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Ghazi (warrior)

Index Ghazi (warrior)

Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare. [1]

99 relations: Abdallah al-Battal, Abdullah Shah Ghazi, Akinji, Akritai, Al-'Awasim, Al-Qaeda, Algerian Arabic, Anatolia, Arabic, Averroes, Battal Gazi, Battle of Badr, Battle of Hamra al-Asad, Battle of Manzikert, Battle of Nicopolis, Bayezid I, Bedouin, Bernard Lewis, Bey, Brigandage, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Cattle raiding, Caucasian War, Caucasus, Central Africa, Chevauchée, Chivalry, Club (weapon), Condottieri, Dagestan, Dawn Chatty, Dhimmi, Divisions of the world in Islam, Early Muslim conquests, Emir, Evrenos, Fedayeen, Gallipoli, Gazi Chelebi, Gazi Husrev-beg, Gazi Pir, Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu, Ghaza thesis, Ghazi Khan, Ghazi Muhammad, Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud, Greater Khorasan, Iberian Peninsula, ..., Imperator, Islam, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Janissaries, Jihad, Jihadism, Maghrebi Arabic, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mercenary, Monasticism, Muhammad, Mujahideen, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, North Caucasus, November 2015 Paris attacks, Orhan, Osman I, Osman Nuri Pasha, Ottoman dynasty, Outlaw, Padishah, Participle, Patrol of Waddan, Paul Wittek, Peasant, Pleven, Polytheism, Religious war, Ribat, Samanid Empire, Second Chechen War, Sedition, September 11 attacks, Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan, Sheikh, Sheikh Mansur, Siege of Akhoulgo, Singulative number, Spread of Islam, Taifa, Transoxiana, Tuareg people, Turkic peoples, Ulama, Umayyad Caliphate, Verbal noun, W. Montgomery Watt, West Africa, Zealots. Expand index (49 more) »

Abdallah al-Battal

Abdallah al-Battal (عبدالله البطال; "Abdallah the Hero", died in 740) was a Muslim Arab commander in the Arab–Byzantine Wars of the early 8th century, participating in several of the campaigns launched by the Umayyad Caliphate against the Byzantine Empire.

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Abdullah Shah Ghazi

Abdullah Shah Ghazi (عبد الله شاه غازي) (c. 720) was an eighth century Muslim mystic and Sufi whose shrine is located in the Clifton neighbourhood of Karachi, Pakistan.

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Akinji or akindji (akıncı,; literally, "Warriors ", plural: akıncılar) were irregular light cavalry, scout divisions (deli) and advance troops of the Ottoman Empire's military.

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The Akritai (ἀκρίται, singular: Akritēs, ἀκρίτης) is a term used in the Byzantine Empire in the 9th–11th centuries to denote the army units guarding the Empire's eastern border, facing the Muslim states of the Middle East.

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Al-ʿAwāṣim (اَلْـعَـوَاصِـم, The "defences, fortifications"; singular: al-ʿāṣimah (اَلْـعَـاصِـمَـة, "protectress")) was the Arabic term used to refer to the Muslim side of the frontier zone between the Byzantine Empire and the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates in Cilicia, northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia.

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Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Algerian Arabic

Algerian Arabic, or Algerian (known as Darja, or Dziria in Algeria) is a language derived from a variety of the Arabic languages spoken in northern Algeria.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.

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Battal Gazi

Seyyid Battal Ghazi is a mythical Muslim Arab, saintly figure and warrior based in Anatolia (associated primarily with Malatya, where his father, Hüseyin Gazi, was the ruler), based on the real-life exploits of the 8th-century Umayyad military leader Abdallah al-Battal.

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Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.

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Battle of Hamra al-Asad

The Battle of Hamra al-Assad (غزوة حمراء الأسد), was a Ghazawat, a battle in which the Islamic prophet Muhammad took part.

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Battle of Manzikert

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).

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Battle of Nicopolis

The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.

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Bayezid I

Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; I. (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402.

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The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Bernard Lewis

Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.

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“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.

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Brigandage is the life and practice of highway robbery and plunder.

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Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Cattle raiding

Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle.

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Caucasian War

The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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A chevauchée ("promenade" or "horse charge", depending on context) was a raiding method of medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, primarily by burning and pillaging enemy territory in order to reduce the productivity of a region, as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest.

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Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.

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Club (weapon)

A club (also known as a cudgel, baton, truncheon, cosh, nightstick, beating stick, or bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick, usually made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times.

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Condottieri (singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance.

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The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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Dawn Chatty

Dawn Chatty, FBA (born 16 October 1947) is an American social anthropologist and academic, who specialises in the Middle East, nomadic pastoral tribes, and refugees.

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A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.

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Divisions of the world in Islam

The Arabic singular form dar (دار), translated literally, may mean "house", "abode", "structure", "place", "land", or "country".

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Early Muslim conquests

The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.

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An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Evrenos or Evrenuz (Gazi Hadji Evrenos Bey; died 17 November 1417 in Yenice-i Vardar) was an Ottoman military commander, with an unlikely long-lived career and lifetime.

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Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.

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The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Gazi Chelebi

The Gazi Chelebi (Gazi Çelebi, "Warrior Gentleman") was the nickname of a Turkish naval commander who controlled the Black Sea port of Sinop in the first decades of the 14th century.

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Gazi Husrev-beg

Gazi Husrev-beg (غازى خسرو بك, Gāzī Ḫusrev Beğ; Modern Turkish: Gazi Hüsrev Bey; 1480–1541) was a Bosniak Ottoman sanjak-bey (governor) of the Sanjak of Bosnia in 1521—1525, 1526—1534, and 1536—1541.

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Gazi Pir

Gazi Pir (also called Ghazi Pir, Gaji Pir, Barkhan Gaji or Gaji Saheb) was a Bengali Muslim pir (saint) who lived in the twelfth or thirteenth-century during spread of Islam in Bengal.

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Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu

Ghazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu or Ghazi Saiyed Salar Dawood or Sahu Bin Ataullah Alavi or Salar Sahu (غازى سيد سالار ساھو) was commander in the army of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi who came to the South Asia in the early 11th century.

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Ghaza thesis

The Ghaza or Ghazi thesis (from غزا, ġazā, "holy war," or simply "raid") is a historical paradigm first formulated by Paul Wittek which has been used to interpret the nature of the Ottoman Empire during the earliest period of its history, the fourteenth century, and its subsequent history.

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Ghazi Khan

Ghazi Khan Mirrani (Balochi, Urdu) was the son of Haji Khan Mirrani, a Baloch mercenary from Dodai tribe who moved to Multan, Pakistan in the late 15th century at the behest of the Langah dynasty of Rajputs.

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Ghazi Muhammad

Qazi Mullah (Russian: Кази-Мулла, Kazi-Mulla, early 1790s–1832) was an Islamic scholar and ascetic, who was the first Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (from 1828 to 1832).

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Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud

Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud or Ghazi Miyan (1014 – 1034 CE) was a semi-legendary Ghaznavid army general, said to have been the nephew of Sultan Mahmud.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.

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Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.

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Maghrebi Arabic

Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.

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Mahmud of Ghazni

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.

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A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.

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November 2015 Paris attacks

The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.

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Orhan Gazi (اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل; Orhan Gazi) (c. 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362.

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Osman I

Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.

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Osman Nuri Pasha

Osman Nuri Pasha (عثمان نوری پاشا‎; 1832, Tokat, Ottoman Empire – 5 April 1900, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire), also known as Gazi Osman Pasha, was an Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna in 1877.

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Ottoman dynasty

The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).

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In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.

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Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.

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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Patrol of Waddan

The Patrol of al-Abwa or Waddan occurred on the 12th of Rajab in the second Hijri year or in Safar of the same year.

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Paul Wittek

Paul Wittek (11 January 1894, Baden bei Wien — 13 June 1978, Eastcote, Middlesex) was an Orientalist and historian from Austria.

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A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.

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Pleven (Плевен) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria.

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Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Religious war

A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.

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A ribat (رِبَـاط; ribāṭ, hospice, hostel, base or retreat) is an Arabic term for a small fortification as built along a frontier during the first years of the Muslim conquest of North Africa to house military volunteers, called the murabitun.

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Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.

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Second Chechen War

Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.

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Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan

Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).

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Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.

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Sheikh Mansur

Al-Imam al-Mansur al-Mutawakil 'ala Allah, also known as Sheikh al-Mansur ("The-Victorious"), born Ushurma (1760–1794) was a Chechen Islamic religious and military leader who led the resistance against Catherine the Great's imperialist expansion into the Caucasus during the late 18th century.

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Siege of Akhoulgo

The Siege of Akhulgo (1839) was a siege during the Murid War in the Caucasus.

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Singulative number

In linguistics, singulative number and collective number (abbreviated and) are terms used when the grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form of a noun, and the noun is specially marked to indicate a single item.

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Spread of Islam

Early Muslim conquests in the years following Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area; conversion to Islam was boosted by missionary activities, particularly those of Imams, who intermingled with local populations to propagate the religious teachings.

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In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.

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Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.

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Tuareg people

The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Verbal noun

A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb.

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W. Montgomery Watt

William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish historian, Orientalist, Anglican priest, and academic.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).

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Redirects here:

Gazawat, Gazi, Ghaza, Ghazah, Ghazawat, Ghazd, Ghaze, Ghazee, Ghazees, Ghazi corporation, Ghazi warriors, Ghazis, Ghazu, Ghazw, Ghazwa, Ghazwah, Ghāzī corporation, Gâzi, Muslim military raid, Muslim raid.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghazi_(warrior)

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