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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. [1]

195 relations: Ablation, Ablation zone, Abrasion (geology), Accumulation zone, Aeolian processes, Alaska, Alluvial plain, Alps, Andes, Antarctica, Arête, Arctic, Arctic Alaska, Aridity index, Atacama Desert, Baffin Island, Banks Island, Basal sliding, Bay mud, Bergschrund, Blue, Blue ice (glacial), Bouvet Island, British Antarctic Survey, California Legacy Project, Cartography, Caucasus Mountains, Century, Chatter mark, Cirque, Climate, Climate change, Cloud cover, Color of water, Continent, Crevasse, Crozet Islands, Cryosphere, Drumlin, Earth, Earthquake, East Africa, Ellesmere Island, Erosion, Esker, Estuary, Faroe Islands, Firn, Fjord, Franco-Provençal language, ..., French language, Fresh water, Friction, Glacial earthquake, Glacial erratic, Glacial landform, Glacial motion, Glacial period, Glacial striation, Glacier growing, Glacier ice accumulation, Glacier mass balance, Glacier morphology, Glacier terminus, Glaciology, Global Environment Outlook, Global warming, Gravity, Great Lakes, Greenland, Hadley cell, Hawaii (island), Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Himalayas, HiWish program, Ice, Ice cap, Ice field, Ice jam, Ice segregation, Ice sheet, Ice shelf, Ice stream, Ice tongue, Iceberg, Iceland, Infrared spectroscopy, Interior Alaska, Island, Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, Jakobshavn Glacier, James David Forbes, Jan Mayen, Kame, Katabatic wind, Kettle (landform), Last glacial period, Late Latin, Latin, Latitude, List of glaciers, Little Ice Age, Loanword, Lobate debris apron, Loess, Lubrication, Manchuria, Mars, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mauna Kea, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Melting, Meltwater, Mertz Glacier, Mexico, Moraine, Moulin (geomorphology), Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kosciuszko, Mountain, Mountain pass, Mountain range, Névé, New Guinea, New Zealand, Northern Patagonian Ice Field, Nunatak, Overtone, Patagonia, Paternoster lake, Plasticity (physics), Plucking (glaciation), Polar desert, Polar regions of Earth, Post-glacial rebound, Precipitation, Prince Edward Islands, Protonilus Mensae, Puncak Jaya, Pyramidal peak, Quaternary, Rayleigh scattering, Rôche moutonnée, Retreat of glaciers since 1850, River delta, Rochester, New York, Rock flour, Rock glacier, Rocky Mountains, Romer Lake, Rwenzori Mountains, Scandinavia, Scandinavian Mountains, Science (journal), Sea ice, Sea level rise, Serac, Shear (geology), Siberia, Slope, Snow, Snow bridge, Snow line, Solar irradiance, Southeast Alaska, Southern Patagonian Ice Field, Stan Paterson, Stratigraphy, Subantarctic, Sublimation (phase transition), Supraglacial lake, Surge (glacier), Svalbard, Swale (landform), Taiwan, Tanzania, Temperature, Tenerife, Terrace (geology), Tidewater glacier cycle, Till, Timpanogos Glacier, Tributary, Truncated spur, U-shaped valley, United Nations Environment Programme, Valley, Velocity, Volcano, Vulgar Latin, Water, Water resources, Wind, Zard-Kuh. Expand index (145 more) »


Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.

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Ablation zone

Ablation zone or ablation area refers to the low-altitude area of a glacier or ice sheet below firn with a net loss in ice mass due to melting, sublimation, evaporation, ice calving, aeolian processes like blowing snow, avalanche, and any other ablation.

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Abrasion (geology)

Abrasion is a process of erosion which occurs when material being transported wears away at a surface over time.

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Accumulation zone

On a glacier, the accumulation zone is the area above the firn line, where snowfall accumulates and exceeds the losses from ablation, (melting, evaporation, and sublimation).

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Aeolian processes

Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alluvial plain

An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Clouds Rest in Yosemite National Park is an arête. An arête is a narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arctic Alaska

Arctic Alaska or Far North Alaska is a region of the U.S. state of Alaska generally referring to the northern areas on or close to the Arctic Ocean.

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Aridity index

An aridity index (AI) is a numerical indicator of the degree of dryness of the climate at a given location.

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Atacama Desert

The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.

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Baffin Island

Baffin Island (ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk, Île de Baffin or Terre de Baffin), in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world.

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Banks Island

Banks Island is one of the larger members of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Basal sliding

Basal sliding is the act of a glacier sliding over the bed due to meltwater under the ice acting as a lubricant.

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Bay mud

Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles.

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A bergschrund (from the German for mountain cleft) is a crevasse that forms where moving glacier ice separates from the stagnant ice or firn above.

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Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.

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Blue ice (glacial)

Blue ice occurs when snow falls on a glacier, is compressed, and becomes part of the glacier.

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Bouvet Island

Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.

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British Antarctic Survey

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs.

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California Legacy Project

The California Legacy Project (CLP) began in 2000 as a project at Santa Clara University (SCU) in Santa Clara, CA and later partnered with Heyday Books in Berkeley, CA.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.

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A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years.

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Chatter mark

A chatter mark is one or, more commonly, a series of wedge shaped marks left by chipping of a bedrock surface by rock fragments carried in the base of a glacier (glacial plucking).

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Two cirques with semi-permanent snowpatches near Abisko National Park, Sweden A cirque (French, from the Latin word circus) is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Cloud cover

'Cloud cover' (also known as 'cloudiness', 'cloudage', or 'cloud amount') refers to the fraction of the sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location.

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Color of water

The color of water varies with the ambient conditions in which that water is present.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock.

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Crozet Islands

The Crozet Islands (Îles Crozet; or, officially, Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean.

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The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).

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A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnín ("littlest ridge"), first recorded in 1833, and in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried egg formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

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Ellesmere Island

Ellesmere Island (Inuit: Umingmak Nuna, meaning "land of muskoxen"; Île d'Ellesmere) is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region in the Canadian territory of Nunavut.

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In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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An esker, eskar, eschar, or os, sometimes called an asar, osar, or serpent kame, is a long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America.

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An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.

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Firn (from Swiss German firn "last year's", cognate with before) is partially compacted névé, a type of snow that has been left over from past seasons and has been recrystallized into a substance denser than névé.

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Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.

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Franco-Provençal language

No description.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Glacial earthquake

Glacial earthquakes are earthquakes as large as magnitude 5.1 that occur in glaciated areas where the glacier moves faster than one kilometer per year.

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Glacial erratic

Indian Rock in the Village of Montebello, New York A glacial erratic is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests.

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Glacial landform

Glacial landforms are landforms created by the action of glaciers.

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Glacial motion

Glacial motion is the motion of glaciers, which can be likened to rivers of ice.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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Glacial striation

Glacial striations are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by glacial abrasion.

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Glacier growing

Glacier growing, artificial glaciation or glacier grafting, is a practice carried out in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya regions aimed at creating small new glaciers to increase water supply for crops and in some cases to sustain micro hydro power.

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Glacier ice accumulation

Glacier ice accumulation occurs through accumulation of snow and other frozen precipitation, as well as through other means including rime ice (freezing of water vapor on the glacier surface), avalanching from hanging glaciers on cliffs and mountainsides above, and re-freezing of glacier meltwater as superimposed ice.

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Glacier mass balance

Crucial to the survival of a glacier is its mass balance or surface mass balance (SMB), the difference between accumulation and ablation (sublimation and melting).

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Glacier morphology

Glacier morphology, or the form a glacier takes, is influenced by temperature, precipitation, topography, and other factors.

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Glacier terminus

A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time.

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Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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Global Environment Outlook

Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is a series of reports on the environment issued periodically by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP).

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Hadley cell

The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the Equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface.

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Hawaii (island)

Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii.

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Heard Island and McDonald Islands

The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 4 January 2009.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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HiWish program

HiWish is a program created by NASA so that anyone can suggest a place for the HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to photograph.

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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Ice cap

An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).

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Ice field

An ice field (also spelled icefield) is an expansive area of interconnected glaciers found in a mountain region, or it is an extensive formation of packs of ice at sea.

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Ice jam

Ice jams occur on rivers when floating ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature that impedes its progress downstream.

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Ice segregation

Ice segregation is the geological phenomenon produced by the formation of ice lenses, which induce erosion when moisture, diffused within soil or rock, accumulates in a localized zone.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Ice shelf

An ice shelf is a thick floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.

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Ice stream

A fast-moving ice or ice stream is a region of an ice sheet that moves significantly faster than the surrounding ice.

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Ice tongue

An ice tongue is a long and narrow sheet of ice projecting out from the coastline.

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An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Interior Alaska

Interior Alaska is the central region of Alaska's territory, roughly bounded by the Alaska Range to the south and the Brooks Range to the north.

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An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.

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Ismenius Lacus quadrangle

The Ismenius Lacus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program.

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Jakobshavn Glacier

Jakobshavn Glacier (Sermeq Kujalleq (in Greenlandic) and the Jakobshavn Isbræ (in Danish)), is a large outlet glacier in West Greenland.

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James David Forbes

James David Forbes (20 April 1809 – 31 December 1868) was a Scottish physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology.

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Jan Mayen

Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.

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A kame is a glacial landform, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier.

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Katabatic wind

A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.

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Kettle (landform)

A kettle (kettle hole, pothole) is a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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List of glaciers

A glacier or is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lobate debris apron

Lobate debris aprons (LDAs) are geological features on Mars, first seen by the Viking Orbiters, consisting of piles of rock debris below cliffs.

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Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.

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Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces.

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.

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Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano on the island of Hawaii.

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McMurdo Dry Valleys

The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of snow-free valleys in Antarctica located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound.

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Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.

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Meltwater is water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over oceans.

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Mertz Glacier

Mertz Glacier is a heavily crevassed glacier in George V Coast of East Antarctica.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Moulin (geomorphology)

A moulin or glacier mill is a roughly circular, vertical to nearly vertical well-like shaft within a glacier or ice sheet which water enters from the surface.

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Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro.

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Mount Kilimanjaro

Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.

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Mount Kosciuszko

Mount Kosciuszko is Australia’s highest mountain, at 2,228 metres (7,310 ft) above sea level.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Mountain pass

A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.

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Mountain range

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.

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Névé is a young, granular type of snow which has been partially melted, refrozen and compacted, yet precedes the form of ice.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Northern Patagonian Ice Field

The Northern Patagonian Ice Field, located in southern Chile, is the smaller of two remnant parts in which the Patagonian Ice Sheet in the Andes Mountains of lower South America can be divided.

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A nunatak (from Inuit nunataq) is an exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within (or at the edge of) an ice field or glacier.

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An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Paternoster lake

A paternoster lake is one of a series of glacial lakes connected by a single stream or a braided stream system.

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Plasticity (physics)

In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.

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Plucking (glaciation)

Plucking, also referred to as quarrying, is a glacial phenomenon that is responsible for the erosion and transportation of individual pieces of bedrock, especially large "joint blocks".

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Polar desert

Polar deserts are the regions of the Earth that fall under an Ice cap climate (EF under the Köppen classification).

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Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

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Post-glacial rebound

Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.

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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Prince Edward Islands

The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa.

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Protonilus Mensae

Protonilus Mensae is an area of Mars in the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.

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Puncak Jaya

Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid (4,884 m) is the highest summit of Mount Jayawijaya or Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua Province, Indonesia (within Puncak Jaya Regency).

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Pyramidal peak

A pyramidal peak, sometimes called a glacial horn in extreme cases, is an angular, sharply pointed mountain peak which results from the cirque erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from a central point.

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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

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Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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Rôche moutonnée

In glaciology, a rôche moutonnée (or sheepback) is a rock formation created by the passing of a glacier.

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Retreat of glaciers since 1850

The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Rochester, New York

Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.

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Rock flour

Rock flour, or glacial flour, consists of fine-grained, silt-sized particles of rock, generated by mechanical grinding of bedrock by glacial erosion or by artificial grinding to a similar size.

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Rock glacier

Rock glaciers are distinctive geomorphological landforms, consisting either of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, former "true" glaciers overlain by a layer of talus, or something in between.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Romer Lake

Romer Lake (Romer Sø) is a land-locked freshwater fjord at the northern end of King Frederick VIII Land, near Greenland's northeastern coast.

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Rwenzori Mountains

The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scandinavian Mountains

The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Sea ice

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac) is a block or column of glacial ice, often formed by intersecting crevasses on a glacier.

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Shear (geology)

sinistral shear sense''', Starlight Pit, Fortnum Gold Mine, Western Australia Shear is the response of a rock to deformation usually by compressive stress and forms particular textures.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.

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Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Snow bridge

A snow bridge is an arc across a crevasse, a crack in rock, a creek, or some other opening in terrain.

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Snow line

The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Southeast Alaska

Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia.

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Southern Patagonian Ice Field

The Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Hielo Continental or Campo de Hielo Sur), located at the Southern Patagonic Andes between Chile and Argentina, is the world's second largest contiguous extrapolar ice field.

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Stan Paterson

William Stanley Bryce (Stan) Paterson was a leading glaciologist who mined cores which provided climate data for the world's last 100,000 years.

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Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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The Subantarctic is a region in the southern hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic region.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Supraglacial lake

A supraglacial lake is any pond of liquid water on the top of a glacier.

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Surge (glacier)

Glacial surges are short-lived events where a glacier can advance substantially, moving at velocities up to 100 times faster than normal.

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Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.

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Swale (landform)

A swale is a low tract of land, especially one that is moist or marshy.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.

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Terrace (geology)

In geology, a terrace is a step-like landform.

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Tidewater glacier cycle

The tidewater glacier cycle is the typically centuries-long behavior of tidewater glaciers that consists of recurring periods of advance alternating with rapid retreat and punctuated by periods of stability.

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Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.

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Timpanogos Glacier

Timpanogos Glacier is a rock glacier that is located in the Wasatch Range, Wasatch-Cache National Forest, and is the last known glacier in the U.S. state of Utah.

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A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.

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Truncated spur

A truncated spur is a spur, which is a ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline from a higher elevation, that ends in an inverted-V face and was produced by the erosional truncation of the spur by the action of either streams, waves, or glaciers.

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U-shaped valley

U-shaped valleys, trough valleys or glacial troughs, are formed by the process of glaciation.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.

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The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water resources

Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.

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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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Zard Kuh (meaning "Yellow Mountain", also spelled Zardkuh, Zarduh Kuh or Zard Kuh-e Bakhtiari; Persian: زردكوه بختياري) is a sub-range in the central Zagros Range, Iran.

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Ablation till, Alpine glacier, Alpine glaciers, Basal ice, Channel glacier, Cold-based glacier, Fluvio-glacial deposition, Forbes band, Forbes bands, GLACIER, Glacial Trough, Glacial deposition, Glacial formation, Glacial ice, Glacially, Glaciar, Glaciars, Glaciate, Glaciated, Glacierised, Glacierized, Glaciers, Glacitectonism, Glacitectronism, Gletscher, Ice river, Mountain glacier, Ogive (glacier), Ogives (glaciers), Polythermal glacier, Receding glacier, Tidewater glaciers, Unglaciated, Unglacierized, Warm-based glacier.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glacier

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