103 relations: Academic fencing, Albrecht Dürer, Alfred Hutton, Alsace, Argument from silence, Arne Koets, Augsburg, Bauernfeind, Bohemia, Bolognese Swordsmanship, Brotherhood of St. Mark, Buckler, Cgm 558, Chivalry, Christian Egenolff, Cod. 44 A 8, Cologne, Cologne Fechtbuch, Combat, Company of Masters, Dagger, Destreza, Displacement (fencing), Early modern period, Early New High German, East Central German, Elizabethan era, Emerkingen, English Longsword School, Feder (fencing), Federfechter, Fiore dei Liberi, Franconia, Frankfurt, German Renaissance, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grappling, Half-sword, Hans Folz, Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, Hans Talhoffer, Hans von Speyer, Hard and soft (martial arts), Historical European martial arts, History of fencing, Hitler Youth, Holy Roman Empire, Horses in warfare, Innsbruck, Italian school of swordsmanship, ..., Jörg Wilhalm, Joachim Meyer, Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büsching, Johannes Lecküchner, Johannes Liechtenauer, Königsegg, Knight, Langort, Late Middle Ages, Longsword, Louis XIV of France, Martial arts manual, Messer (weapon), Mordhau (weaponry), Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nürnberger Handschrift GNM 3227a, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, New High German, Nicolaus Pol, Nuremberg, Old Swiss Confederacy, Ott Jud, Paulus Hector Mair, Paulus Kal, Peter Falkner, Peter Hagendorf, Plate armour, Pole weapon, Prague, Prize Playing, Rapier, Rhineland, Ringen, Rondel dagger, Royal Armouries Ms. I.33, Salvator Fabris, Schwabenspiegel, Scribal abbreviation, Seventeen Provinces, Sigmund Ringeck, Small sword, Southern Germany, Stick-fighting, Strasbourg, Swabia, Thirty Years' War, Toggenburg, Trial by combat, Vienna, William Shakespeare, World War II, Zürich. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Academic fencing (German akademisches Fechten) or Mensur is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia, and, to a minor extent, in Flanders, Lithuania, and Poland.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Alfred Hutton FSA (10 March 1839 – 18 December 1910) was a Victorian officer of the King's Dragoon Guards, writer, antiquarian and swordsman.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
To make an argument from silence (Latin: argumentum ex silentio) is to express a conclusion that is based on the absence of statements in historical documents, rather than their presence.
Arne Koets is a historical European martial arts practitioner and instructor from the Netherlands.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
Bauernfeind (variant Bauerfeind) is a German surname.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolognese Swordsmanship, also sometimes known as the Dardi school, is a tradition within the Italian school of swordsmanship which is based on the surviving fencing treatises published by several 16th century fencing masters of Bologna, although records indicate that as early as the 14th century several fencing masters were living and teaching in the city: a maestro Rosolino in 1338, a maestro Nerio in 1354, and a maestro Francesco in 1385.
The Marx brothers (German Marxbrüder), or Brotherhood of Saint Mark was the name of the most important organization of German swordsmen in the 16th century.
A buckler (French bouclier 'shield', from Old French bocle, boucle 'boss') is a small shield, up to 45 cm (up to 18 in) in diameter, gripped in the fist with a central handle behind the boss.
The Cgm 558, or Codex germanicus monacensis is a convolution of two 15th-century manuscripts with a total of 176 folia, bound together in the 16th century.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
Christian Egenolff or Egenolph (26 July 1502 – 9 February 1555), also known as Christian Egenolff, the Elder, was the first important printer and publisher operating from Frankfurt-am-Main, and best known for his and re-issue of books by Adam Ries, Erasmus von Rotterdam and Ulrich von Hutten.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Cologne Fechtbuch (Kölner Fechtbuch) is a historical martial arts manual, formerly kept at the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne (Best. 7020, 150; formerly W* 8 150, still earlier W. IX 16, from the collection of Ferdinand Franz Wallraf).
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
The Company of Maisters of the Science of Defence was an organisation formed in England during the reign of Henry VIII to regulate the teaching of the Arte of Defence or fencing, using a range of weapons, including the rapier, quarterstaff, and, most notably, the broadsword.
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
La Verdadera Destreza the conventional term for the Spanish tradition of fencing of the early modern period.
In fencing, a displacement is a movement that avoids or dodges an attack.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Emerkingen is a municipality in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
While the majority of surviving sources concerning the use of the two handed Longsword detail the German school of swordsmanship and the Italian school of swordsmanship, there was also a smaller English school with its own techniques.
The Feder (plural Federn; also Fechtfeder, plural Fechtfedern), is a type of training sword used in Fechtschulen (fencing schools) of the German Renaissance.
The Freifechter or Federfechter (Freifechter von der Feder zum Greifenfels) were a fencing guild founded around 1570 in Prague.
Fiore Furlano de Cividale d'Austria, delli Liberi da Premariacco (Fiore dei Liberi, Fiore Furlano, Fiore de Cividale d'Austria; born ca. 1350; died after 1409) was a late 14th century knight, diplomat, and itinerant fencing master.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The German Renaissance, part of the Northern Renaissance, was a cultural and artistic movement that spread among German thinkers in the 15th and 16th centuries, which developed from the Italian Renaissance.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or causing injury to the opponent.
Half-sword, in 14th- to 16th-century fencing with longswords, refers to the technique of gripping the central part of the sword blade with the left hand in order to execute more forceful thrusts against armoured and unarmoured opponents.
Hans Folz (1437 – January 1513) was a German author of the late medieval or early Renaissance period.
Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen (1621/22 – 17 August 1676) was a German author.
Hans Talhoffer (Dalhover, Talhouer, Thalhoffer, Talhofer) was a 15th-century German fencing master.
Hans von Speyer was a 15th-century German scribe.
In martial arts, the terms hard and soft technique denote how forcefully a defender martial artist counters the force of an attack in armed and unarmed combat.
Historical European martial arts (HEMA) refers to martial arts of European origin, particularly using arts formerly practised, but having since died out or evolved into very different forms.
The oldest surviving manual on western swordsmanship dates to around 1300, although historical references date fencing schools back to the 12th century.
The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
The term Italian school of swordsmanship is used to describe the Italian style of fencing and edged-weapon combat from the time of the first extant Italian swordsmanship treatise (1409) to the days of Classical Fencing (up to 1900).
Jörg Wilhalm was an early 16th-century German fencing master, hatmaker, and citizen of Augsburg.
Joachim Meÿer (ca. 1537–1571) was a self described Freifechter (literally, Free Fencer) living in the then Free Imperial City of Strasbourg in the 16th century and the author of a fechtbuch Gründtliche Beschreibung der Kunst des Fechtens (in English, Thorough Descriptions of the Art of Fencing) first published in 1570.
Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büsching (19 September 1783 – 4 May 1829) was a German antiquary.
Johannes Lecküchner (c. 1430s – 1482) was a 15th-century priest and fencer of the area of Nuremberg.
Johannes Liechtenauer (also Lichtnauer, Hans Lichtenawer) was a 14th-century German fencing master who had a great level of influence on the German fencing tradition.
Königsegg was a state in the southeastern part of what is now Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Langort is a position in the German School of historical fencing.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
A longsword (also spelled as long sword or long-sword) is a type of European sword characterized as having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two-handed use (around), a straight double-edged blade of around, and weighing approximately.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Martial arts manuals are instructions, with or without illustrations, specifically designed to be learnt from a book.
A messer (German for "knife") is a single-edged sword with a knife-like hilt construction.
In the German school of swordsmanship, Mordhau, alternatively Mordstreich or Mordschlag (Ger., lit., "murder-stroke" or "murder-strike" or "murder-blow"), is the technique of holding the sword inverted, with both hands gripping the blade, and hitting the opponent with the pommel or crossguard.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Codex 3227a of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg (also known as Hs. 3227a, GNM 3227a, Nürnberger Handschrift GNM 3227a) is a manuscript of 169 folia, dated to the close of the 14th century.
The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ; lit.: "New Journal of Zurich") is a Swiss, German-language daily newspaper, published by NZZ Mediengruppe in Zurich.
New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language.
Nicolaus Pol (c. 1467 – 1532) was a Renaissance-era physician.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
Ott Jud ("Ott the Jew") was a 15th-century Austrian martial arts master, specialized on grappling (Ringen).
Paulus Hector Mair (1517–1579) was an Augsburg civil servant, and active in the martial arts of his time.
Paulus Kal was a 15th-century German fencing master.
Peter Falkner is the name of a German fencing master, active in the late 15th century (roughly 1470s or 1480s), influenced by Paulus Kal.
Peter Hagendorf was a German mercenary soldier in the Thirty Years' War.
Plate armor is a historical type of personal body armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer.
A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
A Prize Playing was a test of martial skill popular in Renaissance England with the London-based Corporation of Masters of the Noble Science of Defence.
Rapier or espada ropera, is a loose term for a type of slender, sharply pointed sword.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Ringen is the German language term for grappling (wrestling).
A rondel dagger or roundel dagger was a type of stiff-bladed dagger in Europe in the late Middle Ages (from the 14th century onwards), used by a variety of people from merchants to knights.
Royal Armouries Ms.
Salvator Fabris (1544-1618) was an Italian fencing master from Padua.
The Schwabenspiegel is a legal code, written in ca.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.
Sigmund Schining ein Ringeck (Sigmund ain Ringeck, Sigmund Amring, Sigmund Einring, Sigmund Schining) was a 14th- or 15th-century German fencing master.
The small sword or smallsword (also court sword, Gaelic: claidheamh beag or claybeg, French: épée de cour or dress sword) is a light one-handed sword designed for thrusting which evolved out of the longer and heavier rapier of the late Renaissance.
Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.
Stick-fighting, stickfighting, or stick fighting is a variety of martial arts which use simple long slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden 'sticks' for fighting; such as a staff, cane, walking stick, baton or similar.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Toggenburg is a region of Switzerland.
Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of witnesses or a confession in which two parties in dispute fought in single combat; the winner of the fight was proclaimed to be right.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.