102 relations: Actinopterygii, Alfred Romer, Amniote, Amphibian, Aquatic ecosystem, Aquatic insect, Aquatic respiration, Archegosaurus, Aristotle, Artificial gills (human), Atmosphere of Earth, Batoidea, Beetle, Bivalvia, Blood, Book lung, Broadnose sevengill shark, Carbon dioxide, Cartilage, Chimaera, Countercurrent exchange, Crab, Crustacean, Cubic metre, Diverticulum, Diving bell spider, Dragonfly, Echinoderm, Electrolyte, Elmidae, Eustachian tube, External gills, Filter feeder, Fin, Fish gill, Fresh water, Galen, Gas exchange, Gastrointestinal tract, Gill raker, Gill slit, Gram, Greek language, Hagfish, Hemiptera, Hermit crab, Homology (biology), Horseshoe crab, Hydrophilidae, Hydrophobe, ..., Insect, Lamella (surface anatomy), Lamprey, Larva, Lung, Lungfish, Metamorphosis, Mollusca, Mucus, Mudskipper, Necturus, Norman I. Platnick, Notonectidae, Olm, Operculum (fish), Osmosis, Osmotic concentration, Osteichthyes, Oxygen, Oxygen saturation, Parapodium, Pharyngeal pouch (embryology), Pharynx, Pliny the Elder, Polychaete, Polypterus, Process (anatomy), Rectum, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory system, Ricinulei, Salt, Sea urchin, Seawater, Semiaquatic, Septum, Seta, Shark, Solubility, Spiracle, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Starfish, Surface area, Tadpole, Teleost, Thymus, Tissue (biology), Tonsil, Vertebrate, Water, Water vascular system, Weevil. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.
Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 – November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and biologist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
Aquatic insects or water insects live some portion of their life cycle in the water.
Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.
Archegosaurus is a genus of temnospondyl amphibian which lived during the Asselian to Wuchiapingian stages of the Permian, around 299-253 million years ago.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artificial gills are unproven conceptualised devices to allow a human to be able to take in oxygen from surrounding water.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders.
The broadnose sevengill shark (Notorynchus cepedianus) is the only extant member of the genus Notorynchus, in the family Hexanchidae.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Chimaeras the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish (not to be confused with the rattails), spookfish (not to be confused with the true spookfish of the family Opisthoproctidae), or rabbit fish (not to be confused with the family Siganidae).
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.
The diving bell spider or water spider (Argyroneta aquatica) is the only species of spider known to live almost entirely under water.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Elmidae, commonly known as riffle beetles, is a family of beetles in the superfamily Byrrhoidea.
The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
External gills are the gills of an animal, most typically an amphibian, that are exposed to the environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits, as they are in most fishes.
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
Most fish exchange gases using gills on both sides of the pharynx (throat).
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gill rakers in fish are bony or cartilaginous processes that project from the branchial arch (gill arch) and are involved with suspension feeding tiny prey.
Gill slits are individual openings to gills, i.e., multiple gill arches, which lack a single outer cover.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.
Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the superfamily Paguroidea.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Horseshoe crabs are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.
Hydrophilidae, also called water scavenger beetles, is a family of chiefly aquatic beetles.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Lamellae on a gecko's foot. In surface anatomy, a lamella is a thin plate-like structure, often one amongst many lamellae very close to one another, with open space between.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the subfamily Oxudercinae, within the family Gobiidae (gobies).
Necturus is a genus of aquatic salamanders endemic to the eastern United States and Canada.
Norman I. Platnick (born 1951 in Bluefield, West Virginia) is an American biological systematist and arachnologist.
Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down.
The olm or proteus (Proteus anguinus) is an aquatic salamander in the family Proteidae, the only exclusively cave-dwelling chordate species found in Europe.
The operculum is a series of bones found in bony fish that serves as a facial support structure and a protective covering for the gills; it is also used for respiration and feeding.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
The term parapodium (Gr. para, beyond or beside + podia, feet) refers to two different organs.
In the embryonic development of vertebrates, pharyngeal pouches form on the endodermal side between the pharyngeal arches.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
Polypterus is a genus of freshwater fish in the bichir family (Polypteridae) of order Polypteriformes.
In anatomy, a process (processus) is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
The order Ricinulei is a group of arachnids known as hooded tickspiders, though they are not true spiders.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Semiaquatic can refer to various types of animals that spend part of their time in water, or plants that naturally grow partially submerged in water.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
In biology, setae (singular seta; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
A tadpole (also called a pollywog) is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration.
A weevil is a type of beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily.