible for rule B to apply otherwise.
A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
Forest dieback (also "Waldsterben", a German loan word) is a condition in trees or woody plants in which peripheral parts are killed, either by pathogens, parasites or due to conditions like acid rain and drought.
Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Franconian (Frankisch; Frankies; Fränkisch; Francique) includes a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Fredericksburg (Friedrichsburg) is the seat of Gillespie County, in the U.S. state of Texas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
The future is what will happen in the time after the present.
The future perfect is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before a time of reference in the future, such as will have finished in the English sentence "I will have finished by tomorrow." It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Görlitz (Upper Lusatian dialect: Gerlz, Gerltz, and Gerltsch, Zgorzelec, Zhorjelc, Zgórjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in the German federal state of Saxony.
Günter Wilhelm Grass (16 October 1927 – 13 April 2015) was a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Gemütlichkeit is a German-language word used to convey the idea of a state or feeling of warmth, friendliness, and good cheer.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
In addition to the German-speaking area (Deutscher Sprachraum) in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.
George Oliver Curme, Sr. (January 14, 1860 – April 29, 1948) was an American grammarian and philologist.
The Georgslied (Song of St. George) is a set of poems and hymns to Saint George in Old High German.
Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann (15 November 1862 – 6 June 1946) was a German dramatist and novelist.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German Braille is one of the older braille alphabets.
German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
German diaspora (Deutschstämmige; also, under National Socialism: Volksdeutsche) are ethnic Germans and their descendants living outside Germany.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German Mexicans (German: Deutschmexikaner or Deutsch-Mexikanisch, Spanish: germano-mexicano or alemán-mexicano) are Mexican citizens of German descent or origin.
The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.
Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (Vorname, plural Vornamen) and a surname (Nachname, Familienname).
German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire.
German nouns have a grammatical gender, as in many related Indo-European languages.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The German orthography reform of 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.
German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919.
German Standard German, Standard German of Germany or High German of Germany is the variety of Standard German that is written and spoken in Germany.
Placenames in the German language area can be classified by the language from which they originate, and by their age.
German verbs may be classified as either weak, with a dental consonant inflection, or strong, showing a vowel gradation (ablaut).
The German-speaking Community of Belgium (Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgiens, DG; Communauté germanophone de Belgique; Duitstalige Gemeenschap van België) or Eastern Belgium (Ostbelgien; Belgique de l'est; Oost-België) is one of the three federal communities of Belgium.
The German-speaking Evangelical Lutheran Church in Namibia (known as GELC, GELK, or DELK) is a Lutheran denomination based in Namibia.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
A Germanism is a loan word or other loan element borrowed from German for use in some other language.
There are various communities of Germans in the Czech Republic (Německá menšina v Česku, Deutsche in Tschechien).
German Hungarians (Ungarndeutsche, Magyarországi németek) are the German-speaking minority of Hungary sometimes called the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben), (Hungarian: Dunai svábok) in Germany, many of whom call themselves "Shwoveh".
The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania.
Germantown is a village in Washington County, Wisconsin, United States.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A glockenspiel (or, Glocken: bells and Spiel: set) is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano.
A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
A glossary, also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Gore (Maruawai) is a town and district in the Southland region of the South Island of New Zealand.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Grand Est (Great East, Großer Osten — both in the Alsatian and the Lorraine Franconian dialect), previously Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine (ACAL or less commonly, ALCA), is an administrative region in eastern France.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hartmann von Aue, also known as Hartmann von Ouwe, (born c. 1160–70, died c. 1210–20) was a Middle High German knight and poet.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Heilbronn-Franken is a region in northeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Stuttgart subdivision (Regierungsbezirk).
Heiligenschein (German for "halo" or "aureola") is an optical phenomenon in which a bright spot appears around the shadow of the viewer's head.
Heinrich Theodor Böll (21 December 1917 – 16 July 1985) was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers.
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.
Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist (18 October 177721 November 1811) was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, short story writer and journalist.
Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter.
Herta Müller (born 17 August 1953) is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet, essayist and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Hessian (Hessisch) is a West Central German group of dialects of the German language in the central German state of Hesse.
High Alemannic is a dialect of Alemannic German spoken in the westernmost Austrian state of Voralberg, on the border with Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
High Franconian (oberfränkische Dialekte) is a part of High German consisting of East Franconian and South Franconian.
In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
High Prussian (Hochpreußisch) is the group of East Central German dialects in former East Prussia, in present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Highest Alemannic (Hegschtalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German and is often considered to be part of the German language, even though mutual intelligibility with Standard German and other non-Alemannic German dialects is very limited.
The Hildebrandslied (Lay or Song of Hildebrand) is a heroic lay written in Old High German alliterative verse.
Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States.
Hutterites (Hutterer) are an ethnoreligious group that is a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones (Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia.
The Istvaeones (also spelled Istævones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine during the Roman empire which reportedly shared a common culture and origin.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Iwein is a Middle High German verse romance by the poet Hartmann von Aue, written around 1203.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Johannes "Jan" Hofer (born 31 January 1950 in Büderich) is a German journalist, broadcast news analyst and television presenter.
Joachim Heinrich Campe (29 June 1746 – 22 October 1818) was a German writer, linguist, educator and publisher.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Karlsruhe is a city in McHenry County, North Dakota, United States.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Germans of Kazakhstan (Kasachstandeutsche) are a minority in Kazakhstan, and make up a small percentage of the population.
Kerkrade dialect (natively Kirchröadsj Plat or Kirchröadsj, literally 'Kerkradish', Standard Dutch: Kerkraads, Standard German: Kerkrader Platt) is a Ripuarian dialect spoken in Kerkrade (Netherlands) and Herzogenrath (Germany).
Kiel is a city in Calumet and Manitowoc counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The City of Kitchener is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada.
Kitsch (loanword from German), also called cheesiness or tackiness, is art or other objects that appeal to popular rather than high art tastes.
Konrad Alexander Friedrich Duden (3 January 1829 – 1 August 1911) was a Gymnasium (high school) teacher who became a philologist.
Kraut is a German word recorded in English from 1918 onwards as a derogatory term for a German, particularly a German soldier during World War I and World War II.
Krefeld, also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Kroondal is a village situated in North West Province of South Africa with a large German speaking community.
Kurrent is an old form of German-language handwriting based on late medieval cursive writing, also known as Kurrentschrift, Alte Deutsche Schrift ("old German script") and German cursive.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language for specific purposes dictionary is a reference work which defines the specialised vocabulary used by experts within a particular field, for example, architecture.
The four national languages of Switzerland are German, French, Italian and Romansh.
Laranja da Terra is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects are part of East Central German dialects spoken in the central and southern parts of Brandenburg as well as in Berlin.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
A leitmotif or leitmotiv is a "short, constantly recurring musical phrase"Kennedy (1987), Leitmotiv associated with a particular person, place, or idea.
Leontopodium nivale, commonly called edelweiss (English pronunciation), is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the daisy or sunflower family, Asteraceae.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A letterhead, or letterheaded paper, is the heading at the top of a sheet of letter paper (stationery).
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Below is a list of German language exonyms for formerly German places and places in non-German-speaking areas of the world.
This is a list of German words and expressions of French origin.
This is a list of pseudo-German words adapted from the German language in such a way that their meanings in English are not readily understood by native speakers of German (usually because of the new circumstances in which these words are used in English).
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
There are many alternative terms for the people of Germany.
The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Lorraine Franconian (Lorraine Franconian: Plàtt, lothrìnger Plàtt; francique lorrain, platt lorrain; Lothringisch) is an ambiguous designation for dialects of West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch), a group of High German dialects spoken in the Moselle department of the former north-eastern French region of Lorraine (See Linguistic boundary of Moselle).
Low Alemannic (Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German, which is part of Upper German.
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of the state.
Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) is one of seven districts of Bavaria, Germany.
The Lower Rhine (Niederrhein; kilometres 660 to 1,033 of the river Rhine) flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands (including the Nederrijn or "Nether Rhine" within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta); alternatively, Lower Rhine may be refer to the part upstream of Pannerdens Kop, excluding the Nederrijn.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
The Ludwigslied (in English, Lay or Song of Ludwig) is an Old High German (OHG) poem of 59 rhyming couplets, celebrating the victory of the Frankish army, led by Louis III of France, over Danish (Viking) raiders at the Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu on 3 August 881.
The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Main-Franconian (Mainfränkisch) is group of Upper German dialects being part of the East Franconian group.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marietta Slomka (born 20 April 1969 in Cologne) is a German journalist.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa.
Mòcheno (Fersentalerisch; Bersntolerisch) is an Upper German variety spoken in three towns of the Bersntol (Fersental, Valle del Fersina), in Trentino, northeastern Italy.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
The Merseburg charms or Merseburg incantations (die Merseburger Zaubersprüche) are two medieval magic spells, charms or incantations, written in Old High German.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
Meuse-Rhenish (German: Rheinmaasländisch, Dutch: Maas-Rijnlands, and French: francique rhéno-mosan) is a modern term that refers to the literature written in the Middle Ages in the greater Meuse-Rhine area.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michael George Clyne, AM, FAHA, FASSA (12 October 1939 – 29 October 2010) was an Australian linguist, academic and intellectual.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.
In Austrian politics, the Ministry of Education (German: Bildungsministerium, historically also Unterrichtsminiterium) is the ministry in charge of schools, universities, and arts policy.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Missingsch is a type of Low-German-coloured dialect or sociolect of German.
In semiotics, a modality is a particular way in which information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i.e. to the type of sign and to the status of reality ascribed to or claimed by a sign, text, or genre.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department.
Moselle Franconian (German Moselfränkisch) is a group of West Central German dialects, part of the Central Franconian language area.
Muenster is a primarily German Catholic city in western Cooke County, Texas, United States, along U.S. Route 82.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Munich is a city in Cavalier County, North Dakota, United States.
Muspilli is an Old High German poem known in incomplete form (just over 100 lines) from a ninth-century Bavarian manuscript.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Because of Germany's geographic position in the centre of Europe, as well as its long history as a non-united region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely varying names of Germany in different languages, perhaps more so than for any other European nation.
Namibian Black German, also NBG, (Küchendeutsch, "kitchen German") is a pidgin language of Namibia that derives from standard German.
The Namibian Broadcasting Corporation is the public broadcaster of Namibia.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nelly Sachs (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970) was a Swedish poet and playwright of Jewish German birth.
Nelson (Whakatū) is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Braunfels is a city in Comal and Guadalupe Counties in the U.S. state of Texas.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New Ulm is a city in Brown County, Minnesota, United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Nibelungenlied (Middle High German: Der Nibelunge liet or Der Nibelunge nôt), translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem from around 1200 written in Middle High German.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nordfriesland (English: "Northern Friesland" or "North Frisia") is the northernmost district of Germany, part of the state of Schleswig-Holstein.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Approximately 15,000 people in Denmark belong to an autochthonous ethnic German minority traditionally referred to as hjemmetyskere meaning "domestic Germans" in Danish, and as Nordschleswiger in German.
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.
North West is a province of South Africa.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Notker Labeo (c. 950 – 28 June 1022), also known as Notker the German (Notcerus Teutonicus) or Notker III, was a Benedictine monk and the first commentator on Aristotle active in the Middle Ages.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Organised persecution of ethnic Germans refers to systematic activity against groups of ethnic Germans based on their ethnicity.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto Basler (8 May 1892 in Kitzingen, Bavaria – 28 May 1975 in Freiburg im Breigau) was a German philologist.
The following outline is presented as an overview of and topical guide to German expressions in English: A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Palatine German or Pfaelzisch (Pälzisch; Pfälzisch) is a West Franconian dialect of German which is spoken in the Upper Rhine Valley roughly in an area between the cities of Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern, Alzey, Worms, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Speyer, Landau, Wörth am Rhein and the border to the Alsace region in France but also beyond.
The Pan South African Language Board (Pan-Suid-Afrikaanse Taalraad, abbreviated PanSALB) is an organization in South Africa established to promote multilingualism, to develop the 11 official languages, and to protect language rights in South Africa.
Pancas is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Espírito Santo.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.
Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations—for example, "(Smith 2010, p. 1)"—are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Parzival is a medieval romance written by the knight-poet Wolfram von Eschenbach in Middle High German.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (15 March 1830 – 2 April 1914) was a distinguished German writer and translator.
Penmanship is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Pennsylvania German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania italic, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch,; often called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a variety of West Central German spoken by the Old Order Amish, Old Order Mennonites and other descendants of German immigrants in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine dialects.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Pforzen buckle is a silver belt buckle found in Pforzen, Ostallgäu (Schwaben) in 1992.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Plautdietsch or Mennonite Low German, is a Low Prussian dialect of East Low German with Dutch influence that developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
In folklore and parapsychology, a poltergeist (German for "noisy ghost" or "noisy spirit") is a type of ghost or spirit that is responsible for physical disturbances, such as loud noises and objects being moved or destroyed.
Pomerode is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Puhoi is a settlement located approximately 50 km north of Auckland, New Zealand on the banks of the Puhoi River.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Realpolitik (from real; "realistic", "practical", or "actual"; and Politik; "politics") is politics or diplomacy based primarily on considerations of given circumstances and factors, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral and ethical premises.
The Region of Southern Denmark (Region Syddanmark; Region Süddänemark) is an administrative region of Denmark established on Monday 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties ("amter") and set up five larger regions.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
Reich is a German word literally meaning "realm".
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The Bezirk Reutte is an administrative district (Bezirk) in Tyrol, Austria.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rhine Franconian (German), or Rhenish Franconian, is a dialect family of West Central German.
Rinderkennzeichnungs- und Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz (RkReÜAÜG) (literally, Cattle marking and beef labeling supervision duties delegation law) was a law of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern of 1999, repealed in 2013.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, spoken in parts of Brazil, is a Moselle Franconian variety derived primarily from the Hunsrückisch dialect of West Central German.
Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rudolf Christoph Eucken (5 January 1846 – 15 September 1926) was a German philosopher.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe.
The Sachsenspiegel (literally “Saxon Mirror”; Middle Low German: Sassen Speyghel; Sassenspegel) is the most important law book and custumal of the Holy Roman Empire.
Salzburg (literally "Salt Fortress") is a state (Land) of Austria.
Samnaun (Samignun) is a high Alpine village and a valley at the eastern end of Switzerland and a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine) is a state in the southern region of Brazil.
Santa Maria de Jetibá is the name of a municipality and of its capital in central Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil.
Santa Maria do Herval is a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Saterland (Saterland Frisian: Seelterlound) is a municipality in the district of Cloppenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Saterland Frisian, also known as Sater Frisian or Saterlandic (Seeltersk), is the last living dialect of the East Frisian language.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Sütterlinschrift ("Sütterlin script") is the last widely used form of Kurrent, the historical form of German handwriting that evolved alongside German blackletter (most notably Fraktur) typefaces.
Schadenfreude ('harm-joy') is the experience of pleasure, joy, or self-satisfaction that comes from learning of or witnessing the troubles, failures, or humiliation of another.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
The German word Schwabacher (pronounced) refers to a specific blackletter typeface which evolved from Gothic Textualis (Textura) under the influence of Humanist type design in Italy during the 15th century.
ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Secondary stress (or obsolete: secondary accent) is the weaker of two degrees of stress in the pronunciation of a word; the stronger degree of stress being called primary.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sibiu (antiquated Sibiiu; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.
In Germany, Signed German, known in German as Lautsprachbegleitende Gebärden or Lautbegleitende Gebärden (LBG, "Speech-accompanying signs"), is a manually coded form of German that uses the signs of German Sign Language.
Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr) or Siegfried (Middle High German: Sîvrit) is a legendary hero of Germanic mythology, who killed a dragon and was later murdered.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silesian German (Silesian German: Schläsche Sproache or Schläs'sche Sproche, Schlesisch) or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
South Franconian (Südfränkisch) is a High Franconian dialect which is spoken in the northernmost part of Baden-Württemberg in Germany, around Karlsruhe, Mosbach and Heilbronn.
South Guelderish (Dutch: Zuid-Gelders, German: Südgeldersch, Kleverländisch) refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine (Dutch Nederrijn and German Niederrhein).
South Thuringia (Südthüringen) refers to all the Franconia regions in the German Free State of Thuringia south of the Rennsteig and the Salzbogen, but including the entire former county of Bad Salzungen.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish language in the United States has forty-five million Hispanic and Latino Americans speak Spanish as their first, second or heritage language, and there are six million Spanish language students in the United States.
In linguistics, a sprachraum ("language space") is a geographical region where a common first language (mother tongue), with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken.
In theatre and performing arts, the stage (sometimes referred to as the deck in stagecraft) is a designated space for the performance of productions.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Strasburg is a town in Emmons County, North Dakota, United States.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Swabia (Schwaben) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (Schweizer Mittelland; plateau suisse; altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps.
Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tapachula de Córdova y Ordóñez, simply known as Tapachula, is a city and municipality located in the far southwest of the state of Chiapas in Mexico, near the Guatemalan border and the Pacific Ocean.
The region of Tauber Franconia (Tauberfranken) is a part of the region of Franconia, most of which lies in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
A telephone directory, also known as a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white/yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Texas German (Texasdeutsch) is a German language dialect spoken by descendants of German immigrants who settled in Texas in the mid-19th century.
In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (nowadays usually electronically stored and processed).
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.
The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Transylvanian Saxon (Saxon: Siweberjesch-Såksesch or just Såksesch, or Siebenbürgisch-Sächsische Sprache) is the German dialect of the Transylvanian Saxons.
Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Trystan), also known as Tristram, is a Cornish knight of the Round Table and the hero of the Arthurian Tristan and Iseult story.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.
Uerdingen is a district of the city of Krefeld, Germany, with a population of 18,507.
The Uerdingen Line (named after Uerdingen by Georg Wenker) is the isogloss within West Germanic languages that separates dialects which preserve the -k sound in the first person singular pronoun word "ik" (north of the line) from dialects in which the word final -k has changed to word final -ch in the word "ich" (IPA) (south of the line).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Brewers' Association was a trade organization that existed from 1862 to 1986.
The University of Graz (Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz), located in Graz, Austria, is the largest and oldest university in Styria, as well as the second-largest and second-oldest university in Austria.
Unserdeutsch ("Our German"), or Rabaul Creole German, is a German-based creole language that originated in Papua New Guinea.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany.
Upper Franconia (Oberfranken) is a Regierungsbezirk (administrative region) of the state of Bavaria, southern Germany.
Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).
The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.
Upper Saxon (Obersächsisch) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern German State of Saxony and in the adjacent parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vila Pavão is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
The Vogtland (Fojtsko) is a region reaching across the German free states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia and into the Czech Republic (north-western Bohemia).
(Plauen und Umgebung) |Sprecher.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Walser German (Walserdeutsch) and Walliser German (Walliserdeutsch, locally Wallisertiitsch) form a group of Highest Alemannic dialects spoken in parts of Switzerland (Valais, Ticino, Grisons), Italy (Piedmont, Aosta Valley), Liechtenstein, and Austria (Vorarlberg).
Walther von der Vogelweide (c. 1170 – c. 1230) was a Minnesänger, who composed and performed love-songs and political songs ("Sprüche") in Middle High German.
Wanderlust is a strong desire for or impulse to wander or travel and explore the world.
Wartburg is a small town located north-east of Pietermaritzburg and south of Greytown in the uMshwathi Local Municipality of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
West Central German (Westmitteldeutsche Dialekte) belongs to the Central, High German dialect family in the German language.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
Westphalian or Westfalish (German Westfälisch) is one of the major dialect groups of West Low German.
Wilhelm Carl Grimm (also Karl; 24 February 1786 – 16 December 1859) was a German author and anthropologist, and the younger brother of Jacob Grimm, of the library duo the Brothers Grimm.
Wilhelm Scherer (26 April 1841 – 6 August 1886) was a German philologist and historian of literature.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
Wolfram von Eschenbach (–) was a German knight and poet, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of medieval German literature.
A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
Yenish (French: Yeniche, German: Jenisch), is a variety of German spoken by the Yenish people, former nomads living mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Alsace and other parts of France.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), usually shortened to ZDF, is a German public-service television broadcaster based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times".
Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move") is a situation found in chess and other games wherein one player is put at a disadvantage because they must make a move when they would prefer to pass and not move.
Deutsche Sprache, Deutsche language, Deutschgesprachen, Deutschkenntnisse, Deutsh, German (Deutsch), German (language), German Language, German linguistic geography, German speaking world, German speech, German, Standard, German, standard, German-language, German-speakers, German-speaking, German-speaking peoples, Germanophone, German‑speaking, ISO 639:de, ISO 639:deu, Wie gehts.