239 relations: Abdel Rahman Shalgham, Abortion, Adone Zoli, Alberto Ronchey, Alcide De Gasperi, Aldo Moro, Alexander Stille, Alexandria, Altar server, Amintore Fanfani, Antimafia Commission, Antonio Giolitti, Antonio Segni, Arnaldo Forlani, Ashdod, Attilio Piccioni, Austerity, Ballantine Books, Banda della Magliana, Beelzebub, Benito Mussolini, Bettino Craxi, Bruno Vespa, Candle, Carabinieri, Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, Carmine Pecorelli, Carrier Air Wing Seventeen, Caspar Weinberger, Catania, Censorship, Centrism, Chamber of Deputies (Italy), Christian democracy, Christian Democracy (Italy), Christian Democratic Centre, Ciriaco De Mita, Claudio Martelli, Codice di Camaldoli, Cold War, Confidence and supply, Constituent Assembly of Italy, Corleonesi Mafia clan, Corriere della Sera, Council of Ministers (Italy), Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy, Democratic Party of the Left, Dieter Nohlen, Divorce, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, ..., Egypt, Emilio Colombo, Enrico Berlinguer, Epithet, European Democracy, European Economic Community, European Union, Fascism, Fernando Tambroni, Forza Italia, Francesco Cossiga, Franco Marini, Gaetano Badalamenti, Gianni Alemanno, Gianni De Michelis, Giorgio La Pira, Giovanni Falcone, Giovanni Goria, Giovanni Leone, Giuliano Amato, Giuseppe Capogrossi, Giuseppe Medici, Giuseppe Pella, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Historic Compromise, Holy See, Il Divo (film), Independent politician, Italian Air Force, Italian Catholic Federation of University Students, Italian Communist Party, Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions, Italian general election, 1968, Italian general election, 1972, Italian general election, 1976, Italian general election, 1992, Italian general election, 1994, Italian general election, 2001, Italian Minister of Budget, Italian Minister of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, Italian Minister of Defence, Italian Minister of Economic Development, Italian Minister of Finance, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Italian Minister of the Interior, Italian Minister of Treasury, Italian National Olympic Committee, Italian neorealism, Italian Parliament, Italian People's Party (1994), Italian presidential election, 1992, Italian Republican Party, Italian Social Movement, Italian Socialist Party, Italian unification, Italy, Journalist, Julius Caesar, Kingdom of Italy, Kyphosis, La Stampa, Lamberto Andreotti, Lampedusa, Law enforcement in Italy, Lawyer, Lazio, Le Monde, Leon Klinghoffer, Liceo Torquato Tasso, Licio Gelli, List of Prime Ministers of Italy, List of Prime Ministers of Italy by time in office, Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, Luca Giurato, Luigi Preti, Maastricht Treaty, Machiavellianism, Mani pulite, Margaret Thatcher, Mariano Rumor, Mario Scelba, Mario Tanassi, Masonic lodge officers, Massimo Carminati, Massimo D'Alema, Maxi Trial, Mayor of Rome, Mediterranean Basin, Member of parliament, Migraine, Milan, Military Order of Italy, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Italy), Ministry of Economic Development (Italy), Mino Martinazzoli, Motion of no confidence, MS Achille Lauro, Muhammad Zaidan, National Alliance (Italy), NATO, Naval Air Station Sigonella, Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari, Operation Gladio, Opiate, Order of the Holy Sepulchre, Oriana Fallaci, Palermo, Palestinian Liberation Front, Paolo Borsellino, Paolo Emilio Taviani, Paolo Sorrentino, Pentito, Perugia, Piano Solo, Pier Ferdinando Casini, Piero Piccioni, Pio La Torre, Piracy, Politician, Pope Paul VI, Pope Pius XII, President of the Organising Committee for the Olympic Games, Price controls, Prime Minister of Italy, Propaganda Due, Province of Rome, Punic Wars, Red Brigades, Renault 4, Richard Nixon, Roberto Tremelloni, Romano Prodi, Rome, Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Salvatore Lima, Salvatore Riina, Sandro Pertini, Sapienza University of Rome, Scud, Secretary of the Council of Ministers of Italy, Segni, Senate of the Republic (Italy), Senator for life, Sergio Pininfarina, Serie A, Sicilian Mafia, Sicily, Silvio Berlusconi, SISMI, Social democracy, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Soviet Union, Statute of limitations, Stay-behind, Strategy of tension, Supreme Court of Cassation (Italy), Television, Terrorism, The Godfather Part III, The Guardian, The New York Times, Tommaso Buscetta, Tommaso Morlino, Torvaianica, Toulouse, Trunk (car), Ugo La Malfa, Umberto D., Union of the Centre (2002), United Christian Democrats, United States, United States Navy SEALs, USS Saratoga (CV-60), Valerio Fioravanti, Vernon A. Walters, Veto, VF-74, VFA-103, Virginio Rognoni, Vittore Branca, Vittorio De Sica, Warsaw Pact, Wilfrid Kent Hughes, William King Harvey, Wilma Montesi, World War II, 1960 Summer Olympics, 1986 United States bombing of Libya, 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing. Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
Abdel Rahman Shalgam (Arabic: عبد الرحمن شلقم; born 1949) is a Libyan politician.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Adone Zoli (16 December 1887 – 20 February 1960) was an Italian politician and member of the Christian Democracy.
Alberto Ronchey (26 September 1926 – 5 March 2010) was an Italian journalist, essayist and politician.
Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi (3 April 1881 – 19 August 1954) was an Italian statesman who founded the Christian Democracy party.
Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro (23 September 1916 – 9 May 1978) was an Italian statesman and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy party.
Alexander Stille (born 1 January 1957 in New York City) is an American author and journalist.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy.
Amintore Fanfani (6 February 1908 – 20 November 1999) was an Italian politician and the Prime Minister of Italy for five separate runs.
The Italian parliamentary Antimafia Commission (Commissione parlamentare antimafia) is a bicameral commission of the Italian Parliament, composed of members from the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
Antonio Giolitti (12 February 1915 – 8 February 2010) was an Italian politician and cabinet member.
Antonio Segni (2 February 1891 – 1 December 1972) was an Italian politician who was the 34th Prime Minister of Italy (1955–1957, 1959–1960), and the fourth President of the Italian Republic from 1962 to 1964.
Arnaldo Forlani, (born 8 December 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981.
Ashdod (help; أَشْدُود or إِسْدُود) is the sixth-largest city and the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the country's imported goods.
Attilio Piccioni (14 July 1892 – 10 March 1976) was an Italian politician, born in Poggio Bustone.
Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
The Banda della Magliana (Magliana Gang) is an Italian criminal organization based in Rome founded in 1975.
Beelzebub or Beelzebul (or; בַּעַל זְבוּב Baʿal Zəvûv) is a name derived from a Philistine god, formerly worshipped in Ekron, and later adopted by some Abrahamic religions as a major demon.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi (24 February 1934 – 19 January 2000) was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987.
Bruno Vespa (born 27 May 1944) is an Italian television and newspaper journalist.
A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance.
The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei Carabinieri, "Carabinieri Force" or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali, "Royal Carabinieri Corps") is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense.
General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa (27 September 1920 – 3 September 1982) was an Italian general, notable for campaigning against terrorism during the 1970s in Italy.
Carmine Pecorelli (September 14, 1928 – March 20, 1979), known as Mino, was an Italian journalist, shot dead in Rome a year after former prime minister Aldo Moro's 1978 kidnapping and subsequent killing.
Carrier Air Wing Seventeen (CVW-17), is a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing based at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California.
Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.
Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy.
The Christian Democratic Centre (Centro Cristiano Democratico, CCD) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy from 1994 to 2002.
Ciriaco Luigi De Mita (born 2 February 1928) is an Italian politician.
Claudio Martelli (born 24 September 1943) is an Italian politician, and was the right-hand man of Bettino Craxi, the socialist Prime Minister from 1983–1987.
Codice di Camaldoli (The Code of Camaldoli) is a document planning of economic policy drawn up in July 1943 by members of the Italian Catholic forces.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Italian Constituent Assembly (Italian: Assemblea Costituente della Repubblica Italiana) was a parliamentary chamber which existed in Italy from 25 June 1946 until 31 January 1948.
The Corleonesi are a faction within the Sicilian Mafia that dominated Cosa Nostra in the 1980s and the 1990s.
The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.
The Council of Ministers (Consiglio dei Ministri, CdM) is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy.
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy (Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita, DL), commonly known simply as The Daisy (La Margherita), was a centrist political party in Italy.
The Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS) was a democratic-socialist and social-democratic political party in Italy.
Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen) is a German academic and political scientist.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emilio Colombo (11 April 1920 – 24 June 2013) was an Italian politician and the Prime Minister of Italy from 1970 to 1972.
Enrico Berlinguer (15 May 1922 – 11 June 1984) was an Italian politician.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
European Democracy (Democrazia Europea, DE) was a minor Christian democratic and centrist political party in Italy.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fernando Tambroni Armaroli (25 November 1901 – 18 February 1963) was a right-wing Italian politician of the Christian Democratic Party.
Forza ItaliaThe name is not usually translated into English: forza is the second-person singular imperative of ''forzare'', in this case translating to "to compel" or "to press", and so means something like "Forward, Italy", "Come on, Italy" or "Go, Italy!".
Francesco Cossiga, (1928 – 2010).
Franco Marini (born 9 April 1933) Italian Senate.
Gaetano Badalamenti (September 14, 1923 – April 29, 2004) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia.
Giovanni "Gianni" Alemanno (born 3 March 1958) is an Italian politician who from April 2008 until June 2013 was Mayor of Rome for the centre-right People of Freedom.
Giovanni (Gianni) De Michelis (born 26 November 1940 in Venice) is an Italian politician.
Giorgio La Pira (9 January 1904 – 5 November 1977) - in religious life Raimondo - was an Italian Roman Catholic politician who served as the Mayor of Florence twice (1950-1956 and 1960-1964).
Giovanni Falcone (18 May 1939 – 23 May 1992) was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate.
Giovanni Giuseppe Goria (30 July 1943 – 21 May 1994) was an Italian politician.
Giovanni Leone (3 November 1908 – 9 November 2001) was an Italian politician.
Giuliano Amato (born 13 May 1938) is an Italian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Italy, first from 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 to 2001. Later, he was Vice President of the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the European Constitution and headed the Amato Group. He is commonly nicknamed dottor Sottile, (which means "Doctor Subtilis", the sobriquet of the Scottish Medieval philosopher John Duns Scotus, a reference to his political subtlety). From 2006 to 2008, he was the Minister of the Interior in Romano Prodi's government. On 12 September 2013, President Giorgio Napolitano appointed him to the Constitutional Court of Italy, where he has served since then.
Giuseppe Capogrossi (7 March 1900 – 9 October 1972) was an Italian painter.
Giuseppe Medici (24 October 1907 – 21 August 2000) was an Italian politician who was a member of the Christian Democracy party.
Giuseppe Pella (18 April 1902 – 31 May 1981) was an Italian Christian Democratic politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of Italy from 1953 to 1954.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
The Historic Compromise (Compromesso storico), called also Third Phase (Terza Fase) or Democratic Alternative (Alternativa Democratica), was an Italian historical political alliance and accommodation between the Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Il Divo (The Celebrity or more literally The Divine, from latin divus, god) is a 2008 Italian biographical drama film directed by Paolo Sorrentino.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The Italian Air Force (Italian: Aeronautica Militare; AM) is the aerial defence force of the Italian Republic.
The Italian Catholic Federation of University Students (Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana, FUCI) is a federation of groups representing Roman Catholic university students in Italy.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
The Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori (CISL or Cisl; Italian Confederation of Trade Unions) is an Italian trade union association representing various Roman Catholic-inspired groups linked with Christian Democracy.
General elections were held in Italy on 19 May 1968 to select the Fifth Republican Parliament.
General elections were held in Italy on 7 May 1972, to select the Sixth Republican Parliament.
General elections were held in Italy on 20 June 1976, to select the Seventh Republican Parliament.
General elections were held in Italy on 5 April 1992 to select the Eleventh Republican Parliament.
A snap national general election was held in Italy on March 27, 1994 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
A national general election was held in Italy on 13 May 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic.
This is a list of Italian Ministers of Budget, from 1947 to 1997.
This is a list of the Italian Ministers of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, who leads the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.
This Italian Ministers of Defence is a senior member of the Italian Cabinet who leads the Ministry of Defence.
This is a list of the Italian ministers of Economic development, who head the Ministry of Economic Development.
This is a list of Italian Ministers of Finance, from 1861 to present.
The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Italy.
The Minister of the Interior (Italian: Ministro dell'Interno) in Italy is one of the most important positions in the Italian Council of Ministers and leads the Ministry of the Interior.
This is a list of Italian Ministers of Treasury, from 1946 to present.
The Italian National Olympic Committee (Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano, CONI), founded in 1914 and a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), is responsible for the development and management of sports activity in Italy.
Italian neorealism (Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
The Italian People's Party (Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI) was a Christian-democratic, centrist, and Christian-leftist political party in Italy.
The 1992 election of the President of the Italian Republic was held on May 13–25, 1992.
The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano, PRI) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Italy.
The Italian Social Movement (MSI), later the Italian Social Movement – National Right (Movimento Sociale Italiano – Destra Nazionale, MSI–DN), was a neo-fascist and post-fascist political party in Italy.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Kyphosis (from Greek κυφός kyphos, a hump) is an abnormally excessive convex kyphotic curvature of the spine as it occurs in the cervical, thoracic and sacral regions.
La Stampa (meaning The Press in English) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Turin, Italy.
Lamberto Andreotti (born 6 July 1950 in Rome) is an Italian businessman.
Lampedusa (Lampidusa; Λοπαδούσσα Lopadoussa) is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national agencies with full powers.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Leon Klinghoffer (September 24, 1916 – October 8, 1985) was a Jewish-American, disabled and wheelchair bound, who was shot and killed and thrown overboard by members of the terrorist group known as the Palestine Liberation Front who hijacked the cruise ship Achille Lauro in 1985.
The Liceo Torquato Tasso is an Italian secondary school type in Italy, in the city of Rome.
Licio Gelli (April 21, 1919 – December 15, 2015) was an Italian financier, liaison officer between the Italian government and Nazi Germany, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal.
The Prime Minister of Italy, officially President of the Council of Ministers, is the political leader of Italy since 1861.
This list of Prime Ministers of Italy lists each Prime Minister in order of term length.
The Lockheed C-141 Starlifter was a military strategic airlifter that served with the Military Air Transport Service (MATS), its successor organization the Military Airlift Command (MAC), and finally the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF).
Luca Giurato (born 23 December 1939 in Rome) is an Italian journalist and presenter.
Luigi Preti (23 October 1914 – 19 January 2009) was an Italian politician and minister of Italian Democratic Socialist Party.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".
Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Mariano Rumor (16 June 1915 – 22 January 1990) was an Italian politician.
Mario Scelba (5 September 1901 – 29 October 1991) was an Italian Christian Democratic politician who served as the 33rd Prime Minister of Italy from February 1954 to July 1955.
Mario Tanassi (17 March 1916 – 5 May 2007) was an Italian politician, who was several times Minister of the Italian Republic.
In Craft Freemasonry, sometimes known as Blue Lodge Freemasonry, every Masonic Lodge elects or appoints Masonic Lodge Officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodge's life and work.
Massimo Carminati (born May 31, 1958), allegedly nicknamed "the last king of Rome", is an Italian underworld figure and former associate of far-right terrorist group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari and criminal gang Banda della Magliana, which were at the centre of sensational allegations of state collusion and Masonic conspiracy during Italy's years of lead.
Massimo D'Alema (born 20 April 1949) is an Italian politician who was the 53rd Prime Minister from 1998 to 2000.
The Maxi Trial (Italian: Maxiprocesso) was a criminal trial against the Sicilian Mafia that took place in Palermo in Sicily.
The Mayor of Rome (Sindaco di Roma Capitale) is an elected politician who, along with Rome’s City Council (Assemblea Capitolina) of 48 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Rome.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Military Order of Italy (Italian: Ordine Militare d'Italia) is the highest military order of the Italian Republic and the former Kingdom of Italy.
The Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali e del Turismo - MiBACT) is the culture ministry of the Italian Republic.
The Ministry of Economic Development (Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico or MISE) is a government ministry of the Italian Republic.
Fermo Mino Martinazzoli (Orzinuovi, 3 November 1931 – Brescia, 4 September 2011) was an Italian lawyer, politician and former Minister.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
MS Achille Lauro was a cruise ship based in Naples, Italy.
Muhammad Zaidan (10 December 1948 – 8 March 2004) also known as Abu Abbas (أبو العباس Abū ʿAbbās) or Muhammad Abbas, was (with Tal'at Ya'qoub) the founder and a leader of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Organization.
National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) was a conservativeLuciano Bardi - Piero Ignazi - Oreste Massari, I partiti italiani, Egea 2007, pp.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Naval Air Station Sigonella, is a U.S. Navy installation at NATO Base Sigonella and an Italian Air Force base (Aeroporto "Cosimo Di Palma" di Sigonella) in Sicily, Italy.
The Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (Armed Revolutionary Core), abbreviated NAR, was an Italian neofascist Militant organization active from 1977 to November 1981.
Operation Gladio is the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Europe during the Cold War.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Ordo Equestris Sancti Sepulcri Hierosolymitani, OESSH), also called Order of the Holy Sepulchre or Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the Holy See.
Oriana Fallaci (29 June 1929 - 15 September 2006) was an Italian journalist, author, and political interviewer.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
The Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a Palestinian political faction.
Paolo Borsellino (January 19, 1940 – July 19, 1992) was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate.
Paolo Emilio Taviani (6 November 1912 – 18 June 2001) was an Italian political leader, economist and historian of the career of Christopher Columbus.
Paolo Sorrentino (born 31 May 1970) is an Italian film director and screenwriter.
Italian term pentito ("repentant"; plural: pentiti) is used colloquially to designate people in Italy who were formerly part of criminal or terrorist organizations and who, following their arrests, decided to "repent" and collaborate with the judiciary to help further investigations.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
Piano Solo was an envisaged plot for an Italian coup in 1964 requested by then President of the Italian Republic, Antonio Segni.
Pier Ferdinando Casini (born 3 December 1955) is an Italian politician.
Piero Piccioni (6 December 1921 – 23 July 2004) was an Italian lawyer and film score composer.
Pio La Torre (Palermo, December 24, 1927 – Palermo, April 30, 1982) was a leader of the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI).
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
The President of the Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games is the individual who is in charge of leading the Organizing Committee for each Olympic Games.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
Propaganda Due (P2) was a Masonic lodge under the Grand Orient of Italy, founded in 1945 that, by the time its Masonic charter was withdrawn in 1976, had transformed into a clandestine, pseudo-Masonic, ultraright organization operating in contravention of Article 18 of the Constitution of Italy that banned secret associations.
The Province of Rome (Provincia di Roma) was one of the five provinces of Lazio, Italy.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, often abbreviated BR) was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations, kidnapping and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead".
The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Roberto Tremelloni (30 October 1900 – 8 September 1987) was an Italian economist, academic, businessman and a social democrat politician.
Romano Prodi (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician who served as the 10th President of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George (Sacro militare ordine costantiniano di San Giorgio) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood founded 1520–1545 by two brothers belonging to the Angeli Comneni family.
Salvatore Achille Ettore Lima (January 23, 1928 – March 12, 1992) was an Italian politician from Sicily who was associated with, and murdered by, the Sicilian Mafia.
Salvatore "Totò" Riina (16 November 1930 in Corleone – 17 November 2017 in Parma), called Totò 'u Curtu (Totò the Short; Totò being the diminutive of "Salvatore"), was an Italian mobster and chief of the Sicilian Mafia, known for a ruthless murder campaign that reached a peak in the early 1990s with the assassinations of Antimafia Commission prosecutors Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, resulting in widespread public outcry and a major crackdown by the authorities.
Alessandro "Sandro" Pertini, (25 September 1896 – 24 February 1990) was an Italian journalist and socialist politician, who served as the seventh President of the Italian Republic, from 1978 to 1985.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The Secretary of the Council of Ministers, whose official name is Undersecretary of State to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Sottosegretario di Stato alla Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri), is a senior member of the Italian Cabinet.
Segni is an Italian town and comune located in Lazio.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
A senator for life is a member of the senate or equivalent upper chamber of a legislature who has life tenure.
Sergio Pininfarina, born Sergio Farina, (8 September 1926. – 3 July 2012) was an Italian automobile designer and Senator for life.
Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.
The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service) was the military intelligence agency of Italy from 1977–2007.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Statutes of limitations are laws passed by legislative bodies in common law systems to set the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.
In a stay-behind operation, a country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory, for use in the event that an enemy occupies that territory.
A strategy of tension (strategia della tensione) is a policy wherein violent struggle is encouraged rather than suppressed.
The Supreme Court of Cassation (Corte Suprema di Cassazione) is the highest court of appeal or court of last resort in Italy.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola, and directed by Coppola.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tommaso Buscetta (13 July 1928 – 2 April 2000) was an Italian gangster, a member of the Sicilian Mafia, who became the first Mafia boss to turn informant (pentito) and explain the inner workings of the organisation.
Tommaso Morlino (August 26, 1925 – May 6, 1983) was an Italian Christian Democrat politician.
Torvaianica or Torvajanica is a frazione of the commune of Pomezia, in the province of Rome, central Italy.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
The trunk (North American English), boot (British English) or compartment (South-East Asia) of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment.
Ugo La Malfa (May 16, 1903 – March 26, 1979) was an Italian politician, and an important leader in the Italian Republican Party, of which his son, Giorgio La Malfa, is now president.
Umberto D. is a 1952 Italian neorealist film directed by Vittorio De Sica.
The Union of the Centre (Unione di Centro, UdC), whose complete name is Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e Democratici di Centro, UDC), is a Christian democratic political party in Italy.
The United Christian Democrats (Cristiani Democratici Uniti, CDU) was a minor Christian democratic political party in Italy.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
USS Saratoga (CV/CVA/CVB-60), was the second of four supercarriers built for the United States Navy in the 1950s.
Giuseppe Valerio "Giusva" Fioravanti (born 28 March 1958) is an Italian terrorist, who, with Francesca Mambro, was a leading figure in a far right terrorist group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari ("Armed Revolutionary Nuclei" or NAR).
Vernon A. Walters (January 3, 1917 – February 10, 2002) was a United States Army officer and a diplomat.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
VF-74, Fighter Squadron 74, Be-Devilers was an aviation unit of the United States Navy in service from 1944 to 1994.
Strike Fighter Squadron 103 (VFA-103), nicknamed the Jolly Rogers is an aviation unit of the United States Navy established in 1952.
Virginio Rognoni (born August 5, 1924 in Corsico, province of Milan) is an Italian politician, who was a prominent member of Christian Democracy.
Vittore Branca (Savona, July 9, 1913 - Venice, May 28, 2004) was a philologist, literary critic and Italian academic.
Vittorio De Sica (7 July 1901 – 13 November 1974) was an Italian director and actor, a leading figure in the neorealist movement.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Sir Wilfrid Selwyn "Bill" Kent Hughes (12 June 1895 – 31 July 1970) was an Australian army officer and politician who had a long career in both state and federal politics, most notably as a minister in the Menzies Government.
William King "Bill" Harvey (September 13, 1915 – June 9, 1976) was a Central Intelligence Agency officer, best known for his role in Operation Mongoose.
Wilma Montesi (3 February 1932 – 9 April 1953) was an Italian woman whose body was discovered near Rome.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy.
The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday, 15 April 1986.
On 5 April 1986, three people were killed and 229 injured when La Belle discothèque was bombed in the Friedenau district of West Berlin.