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Index Glass

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. [1]

310 relations: Aerodynamic levitation, Age of the universe, Alastair Pilkington, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alloy, Aluminate, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium oxide, Aluminosilicate, Amalgam (chemistry), American Journal of Physics, Amorphous carbonia, Amorphous metal, Amorphous solid, Ancient Egypt, Annealing (glass), Anti-reflective coating, Antimony trioxide, Aqueous solution, Art glass, Art Nouveau, ASTM International, Émile Gallé, Baltic region, Barium, Basilica of St Denis, Bead, Besednice, Blown plate glass, Bohemia, Borate glass, Boron trioxide, Borosilicate glass, Bottle, Bowl, Broad sheet glass, Brooklyn Museum, Bulletproof glass, Calcium oxide, Came, Cameo glass, Caneworking, Canterbury, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Cathedral, Cell biology, Celsius, Ceramic, ..., Cerium(IV) oxide, Chalcogenide glass, Chartres Cathedral, Chemical bond, Chemical substance, Chemically inert, China, Chromium(III) oxide, Colemanite, Colloid, Composite material, Container glass, Corrosion, Crown glass (optics), Crown glass (window), Crystal structure, Crystallinity, Crystallite, Crystallization, Curtain wall (architecture), Cytoplasm, Dale Chihuly, Daoguang Emperor, Daum (studio), Dealkalization, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Dendrite (crystal), Deutsches Institut für Normung, Dielectric loss, Diffuse reflection, Diffusion, Direct current, Dispersion (optics), Dolomite, Dormancy, Duran (glass), Edgar D. Zanotto, Egyptian faience, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolyte, Electronegativity, England, Enthalpy, Entropy, European Space Agency, Eyewear, Fabrication and testing of optical components, Fiberglass, Fine art, Fire glass, Flint glass, Float glass, Fluoride glass, Fluorine, Fluorite, Fracture mechanics, France, Fresnel equations, Fulgurite, Funeral, Fused quartz, Geometrical optics, Germanic languages, Germanium, Germanium dioxide, Glass batch calculation, Glass bottle, Glass brick, Glass fiber, Glass flakes, Glass recycling, Glass transition, Glass wool, Glass-ceramic, Glassblowing, Glassy carbon, Gloucester Cathedral, Gothic Revival architecture, Grain boundary, Hardwick Hall, Headlamp, Heat capacity, Henry Bessemer, Henry Richardson (artist), History of Anglo-Saxon England, Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, Hydrogen bond, India, Infrared, Insulated glazing, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, Ion, Ionic radius, Iron(II) oxide, Isotropy, Kaolinite, Kimberley points, Kosta Glasbruk, Lalique, Laminated glass, Lamination, Lanthanum oxide, Late Bronze Age collapse, Late Latin, Lead glass, Lead oxide, Lead(II) oxide, Lens (optics), Lightning, Lime (material), Limestone, Liquidmetal, Lithium chloride, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Low-iron glass, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium oxide, Magnifying glass, Manganese dioxide, Marble (toy), Mars, Mass production, Melting point, Mesopotamia, Metabolism, Metalworking, Metastability, Meteorite, Micrometre, Middle Ages, Middle East, Mirror, Moldavite, Murano, Murrine, Mystery watch, Nanoparticle, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neoclassicism, Nucleation, Obsidian, Optical fiber, Optical flat, Optoelectronics, Orders of magnitude (time), Paperweight, Paris, Peking glass, Permeability (earth sciences), Phase transition, Philip Warren Anderson, Phosphate glass, Photochromic lens, Plastic, Plate glass, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polyamorphism, Polycarbonate, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyhedron, Polymer, Pontil mark, Porcelain, Prince Rupert's Drop, Prism, Pultrusion, Pyrex, Quartz, Quenching, Radioactive decay, Refining (glass), Reflectance, Reflection (physics), Refraction, Refractive index, Relative permittivity, Relaxation (physics), René Lalique, Resin, Rigidity theory (physics), Roman Empire, Roman glass, Room temperature, Rotation, Rouen, Sainte-Chapelle, Salt (chemistry), Sand, Selenium dioxide, Silicon dioxide, Siphon, Slag, Slide guitar, Soda–lime glass, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium oxide, Sodium selenite, Sodium silicate, Sodium sulfate, Solar energy, Solder, South Asia, Soviet Union, Specular reflection, Splat quenching, Stained glass, Stone Age, Stress (mechanics), Studio glass, Sugar glass, Sulfur, Supercooling, Superglass, Surface tension, Surfactant, Sussex, Sweden, Tableware, Tacticity, Tektite, Telescope, Thermal expansion, Thermal shock, Thermodynamic state, Thermodynamics, Thermoplastic, Thorium dioxide, Titanium, Toughened glass, Translation (geometry), Transmission electron microscopy, Transmittance, Transparency and translucency, Trier, Trinitite, Trinity (nuclear test), Ultimate tensile strength, Ultraviolet, Uranium glass, V&A Rotunda Chandelier, Van der Waals force, Vase, Vibration, Viscosity, Viscous liquid, Vitreous enamel, Vitrification, Vitrified sand, Volcanic glass, Volume, Waterford Crystal, Waveguide, Window, Windshield, Work of art, X-ray scattering techniques, Zirconium. Expand index (260 more) »

Aerodynamic levitation

Aerodynamic levitation is the use of gas pressure to levitate materials so that they are no longer in physical contact with any container.

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Age of the universe

In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.

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Alastair Pilkington

Sir Lionel Alexander Bethune Pilkington OBE FRS (7 January 1920 – 5 May 1995), known as Sir Alastair Pilkington, was a British engineer and businessman who invented and perfected the float glass process for commercial manufacturing of plate glass.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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In chemistry aluminate is a compound containing an oxyanion of aluminium, such as sodium aluminate.

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Aluminium hydroxide

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations.

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Amalgam (chemistry)

An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.

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American Journal of Physics

The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.

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Amorphous carbonia

Amorphous carbonia, also called a-carbonia or a-CO2, is an exotic amorphous solid form of carbon dioxide that is analogous to amorphous silica glass.

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Amorphous metal

An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Annealing (glass)

Annealing of glass is a process of slowly cooling hot glass objects after they have been formed, to relieve residual internal stresses introduced during manufacture.

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Anti-reflective coating

An antireflective or anti-reflection (AR) coating is a type of optical coating applied to the surface of lenses and other optical elements to reduce reflection.

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Antimony trioxide

Antimony(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Art glass

Art glass is an item that is made, generally as an artwork for decoration but often also for utility, from glass, sometimes combined with other materials.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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ASTM International

ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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Émile Gallé

Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Basilica of St Denis

The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.

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A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.

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Besednice is a market town (městys) in Český Krumlov District in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Blown plate glass

Blown plate is a hand-blown glass.

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Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.

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Borate glass

Borate glasses have a more complex action of alkali ions than silicate glasses.

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Boron trioxide

Boron trioxide (or diboron trioxide) is one of the oxides of boron.

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Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

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A bottle is a narrow-necked container as compared with a jar.

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A bowl is a round, open-top container used in many cultures to serve hot and cold food.

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Broad sheet glass

Broad sheet is a type of hand-blown glass.

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Brooklyn Museum

The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn.

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Bulletproof glass

Bulletproof glass (also known as ballistic glass, transparent armor, or bullet-resistant glass) is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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A came is a divider bar used between small pieces of glass to make a larger glazing panel.

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Cameo glass

Cameo glass is a luxury form of glass art produced by etching and carving through fused layers of differently colored glass to produce designs, usually with white opaque glass figures and motifs on a dark-colored background.

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In glassblowing, cane refers to rods of glass with color; these rods can be simple, containing a single color, or they can be complex and contain strands of one or several colors in pattern.

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Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Cerium(IV) oxide

Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.

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Chalcogenide glass

Chalcogenide glass (pronounced hard ch as in chemistry) is a glass containing one or more chalcogens (sulfur, selenium and tellurium, but excluding oxygen).

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Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a Roman Catholic church of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about southwest of Paris.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Chemically inert

In chemistry, the term chemically inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chromium(III) oxide

Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is the inorganic compound of the formula.

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Colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O) or (CaB3O4(OH)3·H2O) is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments.

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In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Container glass

Container glass is a type of glass for the production of glass containers, such as bottles, jars, drinkware, and bowls.

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Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Crown glass (optics)

Crown glass is a type of optical glass used in lenses and other optical components.

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Crown glass (window)

Crown glass was an early type of window glass.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.

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A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.

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Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

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Curtain wall (architecture)

A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, utilized to keep the weather out and the occupants in.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Dale Chihuly

Dale Chihuly (born September 20, 1941) is an American glass sculptor and entrepreneur.

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Daoguang Emperor

The Daoguang Emperor (16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850.

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Daum (studio)

Daum is a crystal studio based in Nancy, France, founded in 1878 by Jean Daum (1825–1885).

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Dealkalization is a process of surface modification applicable to glasses containing alkali ions, wherein a thin surface layer is created that has a lower concentration of alkali ions than is present in the underlying, bulk glass.

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Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)

In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.

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Dendrite (crystal)

A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form.

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Deutsches Institut für Normung

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.

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Dielectric loss

Dielectric loss quantifies a dielectric material's inherent dissipation of electromagnetic energy (e.g. heat).

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Diffuse reflection

Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.

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Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.

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Duran (glass)

DURAN is a brand name for the internationally defined borosilicate glass 3.3 (DIN ISO 3585) produced by the German company since 2005 under license from the Schott AG, which was the first to develop it and sold it from 1893 until the equity carve-out of the DURAN Group in 2005.

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Edgar D. Zanotto

Edgar Dutra Zanotto is a materials engineer and professor at the Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar) in Brazil.

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Egyptian faience

Egyptian faience is a sintered-quartz ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various colours, with blue-green being the most common.

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Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Eyewear consists of items and accessories worn on or over the eyes, for fashion or adornment, protection against the environment, and to improve or enhance visual acuity.

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Fabrication and testing of optical components

Optical fabrication and testing spans an enormous range of manufacturing procedures and optical test configurations.

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Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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Fine art

In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.

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Fire glass

Fire glass is tempered glass manufactured as a medium to retain and direct heat in fireplaces and gas fire pits.

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Flint glass

Flint glass is optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number (high dispersion).

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Float glass

Float glass is a sheet of glass made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal, typically tin, although lead and various low melting point alloys were used in the past.

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Fluoride glass

Fluoride glass is a class of non-oxide optical glasses composed of fluorides of various metals.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

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Fracture mechanics

Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fresnel equations

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel coefficients) describe the reflection and transmission of light (or electromagnetic radiation in general) when incident on an interface between different optical media.

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Fulgurites (from the Latin fulgur, meaning "lightning") are natural tubes, clumps, or masses of sintered, vitrified, and/or fused soil, sand, rock, organic debris and other sediments that can form when lightning discharges into ground.

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A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.

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Fused quartz

Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

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Geometrical optics

Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Germanium dioxide

Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.

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Glass batch calculation

Glass batch calculation or glass batching is used to determine the correct mix of raw materials (batch) for a glass melt.

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Glass bottle

A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass.

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Glass brick

Glass brick, also known as glass block, is an architectural element made from glass.

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Glass fiber

Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.

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Glass flakes

Glass flakes are extremely thin glass plates with an average thickness of 5 ± 2 micrometers.

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Glass recycling

Glass recycling is the processing of waste glass into usable products.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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Glass wool

Glass wool is an insulating material made from fibres of glass arranged using a binder into a texture similar to wool.

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Glass-ceramics have an amorphous phase and one or more crystalline phases and are produced by a so-called "controlled crystallization" in contrast to a spontaneous crystallization, which is usually not wanted in glass manufacturing.

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Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble (or parison), with the aid of a blowpipe (or blow tube).

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Glassy carbon

Glass-like carbon, often called glassy carbon or vitreous carbon, is a non-graphitizing, or nongraphitizable, carbon which combines glassy and ceramic properties with those of graphite.

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Gloucester Cathedral

Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Grain boundary

A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.

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Hardwick Hall

Hardwick Hall, in Derbyshire, is an architecturally significant Elizabethan country house in England, a leading example of the Elizabethan prodigy house.

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A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead.

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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Henry Bessemer

Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor, whose steelmaking process would become the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century for almost one century from year 1856 to 1950.

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Henry Richardson (artist)

Henry Burtt Richardson (born March 1961) is an American sculptor.

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History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.

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Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures

A homogeneous mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Insulated glazing

Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic radius

Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.

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Iron(II) oxide

Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.

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Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").

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Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Kimberley points

Kimberley points are a type of Aboriginal stone tool made by pressure flaking both discarded glass and stone.

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Kosta Glasbruk

Kosta Glasbruk (later known as Kosta Boda) is a Swedish glassworks founded by two foreign officers in Charles XII's army, Anders Koskull and Georg Bogislaus Staël von Holstein, in 1742.

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Lalique is a French glassmaker, founded by renowned glassmaker and jeweller René Lalique in 1888.

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Laminated glass

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that holds together when shattered.

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Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials.

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Lanthanum oxide

Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.

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Late Bronze Age collapse

The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Lead glass

Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.

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Lead oxide

Lead oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including lead (Pb) and oxygen (O).

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Lead(II) oxide

Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Lime (material)

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Liquidmetal and Vitreloy are commercial names of a series of amorphous metal alloys developed by a California Institute of Technology (Caltech) research team and marketed by Liquidmetal Technologies.

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Lithium chloride

Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.

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Louis Comfort Tiffany

Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass.

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Low-iron glass

Low-iron glass is a type of high-clarity glass that is made from silica with very low amounts of iron.

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Lustre (mineralogy)

Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.

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Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).

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Magnifying glass

A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.

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Manganese dioxide

Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.

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Marble (toy)

A marble is a small spherical toy often made from glass, clay, steel, plastic or agate.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.

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In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.

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Moldavite (Vltavín) is a forest green, olive green or blue greenish vitreous silica projectile rock formed by a meteorite impact in southern Germany (Nördlinger Ries Crater) that occurred about 15 million years ago.

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Murano is a series of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian Lagoon, northern Italy.

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Murrine (singular: murrina) are colored patterns or images made in a glass cane that are revealed when the cane is cut into thin cross-sections.

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Mystery watch

A mystery watch is a generic term used in horology to describe watches whose working is not easily deducible, because it seems to have no movement at all, or the hands don't seem to be connected to any movement, etc.

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Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

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Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.

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Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optical flat

An optical flat is an optical-grade piece of glass lapped and polished to be extremely flat on one or both sides, usually within a few tens of nanometres (billionths of a meter).

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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

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Orders of magnitude (time)

An order of magnitude of time is (usually) a decimal prefix or decimal order-of-magnitude quantity together with a base unit of time, like a microsecond or a million years.

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A paperweight is a small solid object which is placed on top of papers to keep them from blowing in the breeze or to keep a sheet from moving when painting with a brush (as with Japanese calligraphy).

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Peking glass

Peking glass (also known as Qianlong Glass or Tao Liao Ping) is a form of Chinese glassware that originated in 18th century Peking China.

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Permeability (earth sciences)

Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Philip Warren Anderson

Philip Warren Anderson (born December 13, 1923) is an American physicist and Nobel laureate.

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Phosphate glass

Phosphate glass is a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals.

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Photochromic lens

Photochromic lenses are optical lenses that darken on exposure to specific types of light of sufficient intensity, most commonly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

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Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Plate glass

Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass, initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows, glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens.

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Poly(methyl methacrylate)

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.

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Polyamorphism is the ability of a substance to exist in several different amorphous modifications.

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Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.

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Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

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In geometry, a polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Pontil mark

A pontil mark or punt mark is the scar where the pontil, punty or punt was broken from a work of blown glass.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Prince Rupert's Drop

Prince Rupert's Drops (also known as Dutch or Batavian tears) are toughened glass beads created by dripping molten glass into cold water, which causes it to solidify into a tadpole-shaped droplet with a long, thin tail.

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In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.

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Pultrusion is a continuous process for manufacture of composite materials with constant cross-section.

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Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Refining (glass)

Refining is the removal of bubbles from the molten glass.

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Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.

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Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Relative permittivity

The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.

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Relaxation (physics)

In the physical sciences, relaxation usually means the return of a perturbed system into equilibrium.

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René Lalique

René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860, Ay, Marne – 1 May 1945, Paris) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments.

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In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.

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Rigidity theory (physics)

Rigidity theory, or topological constraints theory, is a tool for predicting properties of glasses based on their composition.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman glass

Roman glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Selenium dioxide

Selenium dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula SeO2.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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The word siphon (from σίφων "pipe, tube", also spelled syphon) is used to refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes.

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Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.

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Slide guitar

Slide guitar is a particular technique for playing the guitar that is often used in blues-style music.

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Soda–lime glass

Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium oxide

Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.

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Sodium selenite

Sodium selenite is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SeO3.

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Sodium silicate

Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.

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Sodium sulfate

Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Specular reflection

Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.

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Splat quenching

Splat quenching is a metallurgical, metal morphing, technique used for forming metals with a particular crystal structure by means of extremely rapid quenching, or cooling.

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Stained glass

The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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Stress (mechanics)

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.

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Studio glass

Studio glass is the modern use of glass as an artistic medium to produce sculptures or three-dimensional artworks.

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Sugar glass

Sugar glass (also called candy glass, edible glass, and breakaway glass) is a brittle transparent form of sugar that looks like glass.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.

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A superglass is a phase of matter which is characterized (at the same time) by superfluidity and a frozen amorphous structure.

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Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.

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Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

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Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining.

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Tacticity (from Greek τακτικός taktikos "of or relating to arrangement or order") is the relative stereochemistry of adjacent chiral centers within a macromolecule.

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Tektites (from Greek τηκτός tēktós, "molten") are gravel-sized bodies composed of black, green, brown, or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during meteorite impacts.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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Thermal shock

Thermal shock occurs when a thermal gradient causes different parts of an object to expand by different amounts.

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Thermodynamic state

For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.

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Thorium dioxide

Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Toughened glass

Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass.

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Translation (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.

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Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.

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Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.

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Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

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Trinity (nuclear test)

Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uranium glass

Uranium glass is glass which has had uranium, usually in oxide diuranate form, added to a glass mix before melting for coloration.

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V&A Rotunda Chandelier

The V&A Rotunda Chandelier (often known as V&A Chandelier and originally called Ice Blue and Spring Green Chandelier) is a glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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A vase is an open container.

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Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Viscous liquid

In condensed matter physics and physical chemistry, the terms viscous liquid, supercooled liquid, and glassforming liquid are often used interchangeably to designate liquids that are at the same time highly viscous (see Viscosity of amorphous materials), can be or are supercooled, and able to form a glass.

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Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.

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Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid.

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Vitrified sand

Vitrified sand is sand that has been heated to a high enough temperature as to partly melt the silicon dioxide or quartz that is the main ingredient of common sand.

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Volcanic glass

Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapidly cooling magma.

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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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Waterford Crystal

Waterford Crystal is a manufacturer of crystal, named after the city of Waterford, Ireland.

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A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.

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A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.

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The windshield (North America) or windscreen (Commonwealth English) of an aircraft, car, bus, motorbike or tram is the front window.

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Work of art

A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.

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X-ray scattering techniques

X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass

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