75 relations: Acetylcholine, Adenosine, Adenosine A1 receptor, Adenosine A3 receptor, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylyl cyclase, Adrenergic, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Apelin, Calcium-sensing receptor, CAMP-dependent pathway, Cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cannabinoid receptor type 2, Chemokine, CXCR4, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Free fatty acid receptor 2, Free fatty acid receptor 3, G protein–coupled receptor, GABAB receptor, Glutamic acid, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3, GNAO1, Gq alpha subunit, Heterotrimeric G protein, Histamine, Histamine H3 receptor, Histamine H4 receptor, Δ-opioid receptor, Κ-opioid receptor, Μ-opioid receptor, Melatonin, Melatonin receptor 1A, Melatonin receptor 1B, Melatonin receptor 1C, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8, ..., Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, Niacin receptor 1, Niacin receptor 2, Nociceptin receptor, Opioid, Phospholipase C, Prostaglandin, Prostaglandin EP1 receptor, Prostaglandin EP3 receptor, Prostaglandin F receptor, Protein kinase A, Second messenger system, Serotonin, Short-chain fatty acid, Somatostatin, Somatostatin receptor 1, Somatostatin receptor 2, Somatostatin receptor 3, Somatostatin receptor 4, Somatostatin receptor 5, TAAR8, Thromboxane receptor, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT5A receptor. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
The adenosine A3 receptor, also known as ADORA3, is an adenosine receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Adrenergic means "working on adrenaline (epinephrine) or noradrenaline (norepinephrine)".
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.
The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Apelin (also known as APLN) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the APLN gene.
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a Class C G-protein coupled receptor which senses extracellular levels of calcium ion.
In the field of molecular biology, the cAMP-dependent pathway, also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway, is a G protein-coupled receptor-triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is encoded by the CNR2 gene.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR4 gene.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the FFAR2 gene.
Free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3) is a G-protein coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the FFAR3 gene.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i), alpha-1 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI1 gene.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i), alpha-2 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI2 gene.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI3 gene.
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAO1 gene.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
The histamine H4 receptor is, like the other three histamine receptors, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an inhibitory 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Melatonin receptor type 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTNR1A gene.
Melatonin receptor 1B, also known as MTNR1B, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTNR1B gene.
Melatonin receptor 1C, also known as MTNR1C, is a protein that is encoded by the Mtnr1c gene.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GRM2 gene.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM3 gene.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM4 gene.
Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 6, also known as GRM6, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GRM6 gene.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM7 gene.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM8 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM2 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CHRM4 gene.
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), also known as niacin receptor 1 (NIACR1) and GPR109A, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR2 gene.
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3 (HCA3), also known as niacin receptor 2 (NIACR2) and GPR109B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR3 gene.
The nociceptin opioid peptide receptor (NOP), also known as the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor or kappa-type 3 opioid receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPRL1 (opioid receptor-like 1) gene.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) is a 42kDa prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER1 gene.
Prostaglandin EP3 receptor (53kDa), also known as EP3, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER3;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5733 it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP2, and EP4, all of which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but generally with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors).
Prostaglandin F receptor (FP) is a receptor belonging to the prostaglandin (PG) group of receptors.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
Somatostatin receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSTR1 gene.
Somatostatin receptor type 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSTR2 gene.
Shekel Somatostatin receptor type 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSTR3 gene.
Somatostatin receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSTR4 gene.
Somatostatin receptor type 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSTR5 gene.
Trace amine-associated receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR8 gene.
The thromboxane receptor (TP) also known as the prostanoid TP receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBXA2R gene, The thromboxane receptor is one among the five classes of prostanoid receptors and was the first eicosanoid receptor cloned.
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.