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German reunification

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The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23. [1]

164 relations: Allied-occupied Germany, Allies of World War II, American Civil War, Angela Merkel, Annan Plan for Cyprus, Arbeit - Bewegung - Geschichte, Associated Press, Austria, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Bizone, Brandenburg, Brandenburg Gate, Bremen, Bundesgesetzblatt (Germany), Bundestag, Capital of Germany, Central European Summer Time, Chancellor of Germany, Charles Haughey, Charles S. Maier, Charlottenburg Palace, Chequers, Chinese unification, Christian Democratic Union (East Germany), Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Cold War, Condoleezza Rice, Construction, Culture of Germany, DE magazine Deutschland, Deindustrialization, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Mark, Die Wende, East Berlin, East German general election, 1990, East German mark, East Germany, East Prussia, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Bloc politics, Economic reconstruction, Economy of Germany, Egon Krenz, Empire of Japan, Era of Stagnation, European Economic Community, European Union, ..., Farther Pomerania, Flag of Germany, Former eastern territories of Germany, Four-Power Authorities, François Mitterrand, Free City of Danzig, Gdańsk, George H. W. Bush, German Unity Day, German–Polish Border Treaty (1990), Germany, Giulio Andreotti, Glasnost, Good Bye, Lenin!, Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, Hamburg, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Helmut Kohl, History of Germany (1945–90), International law, Iron Curtain, Katarina Witt, Klaus Wowereit, Korean reunification, Korean War, Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative, League of Nations mandate, List of European Council meetings, London, Lothar de Maizière, Margaret Thatcher, Marianne Birthler, Mass migration, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Michael Ballack, Mikhail Gorbachev, NATO, Nazi Germany, Nazism, NBC News, Neumark, North Korea, Oder–Neisse line, Oliver Marc Hartwich, Oskar Lafontaine, Ostalgie, Ottawa, Pan-Germanism, Paris, Party of Democratic Socialism (Germany), Paul van Dyk, Peaceful Revolution, Peer Steinbrück, Perestroika, Philip D. Zelikow, Political union, Politics of Germany, Potsdam Agreement, President of France, President of the Soviet Union, Prime Minister of Israel, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Reconstruction era, Redevelopment, Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria, Republic of Ireland, Revolutions of 1989, Ronald Reagan, Ruud Lubbers, Saar Protectorate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Self-determination, Serge Schmemann, Silesia, Sinclair-Stevenson, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Solidarity (Polish trade union), South Korea, Southern Italy, Southern United States, Sovereignty, Stalin Note, Stasi Records Agency, States of Germany, Strasbourg, Succession of states, Tank Man, Taoiseach, Tear down this wall!, The Holocaust, The Left (Germany), The New York Times, Thuringia, Transitology, Treaty of Good Neighbourship, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, United Ireland, United Nations, Uprising of 1953 in East Germany, Urban planning, Vergangenheitsbewältigung, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Volkskammer, Warsaw Pact, Weapon of mass destruction, West Berlin, West Germany, Winston Churchill, World War II, Yemeni unification, Yitzhak Shamir. Expand index (114 more) »

Allied-occupied Germany

Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.

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Annan Plan for Cyprus

The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus reunification plan.

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Arbeit - Bewegung - Geschichte

Arbeit - Bewegung - Geschichte ("Labour - Movement - History") is a academic journal covering the history of labour and other social movements.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Bizone

The Bizone or Bizonia was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones on 1 January 1947 during the occupation of Germany after World War II.

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Brandenburg

Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.

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Brandenburg Gate

The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the (temporarily) successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Bundesgesetzblatt (Germany)

The German Bundesgesetzblatt (BGBl.) (Federal Law Gazette) is a public gazette of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Bundestag

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.

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Capital of Germany

The capital of Germany is the city state of Berlin.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Chancellor of Germany

The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.

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Charles Haughey

Charles James Haughey (16 September 1925 – 13 June 2006) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach on three different occasions, 1979 to 1981, March 1982 to December 1982 and 1987 to 1992.

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Charles S. Maier

Charles S. Maier (born February 23, 1939, in New York City) is the Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History at Harvard University.

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Charlottenburg Palace

Charlottenburg Palace (German: Schloss Charlottenburg) is the largest palace in Berlin, Germany.

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Chequers

Chequers, or Chequers Court, is the country house of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Chinese unification

Chinese (re)unification, more specifically Cross-strait (re)unification, is the irredentist concept of Greater China that expresses the goal of unifying the People's Republic of China and Taiwan into a single sovereign state.

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Christian Democratic Union (East Germany)

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) was an East German political party founded in 1945.

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Christian Democratic Union of Germany

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Condoleezza Rice

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.

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Construction

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Culture of Germany

German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world.

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DE magazine Deutschland

DE magazine Deutschland was a magazine of culture, politics, business and science in Germany.

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Deindustrialization

Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Deutsche Mark

The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.

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Die Wende

Die Wende ("The Turn" or "The Turnaround") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around 1989 and 1990.

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East Berlin

East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.

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East German general election, 1990

Legislative elections were held in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 18 March 1990.

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East German mark

The East German mark (German), commonly called the eastern mark in West Germany and after the reunification), in East Germany only Mark, was the currency of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Bloc politics

Eastern Bloc politics followed the Red Army's occupation of much of eastern Europe at the end of World War II and the Soviet Union's installation of Soviet-controlled Stalinist or Marxist–Leninist governments in the Eastern Bloc through a process of bloc politics and repression.

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Economic reconstruction

Economic reconstruction refers to a process for creating a proactive vision of economic change.

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Economy of Germany

The economy of Germany is a highly developed social market economy.

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Egon Krenz

Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former East German politician who was the last communist leader of East Germany during the final months of 1989.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Era of Stagnation

The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Farther Pomerania

Farther Pomerania, Further Pomerania, Transpomerania or Eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern, Ostpommern), is the part of Pomerania which comprised the eastern part of the Duchy and later Province of Pomerania.

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Flag of Germany

The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).

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Former eastern territories of Germany

The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.

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Four-Power Authorities

Following the defeat of Nazi Germany and then the partition of German territory, two Four-Power Authorities, in which the four main victor nations (the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and France) managed equally, were created.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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Free City of Danzig

The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.

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Gdańsk

Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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George H. W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.

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German Unity Day

The Day of German Unity (Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday.

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German–Polish Border Treaty (1990)

The German–Polish Border Treaty of 1990 finally settled the issue of the Polish–German border, which in terms of international law had been pending since 1945.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giulio Andreotti

Giulio Andreotti (14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013) was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he was the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi.

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Glasnost

In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.

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Good Bye, Lenin!

Good Bye, Lenin! is a 2003 German tragicomedy film, directed by Wolfgang Becker.

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Group of Soviet Forces in Germany

The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.

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Hamburg

Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hans-Dietrich Genscher

Hans-Dietrich Genscher (21 March 1927 – 31 March 2016) was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Minister of the Interior of West Germany from 1969 to 1974, and as the Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of West Germany and then the reunified Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post.

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Helmut Kohl

Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.

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History of Germany (1945–90)

As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Katarina Witt

Katarina Witt (born 3 December 1965) is a retired German figure skater.

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Klaus Wowereit

Klaus Wowereit (born 1 October 1953) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and was the Governing Mayor of Berlin from 21 October 2001 to 11 December 2014.

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Korean reunification

Korean reunification (통일, 統一) refers to the potential reunification of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea), the Republic of Korea (commonly known as South Korea), and the Korean Demilitarized Zone under a single government.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative

Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit und soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG) was a left-wing German political party founded in 2005 by activists disenchanted with the ruling Red-Green coalition government.

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League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.

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List of European Council meetings

This is a list of meetings of the European Council (informally referred to as EU summits); the meetings of the European Council, an institution of the European Union (EU) comprising heads of state or government of EU member states.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lothar de Maizière

Lothar de Maizière (born 2 March 1940) is a German Christian Democratic politician.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Marianne Birthler

Marianne Birthler (born 22 January 1948 in Friedrichshain, Berlin) is a German human rights advocate and politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens.

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Mass migration

Mass migration refers to the migration of large groups of people from one geographical area to another.

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Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.

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Michael Ballack

Michael Ballack (born 26 September 1976) is a retired German footballer.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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NBC News

NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.

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Neumark

The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Oder–Neisse line

The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.

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Oliver Marc Hartwich

Oliver Marc Hartwich (born 8 July 1975 in Gelsenkirchen) is a German economist and media commentator.

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Oskar Lafontaine

Oskar Lafontaine (born 16 September 1943) is a German politician who served in the government of Germany as Minister of Finance from 1998 to 1999.

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Ostalgie

Ostalgie is a German term referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany.

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Ottawa

Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.

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Pan-Germanism

Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Party of Democratic Socialism (Germany)

The Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007.

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Paul van Dyk

Matthias Paul, better known by his stage name Paul van Dyk (born 16 December 1971 in Eisenhüttenstadt, East Germany) is a German DJ, record producer and musician.

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Peaceful Revolution

The Peaceful Revolution (Friedliche Revolution) was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the end of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) and the transition to a parliamentary democracy which enabled the reunification of Germany.

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Peer Steinbrück

Peer Steinbrück (born 10 January 1947) is a German politician who was the chancellor-candidate of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in the 2013 federal election.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Philip D. Zelikow

Philip David Zelikow (born September 21, 1954) is an American attorney, diplomat, academic and author.

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Political union

A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.

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Politics of Germany

Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states).

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Potsdam Agreement

The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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President of the Soviet Union

The President of the Soviet Union (Президент Советского Союза, Prezident Sovetskogo Soyuza), officially called President of the USSR (Президент СССР) or President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Президент Союза Советских Социалистических Республик), was the head of state of the Soviet Union from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991.

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Prime Minister of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Reconstruction era

The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.

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Redevelopment

Redevelopment is any new construction on a site that has pre-existing uses.

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Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria

The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Revolutions of 1989

The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Ruud Lubbers

Rudolphus Franciscus Marie "Ruud" Lubbers (7 May 1939 – 14 February 2018) was a Dutch politician and diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 November 1982 until 22 August 1994.

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Saar Protectorate

The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.

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Saarland

Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Saxony

The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Saxony-Anhalt

Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.

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Self-determination

The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Serge Schmemann

Serge Schmemann (born April 12, 1945) is a writer and editorial page editor of the International Herald Tribune, the global edition of the New York Times.

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Silesia

Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.

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Sinclair-Stevenson

Sinclair-Stevenson Ltd is a British publisher founded in 1989 by Christopher Sinclair-Stevenson.

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Socialist Unity Party of Germany

The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.

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Solidarity (Polish trade union)

Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Southern Italy

Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Stalin Note

The Stalin Note, also known as the March Note, was a document delivered to the representatives of the Western allied powers (the United Kingdom, France, and the United States) from the Soviet Occupation in Germany on March 10, 1952.

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Stasi Records Agency

The Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic, also known as the Stasi Records Agency or BStU, (see §Name below) is an upper-level federal agency of Germany that preserves and protects the archives and investigates the past actions of the former Stasi, which served as the secret police and foreign intelligence organization of the communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

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States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).

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Strasbourg

Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.

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Tank Man

Tank Man (also known as the Unknown Protester or Unknown Rebel) is the nickname of an unidentified man who stood in front of a column of tanks on June 5, 1989, the morning after the Chinese military had suppressed the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 by force.

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Taoiseach

The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

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Tear down this wall!

"Tear down this wall!" is a line from a speech made by US President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987, calling for the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open up the barrier which had divided West and East Berlin since 1961.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Left (Germany)

The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thuringia

The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.

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Transitology

In political science, international and comparative law and economics, transitology is the name for the study of the process of change from one political regime to another, mainly from authoritarian regimes to democratic ones.

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Treaty of Good Neighbourship

The Polish–German Treaty of Good Neighbourship and Friendly Cooperation (Traktat o dobrym sąsiedztwie i przyjaznej współpracy, Vertrag über gute Nachbarschaft und freundschaftliche Zusammenarbeit) was signed between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Poland on 17 June 1991.

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Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany

The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland), or the Two Plus Four Agreement (Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty), was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous Two), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.

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United Ireland

United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Uprising of 1953 in East Germany

The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June 1953.

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Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

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Vergangenheitsbewältigung

Vergangenheitsbewältigung ("struggle to overcome the past" or “working through the past”) is a German term describing processes that since the late 20th century have become key in the study of post-1945 German literature, society, and culture.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Volkskammer

The People's Chamber (German: Volkskammer) was the unicameral legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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Weapon of mass destruction

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.

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West Berlin

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yemeni unification

Yemeni unification took place on May 22, 1990, when the area of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (also known as South Yemen) was united with the Yemen Arab Republic (also known as North Yemen), forming the Republic of Yemen (known as simply Yemen).

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Yitzhak Shamir

Yitzhak Shamir (יצחק שמיר,; born Yitzhak Yezernitsky; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992.

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Redirects here:

Cost of unification of East and West Germany, Deutsche Wiedervereinigung, Einigungsvertrag, German Reunification, German Unity, German re-unification, German reunification treaty, German reunion, German unity, Germany reunification, Germany reunited, Germany's reunification, Inner reunification, Re-unification of Germany, Reunification of Germany, Reunified Germany, Unification Treaty (1990), Wiedervereinigung.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_reunification

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