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German orthography

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German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic. [1]

178 relations: Acute accent, Alemannic German, Aleut, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Andrew West (linguist), Antiqua (typeface class), Antiqua–Fraktur dispute, Austria, Axe, Ä, Ö, Ü, ß, Back vowel, Bavaria, Bavarian language, Bernhard Hoëcker, Bernkastel-Kues, Binnen-I, Breve, Capital ẞ, Capitalization, Carolingian Renaissance, Catholic Church, Central vowel, Checked and free vowels, Circumflex, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Coesfeld, Collation, Compound (linguistics), Compulsory education, Consonant, Coq au vin, Council for German Orthography, Counter-Reformation, Crimean Karaites, Dead key, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Die Zeit, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft, Double acute accent, Duden, Dumbing down, Dutch orthography, ..., East Central German, East Franconian German, East Germany, Edition (book), English orthography, Epic poetry, Federal Constitutional Court, Ferdinand Piëch, Fraktur, French language, Front vowel, Fruitbearing Society, Gemination, Generalization, German Braille, German Chancellery, German dialects, German Empire, German language, German name, German Orthographic Conference of 1901, German orthography reform of 1944, German orthography reform of 1996, Germanic umlaut, Grave accent, Guinness World Records, Gymnasium (school), Hanseatic League, High German consonant shift, High Middle Ages, Hohenstaufen, House of Habsburg, Hungarian alphabet, I, IJ (digraph), Interior ministry, International Phonetic Alphabet, Interregnum, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Johann Christoph Gottsched, Knight, Konrad Duden, Kurrent, Late antiquity, Latin, Lübeck, Leipzig, Leipzig University, Liechtenstein, List of territorial entities where German is an official language, Loanword, Long s, Low German, Luther Bible, Machine-readable passport, Macron (diacritic), Mannheim, Mermaid, Microsoft Windows, Mid vowel, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Minister President of Prussia, Minnesang, Monastery, Monophthong, Morpheme, Nazi Germany, Near-close vowel, Near-open vowel, Niue, Nominalization, Norwegian language, Notker Labeo, Noun, Ogg, Old High German, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Orthography, Ostsiedlung, Otto Basler, Otto von Bismarck, Ottonian dynasty, Philhellenism, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Printing, Printing press, Proper noun, Proto-Germanic language, Punctuation, Qigong, Quotation mark, Ring (diacritic), Roundedness, Salian dynasty, Sütterlin, Schwyz, Sibilant, Sigma, Spelling, Spelling alphabet, Standard German, Standard German phonology, Straelen, Swabian German, Swedish alphabet, Swiss Standard German, Switzerland, Syllable, Telephone directory, Tenseness, Tilde, Tittle, Trigraph (orthography), Typewriter, Typographic ligature, Unicode, University of Erfurt, Vertical bar, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Vowel length, West Germany, Witchcraft, World War II, Writing, Xanten. Expand index (128 more) »

Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Alemannic German

Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.

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Aleut

The Aleuts (Алеу́ты Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect), Alaska Native Language Center.

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Alveolo-palatal consonant

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.

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Andrew West (linguist)

Andrew Christopher West (born 1960) is an English Sinologist.

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Antiqua (typeface class)

Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Antiqua–Fraktur dispute

The Antiqua–Fraktur dispute was a typographical dispute in 19th- and early 20th-century Germany.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Axe

An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.

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Ä

Ä (lower case ä) is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.

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Ö

Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.

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Ü

Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.

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ß

In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bavarian language

Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.

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Bernhard Hoëcker

Bernhard Hoëcker (born 20 March 1970 in Neustadt an der Weinstraße) is a German comedian and actor.

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Bernkastel-Kues

Bernkastel-Kues is a well-known winegrowing centre on the Middle Moselle in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Binnen-I

In German, a word-internal capital I (German) is a non-standard, mixed case typographic convention used to indicate gender inclusivity for nouns having to do with people, by using a capital letter 'I' inside the word (Binnenmajuskel, literally "internal capital", i.e. camel case) surrounded by lower-case letters.

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Breve

A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.

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Capital ẞ

Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the eszett (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography (ß).

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Capitalization

Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.

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Carolingian Renaissance

The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Checked and free vowels

In phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed closed syllable; and free vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed open syllable.

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Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Coesfeld

Coesfeld is the capital of the district of Coesfeld in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Collation

Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Compulsory education

Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Coq au vin

Coq au vin ("rooster/cock with wine") is a French dish of chicken braised with wine, lardons, mushrooms, and optionally garlic.

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Council for German Orthography

The Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung ("Council for German Orthography" or "Council for German Spelling"), or RdR, is the main international body regulating German orthography.

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Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Crimean Karaites

The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.

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Dead key

A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter.

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Deutsches Institut für Normung

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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Die Zeit

Die Zeit (literally "The Time") is a German national weekly newspaper published in Hamburg in north Germany.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft

The compound word gesellschaft (Association for Subordinate Officials of the Main Maintenance Building of the Danube Steam Shipping Electrical Services) is an example of the virtually unlimited compounding of nouns that is possible in many Germanic languages.

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Double acute accent

The double acute accent (˝) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script.

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Duden

The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.

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Dumbing down

Dumbing down is the deliberate oversimplification of intellectual content in education, literature, and cinema, news, video games and culture.

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Dutch orthography

Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.

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East Central German

East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.

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East Franconian German

East Franconian (Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (Fränkisch) in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia, the northern part of the federal state of Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Meiningen, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Edition (book)

The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from substantially the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants.

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English orthography

English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Federal Constitutional Court

The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.

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Ferdinand Piëch

Ferdinand Karl Piëch (born 17 April 1937) is an Austrian business magnate, engineer and executive who was the chairman of the supervisory board (Aufsichtsratsvorsitzender) of Volkswagen Group until 25 April 2015.

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Fraktur

Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Fruitbearing Society

The Fruitbearing Society (German Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft, lat. societas fructifera) was a German literary society founded in 1617 in Weimar by German scholars and nobility.

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Gemination

Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Generalization

A generalization (or generalisation) is the formulation of general concepts from specific instances by abstracting common properties.

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German Braille

German Braille is one of the older braille alphabets.

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German Chancellery

The German Chancellery (Bundeskanzleramt, more faithfully translated as Federal Chancellery) is an agency serving the executive office of the Chancellor of Germany, the head of the federal government, currently Angela Merkel.

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German dialects

German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German name

Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (Vorname, plural Vornamen) and a surname (Nachname, Familienname).

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German Orthographic Conference of 1901

The German Orthographic Conference of 1901 (the Berlin II Orthographic Conference; Zweite Orthographische Konferenz or II.) took place in Berlin from 17th till 19 June 1901.

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German orthography reform of 1944

The planned German spelling reform of 1944 was a failed attempt to amend German orthography.

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German orthography reform of 1996

The German orthography reform of 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.

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Germanic umlaut

The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.

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Grave accent

The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.

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Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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High German consonant shift

In historical linguistics, the High German consonant shift or second Germanic consonant shift is a phonological development (sound change) that took place in the southern parts of the West Germanic dialect continuum in several phases.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Hohenstaufen

The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.

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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.

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Hungarian alphabet

The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.

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I

I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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IJ (digraph)

IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.

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Interior ministry

An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Interregnum

An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.

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ISO basic Latin alphabet

The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.

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Johann Christoph Gottsched

Johann Christoph Gottsched (2 February 1700 – 12 December 1766) was a German philosopher, author, and critic.

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Knight

A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.

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Konrad Duden

Konrad Alexander Friedrich Duden (3 January 1829 – 1 August 1911) was a Gymnasium (high school) teacher who became a philologist.

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Kurrent

Kurrent is an old form of German-language handwriting based on late medieval cursive writing, also known as Kurrentschrift, Alte Deutsche Schrift ("old German script") and German cursive.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lübeck

Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.

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Leipzig

Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Leipzig University

Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.

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Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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List of territorial entities where German is an official language

The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Long s

The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").

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Low German

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Luther Bible

The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.

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Machine-readable passport

A machine-readable passport (MRP) is a machine-readable travel document (MRTD) with the data on the identity page encoded in optical character recognition format.

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Macron (diacritic)

A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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Mannheim

Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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Mermaid

In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Middle High German

Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.

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Middle Low German

Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.

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Minister President of Prussia

The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.

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Minnesang

Minnesang ("love song") was a tradition of lyric- and song-writing in Germany that flourished in the Middle High German period.

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Monastery

A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Monophthong

A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.

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Morpheme

A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Near-close vowel

A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Near-open vowel

A near-open vowel or a near-low vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Niue

Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.

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Nominalization

In linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g., a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun, or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Notker Labeo

Notker Labeo (c. 950 – 28 June 1022), also known as Notker the German (Notcerus Teutonicus) or Notker III, was a Benedictine monk and the first commentator on Aristotle active in the Middle Ages.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Orthography

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Ostsiedlung

Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.

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Otto Basler

Otto Basler (8 May 1892 in Kitzingen, Bavaria – 28 May 1975 in Freiburg im Breigau) was a German philologist.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Ottonian dynasty

The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.

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Philhellenism

Philhellenism ("the love of Greek culture") and philhellene ("the admirer of Greeks and everything Greek"), from the Greek φίλος philos "friend, lover" and ἑλληνισμός hellenism "Greek", was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century.

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Phoneme

A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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Proper noun

A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Punctuation

Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Qigong

Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used in the belief that it promotes health, spirituality, and martial arts training.

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Quotation mark

Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.

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Ring (diacritic)

A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Salian dynasty

The Salian dynasty (Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages.

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Sütterlin

Sütterlinschrift ("Sütterlin script") is the last widely used form of Kurrent, the historical form of German handwriting that evolved alongside German blackletter (most notably Fraktur) typefaces.

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Schwyz

The town of Schwyz (Schwytz; Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.

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Sibilant

Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Sigma

Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Spelling

Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.

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Spelling alphabet

A spelling alphabet, word-spelling alphabet, voice procedure alphabet, radio alphabet, or telephone alphabet is a set of words used to stand for the letters of an alphabet in oral communication.

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Standard German

Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.

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Standard German phonology

The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.

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Straelen

Straelen is a municipality in the district of Cleves, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Swabian German

Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.

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Swedish alphabet

The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.

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Swiss Standard German

Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Telephone directory

A telephone directory, also known as a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white/yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory.

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Tenseness

In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.

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Tilde

The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.

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Tittle

A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.

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Trigraph (orthography)

A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.

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Typewriter

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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University of Erfurt

The University of Erfurt (Universität Erfurt) is a public university located in Erfurt, the capital city of the German state of Thuringia.

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Vertical bar

The vertical bar (|) is a computer character and glyph with various uses in mathematics, computing, and typography.

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Witchcraft

Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.

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Xanten

Xanten (Lower Franconian Santen) is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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2nd Orthographic Conference (German), First Orthographic Conference (German), German (alphabet), German Alphabet, German alphabet, German phonetic alphabet, German punctuation, German spelling, German spelling alphabet, German writing system, II. Orthographische Konferenz, Second Orthographic Conference (German), Spelling in German.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_orthography

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