112 relations: Amasis II, Amenhotep II, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination, Ankhhaf, Ankhmare, Antipater of Sidon, Archaeological site, Associated Press, Astronomy, Bertha Porter, Bunefer, Cairo, Cemetery GIS, Central Field, Giza, Dennis Rawlins, Djaty, Djedefhor, Djedefre, Duaenhor, Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), Egypt, Egyptian pyramids, Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, Giza, Giza East Field, Giza Governorate, Giza Plateau, Giza West Field, Great Pyramid of Giza, Great Sphinx of Giza, Hekenuhedjet, Hellenistic period, Hemetre, Hemiunu, Henutsen, Herodotus, Hetepheres I, Hetepheres II, Horbaef, Iunre, Kaemsekhem, Kawab, Khafra, Khamerernebty I, Khentkaus I, Khufu, Khufukhaf I, ..., Late Period of ancient Egypt, Limestone, List of archaeoastronomical sites by country, List of Egyptian pyramids, List of largest monoliths, Mark Lehner, Mastaba, Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur, Menkaure, Meresankh II, Meresankh III, Meritites II, Middle Egypt, Mindjedef, Minkhaf I, Monument, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Nebemakhet, Nefermaat, Nefermaat II, Nefertiabet, Nefertkau I, Nefertkau II, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nikaure, Nile, Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Nummulite, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Orion (constellation), Orion correlation theory, Otto E. Neugebauer, Outline of Egypt, Pedro Tafur, Persenet, Pharaoh, Pyramid, Pyramid of Khafre, Pyramid of Menkaure, Ramesses II, Rekhetre, Rosalind Moss, Sculpture, Second Dynasty of Egypt, Sekhemkare (vizier), Seneb, Serdab, Seti I, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Sixth Dynasty of Egypt, Sneferu, Sneferukhaf, Thames & Hudson, Third Dynasty of Egypt, Thutmose I, Thutmose IV, Tutankhamun, Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt, Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, Vizier (Ancient Egypt), Wepemnofret, Western Desert (Egypt). Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Amasis II (Ἄμασις) or Ahmose II was a pharaoh (reigned 570 BCE526 BCE) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais.
Amenhotep II (sometimes called Amenophis II and meaning Amun is Satisfied) was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Nile Mosaic of Palestrina. Egypt has had a legendary image in the Western world through the Greek and Hebrew traditions.
Prince Ankhhaf was an Egyptian prince and served as vizier and overseer of works to the Pharaoh Khufu, who was Ankhhaf's half-brother.
Ankhmare was an ancient Egyptian prince and vizier of the 4th dynasty.
Antipater of Sidon (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Σιδώνιος, Antipatros ho Sidonios) was an ancient Greek poet in the second half of the 2nd century BC.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Bertha Porter (1852-1941) was an English biographer and bibliographer known for her editorial role in the compilation of the Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings.
Bunefer was an Ancient Egyptian queen from the 4th or 5th dynasty.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cemetery GIS is a necropolis in the Giza Plateau.
The Central Field is located to the east of Khafre's causeway and extends to the pyramid town of Queen Khentkaus I. One of the main excavators of the central field is Selim Hassan.
Dennis Rawlins (born 1937) is an American astronomer and historian who has acquired the reputation of skeptic primarily with respect to historical claims connected to astronomical considerations.
Djaty I (also Djati) was a prince who lived in the ancient Egypt during the 4th dynasty.
Djedefhor or Hordjedef was an ancient Egyptian prince of the 4th dynasty.
Djedefre (also known as Djedefra and Ρετζεντέφ Radjedef) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom.
Duaenhor was a Prince of Egypt.
The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.
The Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty V) is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom.
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IV or Dynasty 4) is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
Giza (sometimes spelled Gizah or Jizah; الجيزة; ϯⲡⲉⲣⲥⲏⲥ, ⲅⲓⲍⲁ) is the third-largest city in Egypt and the capital of the Giza Governorate.
The East Field is located to the east of Khufu’s pyramid and contains cemetery G 7000.
Giza Governorate (محافظة الجيزة) is one of the governorates of Egypt.
The Giza Plateau (جيزة بلاتي) is a plateau that is located in Giza, Egypt.
The Giza West Field is located on the Giza Plateau, to the west of the fourth dynasty Pharaoh Khufu’s pyramid.
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
The Great Sphinx of Giza (translit,, The Terrifying One; literally: Father of Dread), commonly referred to as the Sphinx of Giza or just the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
Hekenuhedjet was an ancient Egyptian queen consort of the 4th dynasty, a wife of pharaoh Khafra.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hemetre (Hemetra) was an Ancient Egyptian royal woman of the Fourth Dynasty.
Hemiunu (fl. 2570 BC) is believed to be the architect of the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt.
Henutsen is the name of an Ancient Egyptian queen consort who lived and ruled during the 4th dynasty of the Old Kingdom Period.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Queen Hetepheres I was a Queen of Egypt during the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt (c. 2600 BC).
Hetepheres II was a Queen of Ancient Egypt during the 4th dynasty.
Horbaef (also known as Baefhor and Horbaf) was an Ancient Egyptian prince of the 4th dynasty.
Iunre (Yunre) was an ancient Egyptian prince of the 4th dynasty.
Kaemsekhem was an Ancient Egyptian nobleman and probably the son of Crown Prince Kawab and Hetepheres II.
Kawab is the name of an ancient Egyptian prince of the 4th Dynasty.
Khafra (also read as Khafre, Khefren and Χεφρήν Chephren) was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom.
Khamerernebty I was an ancient Egyptian queen of the 4th dynasty.
Khentkaus I, also referred to as Khentkawes, was a queen of ancient Egypt during the 4th dynasty.
Khufu (full name Khnum Khufu, known to the Greeks as Cheops, was an ancient Egyptian monarch who ruled during the Fourth Dynasty, in the first half of the Old Kingdom period (26th century BC). Khufu was the second ruler of the 4th dynasty; he followed his possible father, king Sneferu, on the throne. He is generally accepted as having commissioned the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but many other aspects of his reign are rather poorly documented. The only completely preserved portrait of the king is a three-inch high ivory figurine found in a temple ruin of a later period at Abydos in 1903. All other reliefs and statues were found in fragments, and many buildings of Khufu are lost. Everything known about Khufu comes from inscriptions in his necropolis at Giza and later documents. For example, Khufu is the main character noted in the Papyrus Westcar from the 13th dynasty. Most documents that mention king Khufu were written by ancient Egyptian and Greek historians around 300 BC. Khufu's obituary is presented there in a conflicting way: while the king enjoyed a long lasting cultural heritage preservation during the period of the Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom, the ancient historians Manetho, Diodorus and Herodotus hand down a very negative depiction of Khufu's character. Thanks to these documents, an obscure and critical picture of Khufu's personality persists.
Khufukhaf I (also read as Khaefkhufu I) was an ancient Egyptian prince and vizier of the 4th dynasty.
The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Achaemenid Persian conquests and ended with the conquest by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of sites where claims for the use of archaeoastronomy have been made, sorted by country.
This list presents the vital statistics of the pyramids listed in chronological order, when available.
This is a list of monoliths organized according to the size of the largest block of stone on the site.
Mark Lehner is an American archaeologist with more than 30 years of experience excavating in Egypt.
A mastaba or pr-djt (meaning "house for eternity" or "eternal house" in Ancient Egyptian) is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with inward sloping sides, constructed out of mud-bricks (from the Nile River).
Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur is a World Heritage Site (WHS No. 86).
Menkaure (also Menkaura, Egyptian transliteration mn-k3w-Rˁ), was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom, who is well known under his Hellenized names Mykerinos (Μυκερίνος) (by Herodotus) and Menkheres (by Manetho).
Meresankh II ("She Loves Life") was a Queen of Egypt who lived during 4th dynasty.
Queen Meresankh III was the daughter of Hetepheres II and Prince Kawab and a granddaughter of the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu.
Meritites II (Merytiotes, Meritetes) or Meritites A ("beloved of her father") was a 4th dynasty Princess of Ancient Egypt, and probably a daughter of King Khufu.
Middle Egypt (Misr al-Wista) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north.
Mindjedef was a Prince of ancient Egypt, who lived during the 4th Dynasty.
Minkhaf I was an ancient Egyptian prince of the 4th Dynasty.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States.
Nebemakhet was a king's son and a vizier during the 4th Dynasty.
Nefermaat I was an Egyptian prince, a son of pharaoh Sneferu.
Nefermaat II was a member of the Egyptian royal family during the 4th dynasty and vizier of Khafra (his cousin).
Nefertiabet (nfr.t ỉ3b.t; "Beautiful One of the East") was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 4th dynasty.
Nefertkau I was a 4th dynasty princess of ancient Egypt.
Nefertkau II was an Ancient Egyptian noble lady, the wife of Prince Khufukhaf I, son of pharaoh Khufu.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
Nikaure was an ancient Egyptian prince and vizier during the 4th dynasty.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX, alternatively 19th Dynasty or Dynasty 19) is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC.
Fossil nummulites in Urbasa, Navarre A nummulite is a large lenticular fossil, characterized by its numerous coils, subdivided by septa into chambers.
The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
The Orion correlation theory (or Giza-Orion correlation theory) is a hypothesis in alternative Egyptology.
Otto Eduard Neugebauer (May 26, 1899 – February 19, 1990) was an Austrian American mathematician and historian of science who became known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Egypt: Egypt (مصر) is a sovereign country located in eastern North Africa that includes the Sinai Peninsula, a land bridge to Asia.
Pedro Tafur (or Pero Tafur) (c. 1410 – c. 1484) was a traveler, historian and writer from Castile (modern day Spain).
Persenet (Personet, Per-sent) was an ancient Egyptian queen consort of the 4th dynasty.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
A pyramid (from πυραμίς) is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense.
The Pyramid of Khafre or of Chephren (translit) is the second-tallest and second-largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the Fourth-Dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chefren), who ruled from to 2532 BC.
The Pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the three main Pyramids of Giza, located on the Giza Plateau in the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Rekhetre was an ancient Egyptian queen from the late 4th dynasty or early 5th dynasty.
Rosalind Louisa Beaufort Moss, FSA (21 September 1890 – 22 April 1990) was a British Egyptologist and bibliographer, noted for her work on The Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
The Second Dynasty of ancient Egypt (or Dynasty II, c. 2890 – c. 2686 BC) is the latter of the two dynasties of the Egyptian Archaic Period, when the seat of government was centred at Thinis.
Sekhemkare was a vizier from the Fifth dynasty of Egypt.
Seneb was a dwarf who served as a high-ranking court official in the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, circa 2520 BC.
A serdab (d), literally meaning "cold water", which became a loanword in Arabic for 'cellar') is an ancient Egyptian tomb structure that served as a chamber for the Ka statue of a deceased individual. Used during the Old Kingdom, the serdab was a sealed chamber with a small slit or hole to allow the soul of the deceased to move about freely. These holes also let in the smells of the offerings presented to the statue. The word serdab is also used for a type of undecorated chamber found in many pyramids. Due to the lack of inscriptions, it has been impossible to determine the ritual function of this chamber, but many egyptologists view it as a storage space, akin with the underground storehouses in private and royal tombs of the second dynasty. It is easiest recognized by its position in the east end of the pyramid's internal chamber system and the three niches in its outer wall. The earliest serdab of this type is found in the pyramid of Menkaure, but it was during the reign of Djedkare Isesi that it became a part of the standard pyramid layout.
Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty VI) along with Dynasties III, IV and V constitute the Old Kingdom of Dynastic Egypt.
Sneferu (also read Snefru or Snofru), well known under his Hellenized name Soris (Σῶρις) (by Manetho), was the founding monarch of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom.
s-nfr-f:r-w Sneferukhaf was an Egyptian prince who lived during 4th dynasty.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian: /ḏḥwty.ms/ Djehutymes, meaning "Thoth is born") was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXI, alternatively 21st Dynasty or Dynasty 21) is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1069 BC to 945 BC.
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed).
The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the pharaoh (king) during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
Wepemnofret was a Royal prince of the Fourth Dynasty.
The Western Desert of Egypt is an area of the Sahara which lies west of the river Nile, up to the Libyan border, and south from the Mediterranean sea to the border with Sudan.
Giza Necropolis, Giza Pyramid Complex, Egypt, Giza Pyramids, Giza pyramids, Giza pyramids complex, Gizah pyramids, Great Pyramids, Great Pyramids at Giza, Great Pyramids of Egypt, Great Pyramids of Giza, Khufu Pyramid complex, Pyramids of Cairo, Pyramids of Giza, The Pyramids Of Giza.