214 relations: Adjective, African Americans, African-American culture, African-American middle class, American Sociological Review, Anglo-Scottish border, Antebellum South, Arabic, August Wilson, Autonomy, Balkanization, Bank, Belfast, Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, Bisexuality, Black flight, Black Power, Black Rednecks and White Liberals, Blockbusting, Bondy, Bookselling, Borough, Boutique, Brighton Beach, British Army, British Asian, British people, Brooklyn, Brownsville, Brooklyn, Cannaregio, Caribbean, Catholic Church, Chicago, City, City proper, Civil Rights Act of 1968, Civil rights movement, Clichy-sous-Bois, Corbeil-Essonnes, Cracker (pejorative), Culture of poverty, Deindustrialization, Detroit, Doreen Massey (geographer), Du Bois Review, Eastern Europe, Economy, Egypt, Elijah Anderson, ..., Empire of Japan, England and Wales, Environmental racism, Ethnic enclave, Ethnic group, Europe, Expulsions and exoduses of Jews, Fair Housing Act, Favela, Federal Housing Administration, Fortified gateway, France, Free Derry, French of France, Gated community, Gay, Gay bar, Gay bathhouse, Gay village, Gaza Ghetto, Gaza Strip, Gentrification, Geographical segregation, GeoJournal, German Americans, German-occupied Europe, Ghetto fabulous, Ghetto tax, Globalization, Great Migration (African American), Harlem, Hebrew language, Hegemony, Heinrich Himmler, Hill District (Pittsburgh), Hip hop, History of immigration to the United States, HLM, Home Owners' Loan Corporation, Hongkou District, Human migration, Immigration to France, Inner city, Insurance, Intergenerationality, Irish Americans, Irish nationalism, Irish people, Irish republicanism, Irish War of Independence, Islam in Europe, Italian Americans, Jewish diaspora, Jewish ghettos in Europe, Jewish quarter (diaspora), Jews, Journal of Political Economy, Labour economics, Langston Hughes, Le Vésinet, Lesbian, LGBT, Little Italy, London, London Borough of Brent, London Borough of Newham, Lower West Side, Chicago, Maisons-Laffitte, Majority minority, Maly Trostenets extermination camp, Manhattan, Mellah, Mexico, Middle East, Minority group, Morocco, Mortgage discrimination, Mortgage loan, Murals in Northern Ireland, National Housing Act of 1934, Nazi concentration camps, Nazism, Neoliberalism, Neuilly-sur-Seine, New York City, North Briton, Northern Ireland, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Oscar Lewis, Palestine (region), Paramilitary, Paris, Paris metropolitan area, Peace lines, Pittsburgh, Polish Americans, Polish Hill (Pittsburgh), Post-industrial society, Poverty, Poverty map, Poverty trap, Protestantism, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Puerto Ricans in the United States, Race (human categorization), Race and health, Racial segregation, Racism, Redlining, Redneck, Religion in the United Kingdom, Religious segregation, Residential segregation in the United States, Restaurant, Riccardo Calimani, Riot, Roman Ghetto, Romani people, Rural ghetto, Scotch-Irish Americans, Segregation in Northern Ireland, Shanghai, Shanghai Ghetto, Shanty town, Sharon Zukin, Skid row, Slang, Slum, Social class, Southall, Southern United States, Suburb, Suburbanization, Supermarket, Tel Aviv, The New Yorker, The Troubles, Thomas Sowell, Township (South Africa), Transgender, Ulster Defence Association, Ulster loyalism, Underclass, Unionism in Ireland, United Kingdom, United Kingdom census, 2001, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Urban decay, Urbanization, Venetian Ghetto, Venetian language, Venice, Versailles, Yvelines, Ward (electoral subdivision), White Americans, White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, White British, White flight, White people, White privilege, William Julius Wilson, World War II, Yiddish, 1969 Northern Ireland riots. Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African-American culture, also known as Black-American culture, refers to the contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from mainstream American culture.
The black middle class consists of black Americans who have middle-class status within the American class structure.
The American Sociological Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of sociology.
The Anglo-Scottish border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.
The Antebellum era was a period in the history of the Southern United States, from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861, marked by the economic growth of the South.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
August Wilson (April 27, 1945 – October 2, 2005) was an American playwright whose work included a series of ten plays, The Pittsburgh Cycle, for which he received two Pulitzer Prizes for Drama.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Balkanization, or Balkanisation, is a geopolitical term used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Birmingham is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the seat of Jefferson County.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
Black flight is a term applied to the out-migration of African Americans from predominantly black or mixed inner-city areas in the United States to suburbs and outlying edge cities of newer home construction.
Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.
Black Rednecks and White Liberals is a collection of six essays by Thomas Sowell.
Blockbusting is a business process of U.S. real estate agents and building developers to convince white property owners to sell their house at low prices, which they do by promoting fear in those house owners that racial minorities will soon be moving into the neighborhood.
Bondy is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books which is the retail and distribution end of the publishing process.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
A boutique is "a small store that sells stylish clothing, jewelry, or other usually luxury goods".
Brighton Beach is an oceanside neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, along the Coney Island peninsula.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City.
Cannaregio is the northernmost of the six historic sestieri (districts) of Venice.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
A city is a large human settlement.
A city proper is the area contained within city limits.
The Civil Rights Act of 1968,, also known as the Fair Housing Act, is a landmark part of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, religion, or national origin and made it a federal crime to “by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone … by reason of their race, color, religion, or national origin.” The Act was signed into law during the King assassination riots by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who had previously signed the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
Clichy-sous-Bois (is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. The vast majority of its population is made up of African heritage, and the BBC described it as one of France's "most notorious" immigrant banlieues (suburbs). It is in this city that the 2005 riots started. Clichy-sous-Bois is not served by any motorway, major road, or railway and therefore remains one of the most isolated of the inner suburbs of Paris.
Corbeil-Essonnes on the River Seine is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.
Cracker, sometimes white cracker or "cracka", is a colloquial term for white people, used especially for poor rural whites in the Southern United States.
The culture of poverty is a concept in social theory that expands on the idea of a cycle of poverty.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
Doreen Barbara Massey FRSA FBA FAcSS (3 January 1944 – 11 March 2016) was a British social scientist and geographer, working among others on topics involving Marxist geography, feminist geography, and cultural geography.
The Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering multidisciplinary and multicultural social science research and criticism about race.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elijah Anderson is an American sociologist.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries.
The Fair Housing Act is a federal act in the United States intended to protect the buyer or renter of a dwelling from seller or landlord discrimination.
A favela, Brazilian Portuguese for slum, is a low-income historically informal urban area in Brazil.
The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934.
A fortified gateway, sometimes a gate castle (Torburg), is a heavily fortified gateway of a castle or a city wall.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Free Derry was a self-declared autonomous nationalist area of Derry, Northern Ireland, that existed between 1969 and 1972.
French of France, sometimes called hexagonal French, is the predominant variety of the French language in France, Andorra and Monaco, in its formal and informal registers.
In its modern form, a gated community (or walled community) is a form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences.
Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual.
A gay bar is a drinking establishment that caters to an exclusively or predominantly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) clientele; the term gay is used as a broadly inclusive concept for LGBT and queer communities.
A gay bathhouse, also known as a gay sauna or a gay steambath, is a commercial space for men to have a sexual activity with men.
A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood, gay enclave, gayvenue, gay ghetto, gaytto, gay district, gay mecca, gaytown or gayborhood) is a geographical area with generally recognized boundaries, inhabited or frequented by a large number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.
Gaza Ghetto: Portrait of a Family, 1948 – 1984 is a documentary film about the life of a Palestinian family living in the Jabalia refugee camp.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.
Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space.
GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1977.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
Ghetto fabulous is a lifestyle expression believed to have originated among African Americans living in poor urban areas.
A ghetto tax is a term used to describe how people with low incomes pay higher prices for goods and services, particularly those living in poverty-stricken areas.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
The Hill District is a historic black collection of neighborhoods in the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
The history of immigration to the United States details the movement of people to the United States starting with the first European settlements from around 1600.
HLM is the acronym of Habitation à Loyer Modéré ("rent-controlled housing"), a form of private or public housing in France, Switzerland, Algeria, Senegal, and Quebec.
The Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) was a government-sponsored corporation created as part of the New Deal.
, formerly spelled Hongkew, is a district of Shanghai, forming part of the northern urban core.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
According to the French national institute of statistics INSEE, the 2014 census counted nearly 6 million immigrants (foreign-born people) in France, representing 9.1% of the total population.
The inner city or inner town is the central area of a major city or metropolis.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Intergenerationality is interaction between members of different generations.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
Islam is the second largest religious belief in Europe after Christianity.
Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jewish ghettos in Europe were neighborhoods of European cities in which Jews were permitted to live.
In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter (also known as jewry, juiverie, Judengasse, Jewynstreet, or proto-ghetto) is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
James Mercer Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri.
Le Vésinet is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
A lesbian is a homosexual woman.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated primarily by Italians or people of Italian ancestry, usually in an urban neighborhood.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Borough of Brent is a London borough in north west London, and forms part of Outer London.
The London Borough of Newham is a London borough formed from the former Essex county boroughs of West Ham and East Ham, within east London, the name being a portmanteau word reflecting its creation while combining the compass points of the old borough names.
Lower West Side is a community area on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois, United States.
Maisons-Laffitte is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
A majority–minority or minority–majority area is a term used in the United States to refer to a jurisdiction in which one or more racial and/or ethnic minorities (relative to the whole country's population) make up a majority of the local population.
The Trostinets extermination camp, also known as Maly Trostinets, Maly Trastsianiets and Trascianec (see alternative spellings), was a World War II Nazi German death camp located near the village of Maly Trostinets (Малы Трасцянец, "Little Trostinets") on the outskirts of Minsk in Reichskommissariat Ostland.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
A mellah (ملاح and מלאח, the Arabic meaning "salt spring" or "salt marsh" which was the area of the first Jewish settlement in Fez) is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, analogous to the European ghetto.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
Murals in Northern Ireland have become symbols of Northern Ireland, depicting the region's past and present political and religious divisions.
The National Housing Act of 1934,,, also called the Capehart Act, was part of the New Deal passed during the Great Depression in order to make housing and home mortgages more affordable.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
A North Briton is a term used for a person from North Britain, the northern parts of the islands of Great Britain.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO) is an agency within the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Oscar Lewis, born Lefkowitz (December 25, 1914 – December 16, 1970) was an American anthropologist.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris metropolitan area (aire urbaine de Paris) is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris, France and its surrounding suburbs.
The peace lines or peace walls are a series of separation barriers in Northern Ireland that separate predominantly Republican and Nationalist Catholic neighbourhoods from predominantly Loyalist and Unionist Protestant neighbourhoods.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Polish Americans are Americans who have total or partial Polish ancestry.
Polish Hill (Polskie Wzgórze) is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
A poverty map is a map which provides a detailed description of the spatial distribution of poverty and inequality within a country.
A poverty trap is a self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
A Stateside Puerto Rican, also ambiguously Puerto Rican American (puertorriqueño-americano, puertorriqueño-estadounidense) is a term for residents in the United States who were born in or trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
In the United States, redlining is the systematic denial of various services to residents of specific, often racially associated, neighborhoods or communities, either directly or through the selective raising of prices.
Redneck is a derogatory term chiefly but not exclusively applied to white Americans perceived to be crass and unsophisticated, closely associated with rural whites of the Southern United States.
Religion in the United Kingdom, and in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,400 years by various forms of Christianity.
Religious segregation is the separation of people according to their religion.
Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level".
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money.
Riccardo Calimani (born in 1946 in Venice, Italy) is a writer and historian, specialising in Italian and European Judaism and Jewish history.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
The Roman Ghetto or Ghetto of Rome, (Ghetto di Roma), was a Jewish ghetto established in 1555 in the Rione Sant'Angelo, in Rome, Italy, in the area surrounded by present-day Via del Portico d'Ottavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto, close to the River Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The term rural ghetto describes the influx of poverty and neglect in the small towns of Midwestern, Southeastern United States and Northeastern United States.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of Northern Ireland.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai Ghetto, formally known as the Restricted Sector for Stateless Refugees, was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkew district of Japanese-occupied Shanghai (the southern Hongkou and southwestern Yangpu districts of modern Shanghai).
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.
Sharon Zukin is a professor of sociology who specializes in modern urban life.
A skid row or skid road is an impoverished area, typically urban, in English-speaking North America whose inhabitants are people "on the skids;" this specifically refers to the poor, the homeless, or others either considered disreputable or forgotten by society.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Southall is a large suburban district of west London, England, and part of the London Borough of Ealing.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of (sub)urban sprawl.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
In South Africa, the terms township and location usually refer to the often underdeveloped segregated urban areas that, from the late 19th century until the end of apartheid, were reserved for non-whites, namely Indians, Africans and Coloureds.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
The Ulster Defence Association (abbreviated UDA) is the largest Ulster loyalist paramilitary and vigilante group in Northern Ireland.
Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom has remained controversial.
The underclass is the segment of the population that occupies the lowest possible position in a class hierarchy, below the core body of the working class.
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.
Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Venetian Ghetto was the area of Venice in which Jews were compelled to live by the government of the Venetian Republic.
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) is an informal acronym that refers to social group of wealthy and well-connected white Americans of Protestant and predominantly British ancestry, many of whom trace their ancestry to the American colonial period.
White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
White flight is a term that originated in the United States, starting in the 1950s and 1960s, and applied to the large-scale migration of people of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
White privilege (or white skin privilege) is the societal privilege that benefits people whom society identifies as white in some countries, beyond what is commonly experienced by non-white people under the same social, political, or economic circumstances.
William Julius Wilson (born December 20, 1935) is an American sociologist.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
During 12–17 August 1969, intense political and sectarian rioting took place in Northern Ireland.
African American ghetto, African American ghettos, African-American ghetto, African-American ghettos, Black ghetto, Getho, Getto, Ghetti, Ghetto mentality, Ghettoes, Ghettoisation, Ghettoization, Ghettoized, Ghettos, Ghettos in the United States, Hyperghettoization, In the hood, List of American Ghettos.