294 relations: Aeronautics, Agriculture, Air Force Space Command, Air traffic control, Air-to-ground weaponry, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Aircraft pilot, Al Gore, Altitude, Amateur astronomy, Applied Physics Laboratory, Arms race, Ascension Island, Assisted GPS, Astrometry, Astronautics, Astronomy, Atomic clock, Audio tour, Automotive navigation system, Aviation Week, Ballistic missile submarine, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Best Buy, Bhangmeter, Bill Clinton, Bit, Bit rate, Bluetooth, Boeing 747, Bradford Parkinson, Broadcasting, C Spire Wireless, Cape Canaveral, Carrier wave, Cartesian coordinate system, Cartography, Celestial mechanics, Charles Stark Draper Prize, China, Chip (CDMA), Clock drift, Clock signal, Clock synchronization, Coalition of the Gulf War, Code-division multiple access, Cold War, Collier Trophy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Commutation (telemetry), ..., Compass, Coordinated Universal Time, Cross-correlation, Cruise missile, Crust (geology), Crystal oscillator, DARPA, Dead reckoning, Decca Navigator System, Diego Garcia, Differential GPS, Dilution of precision (navigation), Doppler effect, Dropsonde, Dual-use technology, Earthquake, EGM96, Emergency management, Emergency service, Environment, Ephemeris, Equator, Error analysis for the Global Positioning System, European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, European Union, Exif, Exoplanet, Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Communications Commission, Fleet vehicle, Focus (geometry), Force multiplication, Francis X. Kane, Frequency, G-force, Galileo (satellite navigation), Gauss–Newton algorithm, Generalized inverse, Geo-fence, Geocaching, Geodetic datum, Geoid, Geolocation, George W. Bush, Geotagging, Gladys West, GLONASS, Gold code, GoTo (telescopes), Government Accountability Office, GPS aircraft tracking, GPS Block IIF, GPS Block IIIA, GPS Block IIIF, GPS disciplined oscillator, GPS drawing, GPS navigation device, GPS navigation software, GPS satellite blocks, GPS signals, GPS tracking unit, GPS/INS, Gpsd, Gregorian calendar, Ground segment, Ground track, Gulf War, Hanscom Air Force Base, Hawaii, Howitzer, Hyperbola, Hyperboloid, Hypercone, IBM, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, Indian Space Research Organisation, Indoor positioning system, Inertial navigation system, Inscribed sphere, Inside GNSS, Intellectual property, Interagency GPS Executive Board, Interceptor aircraft, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Astronautical Federation, International Atomic Time, International Traffic in Arms Regulations, Ionosphere, Ivan A. Getting, Japan, Java applet, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Kalman filter, Kargil War, Korean Air Lines Flight 007, Kwajalein Atoll, Latitude, Leap second, Least squares, Ligado Networks, Line-of-sight propagation, List of GPS satellites, List of military inventions, Local positioning system, Local-area augmentation system, Location-based game, Longitude, LORAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mean, MediaTek, Medium Earth orbit, Mobile phone, Mobile phone tracking, Mobile telephony, Modulation, Moneron Island, Moving map display, Multilateration, Nanosecond, NASA, National Academy of Engineering, National Aeronautic Association, National Archives and Records Administration, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Medal of Technology and Innovation, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Navigation, Navigation paradox, Nextel Communications, Nikon GP-1, NMEA 0183, Non-linear least squares, Notice Advisory to Navstar Users, Nuclear strategy, Nuclear triad, Observational error, Omega (navigation system), Orbital inclination, Orbital node, Orbital plane (astronomy), Overdetermined system, Phasor measurement unit, Plate tectonics, Precision-guided munition, Presidency of Bill Clinton, Prohibited airspace, Pseudorandom binary sequence, Pseudorandom noise, Pseudorandom number generator, Qualcomm, Quasi-Zenith Satellite System, Radio, Radio jamming, Radio navigation, Radio occultation, Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Radionavigation-satellite service, Radiosonde, Real-time kinematic, Recreation, Right ascension, Robotics, Rockwell International, Roger L. Easton, Ronald Reagan, RS-232, RT-23 Molodets, RT-2PM Topol, Russia, S-GPS, Sakhalin, Satellite, Satellite constellation, Satellite navigation, Schriever Air Force Base, Sea level, SECOR, Seismic hazard, Senior airman, Sequence, Sharp Corporation, Shell (projectile), Sidereal time, SiRF, Soviet Union, Space Foundation, Space weather, Speed of light, Spoofing attack, Sport, Sprint Corporation, Sputnik 1, Stanford University, Strategic bomber, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Surveying, Tectonics, Telematics, TerreStar Corporation, The Aerospace Corporation, The Times of India, Theory of relativity, Timation, Time of flight, Time transfer, Title 47 CFR Part 15, Total electron content, Track algorithm, Tracking collar, Trail blazing, Transit (satellite), Trilateration, Trimble (company), UGM-27 Polaris, United States, United States Air Force, United States Army, United States Coast Guard, United States Congress, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of State, United States Department of the Interior, United States Department of Transportation, United States Munitions List, United States Naval Observatory, United States Naval Research Laboratory, UNIVAC I, USA-203, USB, Vehicle tracking system, Vehicular automation, Vela (satellite), Verizon Communications, Virginia, White Sands Missile Range, Wide Area Augmentation System, William Perry, World Geodetic System, World War II, 2d Space Operations Squadron, 50th Space Wing, 9-1-1. 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Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), sometimes referred to informally as U.S. Space Command, is a major command of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
Air-to-ground weaponry is aircraft ordnance used by combat aircraft to attack ground targets.
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) is a Frederick, Maryland-based American non-profit political organization that advocates for general aviation.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Amateur astronomy is a hobby whose participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes.
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, commonly known as simply the Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL, located in Howard County, Maryland, near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center (or UARC) employing 6,000 people.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Assisted GPS (abbreviated generally as A-GPS and less commonly as aGPS) is a system that often significantly improves the startup performance—i.e., time-to-first-fix (TTFF)—of a GPS satellite-based positioning system.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.
An audio tour or audio guide provides a recorded spoken commentary, normally through a handheld device, to a visitor attraction such as a museum.
An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile.
The Aviation Week Network is a New-York based B2B publishing and event production company.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system.
Best Buy Co., Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics retailer headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota.
A bhangmeter is a non-imaging radiometer installed on reconnaissance and navigation satellites to detect atmospheric nuclear detonations and determine the yield of the nuclear weapon.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
Bradford Parkinson (February 16, 1935) is an American engineer and inventor, and United States Air Force colonel.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Cellular South Inc. d.b.a. C Spire headquartered in Ridgeland, Mississippi, is the sixth largest wireless provider in the United States and the largest privately held wireless provider in the United States.
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast.
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.
The National Academy of Engineering annually awards the Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In digital communications, a chip is a pulse of a direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code, such as a Pseudo-random Noise (PN) code sequence used in direct-sequence code division multiple access (CDMA) channel access techniques.
Clock drift refers to several related phenomena where a clock does not run at exactly the same rate as a reference clock.
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
Clock synchronization is a topic in computer science and engineering that aims to coordinate otherwise independent clocks.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Collier Trophy is an annual aviation award administered by the U.S. National Aeronautic Association (NAA), presented to those who have made "the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America, with respect to improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of air or space vehicles, the value of which has been thoroughly demonstrated by actual use during the preceding year." Robert J. Collier, publisher of Collier's Weekly magazine, was an air sports pioneer and president of the Aero Club of America.
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality that is the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, Colorado, United States.
Commutation is a processes whereby multiple data streams ("measurands"), possibly with differing data rates, are combined into a single frame-based stream for transmission, before being separated again (decommutated) upon reception; it is a form of time-division multiplexing.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
In signal processing, cross-correlation is a measure of similarity of two series as a function of the displacement of one relative to the other.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
In navigation, dead reckoning is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time and course.
The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed ships and aircraft to determine their position by receiving radio signals from fixed navigational beacons.
Diego Garcia is an atoll just south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean, and the largest of 60 small islands comprising the Chagos Archipelago.
Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) are enhancements to the Global Positioning System (GPS) which provide improved location accuracy, in the range of operations of each system, from the 15-meter nominal GPS accuracy to about 10 cm in case of the best implementations.
Dilution of precision (DOP), or geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), is a term used in satellite navigation and geomatics engineering to specify the additional multiplicative effect of navigation satellite geometry on positional measurement precision.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
A dropsonde is an expendable weather reconnaissance device created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), designed to be dropped from an aircraft at altitude over water to measure (and therefore track) storm conditions as the device falls to the surface.
In politics and diplomacy, dual-use is technology that can be used for both peaceful and military aims.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model 1996) is a geopotential model of the Earth consisting of spherical harmonic coefficients complete to degree and order 360.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies.
Environment may refer to.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The analysis of errors computed using the Global Positioning System is important for understanding how GPS works, and for knowing what magnitude of errors should be expected.
The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is a satellite based augmentation system (SBAS) developed by the European Space Agency and EUROCONTROL on behalf of the European Commission.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
Fleet vehicles are groups of motor vehicles owned or leased by a business, government agency or other organization rather than by an individual or family.
In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed.
In military science, Force multiplication or a force multiplier refers to a factor or a combination of factors that dramatically increases (hence "multiplies") the effectiveness of an item or group, giving a given number of troops (or other personnel) or weapons (or other hardware) the ability to accomplish greater things than without it.
Colonel Francis "Duke" Xavier Kane, Ph.D., USAF, retired, (December 12, 1918 – July 18, 2013) is the space planner and engineer responsible for the design concept of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is being created by the European Union (EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA), headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy.
The Gauss–Newton algorithm is used to solve non-linear least squares problems.
In mathematics, and in particular, algebra, a generalized inverse of an element x is an element y that has some properties of an inverse element but not necessarily all of them.
A geo-fence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area.
Geocaching is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.
A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
Geolocation is the identification or estimation of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar source, mobile phone, or Internet-connected computer terminal.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Geotagging or GeoTagging, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata.
Gladys Mae West (née Brown) (born 1930 or 1931) is an American mathematician known for her contributions to the mathematics underpinning Global Positioning Systems.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
A Gold code, also known as Gold sequence, is a type of binary sequence, used in telecommunication (CDMA) and satellite navigation (GPS).
In amateur astronomy, "GoTo" refers to a type of telescope mount and related software that can automatically point a telescope at astronomical objects that the user selects.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
GPS aircraft tracking is a means of tracking the position of an aircraft fitted with a GPS receiver.
GPS Block IIF, or GPS IIF is an interim class of GPS (satellite), which are used to keep the Navstar Global Positioning System operational until the GPS Block IIIA satellites become operational.
GPS Block IIIA consists of the first ten (known as "tranche") of GPS III satellites, which will be used to keep the Navstar Global Positioning System operational.
GPS Block IIIF, or GPS IIIF, is the second set of GPS III satellites, consisting of 22 space vehicles.
A GPS clock, or GPS disciplined oscillator (GPSDO), is a combination of a GPS receiver and a high-quality, stable oscillator such as a quartz or rubidium oscillator whose output is controlled to agree with the signals broadcast by GPS and GNSS satellites.
GPS drawing is a method of drawing that uses Global Positioning System technology (GPS) to create large-scale artwork.
A GPS navigation device, GPS receiver, or simply GPS is a device that is capable of receiving information from GPS satellites and then to calculate the device's geographical position.
GPS navigation software usually falls into one of the following two categories.
A GPS satellite is a satellite used by the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS).
Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites broadcast microwave signals to enable GPS receivers on or near the Earth's surface to determine location and time and derive velocity.
A GPS tracking unit is a GPS device, normally carried by a moving vehicle or person, that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track the device’s movements, at intervals, and to determine its location, and its carrier.
GPS/INS is the use of GPS satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an inertial navigation system (INS).
gpsd is a daemon that receives data from a GPS receiver, and provides the data back to multiple applications such as Kismet or GPS navigation software.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
A ground segment consists of all the ground-based elements of a spacecraft system used by operators and support personnel, as opposed to the space segment and user segment.
A ground track or ground trace is the path on the surface of the Earth directly below an aircraft or satellite.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Hanscom Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force base located predominantly within Bedford, Massachusetts, with portions extending into the adjoining towns of Lincoln, Concord and Lexington.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.
In geometry, a hyperboloid of revolution, sometimes called circular hyperboloid, is a surface that may be generated by rotating a hyperbola around one of its principal axes.
In geometry, a hypercone (or spherical cone) is the figure in the 4-dimensional Euclidean space represented by the equation It is a quadric surface, and is one of the possible 3-manifolds which are 4-dimensional equivalents of the conical surface in 3 dimensions.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) with an operational name of NAVIC ("sailor" or "navigator" in Sanskrit, Hindi and many other Indian languages, which also stands for NAVigation with Indian Constellation) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
An indoor positioning system (IPS) is a system to locate objects or people inside a building using lights, radio waves, magnetic fields, acoustic signals, or other sensory information collected by mobile devices.
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
In geometry, the inscribed sphere or insphere of a convex polyhedron is a sphere that is contained within the polyhedron and tangent to each of the polyhedron's faces.
Inside GNSS is an international controlled circulation trade magazine owned by Gibbons Media and Research LLC.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
The Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB) was an agency of the United States federal government that sought to integrate the needs and desires of various governmental agencies into formal Global Positioning System Planning.
An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to attack enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Astronautical Federation (IAF) (Fédération internationale d'astronautique) is an international space advocacy organisation based in Paris, and founded in 1951 as a non-governmental organization to establish a dialogue between scientists around the world and to lay the information for international space cooperation.
International Atomic Time (TAI, from the French name temps atomique international) is a high-precision atomic coordinate time standard based on the notional passage of proper time on Earth's geoid.
International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is a United States regulatory regime to restrict and control the export of defense and military related technologies to safeguard U.S. national security and further U.S. foreign policy objectives.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Ivan Alexander Getting (January 18, 1912 – October 11, 2003) was an American physicist and electrical engineer, credited (along with Roger L. Easton and Bradford Parkinson) with the development of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
A Java applet was a small application that is written in the Java programming language, or another programming language that compiles to Java bytecode, and delivered to users in the form of Java bytecode.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Kalman filtering, also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing statistical noise and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more accurate than those based on a single measurement alone, by estimating a joint probability distribution over the variables for each timeframe.
The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)KAL 007 was used by air traffic control, while the public flight booking system used KE 007 was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska.
Kwajalein Atoll (Marshallese: Kuwajleen) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI).
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A leap second is a one-second adjustment that is occasionally applied to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in order to keep its time of day close to the mean solar time as realized by UT1.
The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.
Ligado Networks is an American satellite communications company developing a satellite-terrestrial network to support 5G and Internet of Things applications in North America.
Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver.
As of February 2016, 72 Global Positioning System navigation satellites have been launched; not all remain operational.
A military invention is an invention that was first created by a military.
A local positioning system (LPS) is a navigation system that provides location information in all weather, anywhere within the coverage of the network, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to three or more signaling beacons of which the exact position on earth is known.
The local-area augmentation system (LAAS) is an all-weather aircraft landing system based on real-time differential correction of the GPS signal.
A location-based game (or location-enabled game) is a type of pervasive game in which the gameplay evolves and progresses via a player's location.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
LORAN, short for long range navigation, was a hyperbolic radio navigation system developed in the United States during World War II.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
MediaTek Inc. is a Taiwanese fabless semiconductor company that provides chips for wireless communications, High-definition television, handheld mobile devices like smartphones and tablet computers, navigation systems, consumer multimedia products and Digital subscriber line services as well as optical disc drives.
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Mobile phone tracking is the ascertaining of the position or location of a mobile phone, whether stationary or moving.
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
Moneron Island, (Монерон, 海馬島 Kaibato, Ainu: Todomoshiri) is a small island located off Sakhalin Island.
A moving map display is a type of navigation system output that, instead of numerically displaying the current geographical coordinates determined by the navigation unit or an heading and distance indication of a certain waypoint, displays the unit's current location at the center of a map.
Multilateration (MLAT) is a surveillance technique based on the measurement of the difference in distance to two stations at known locations by broadcast signals at known times.
A nanosecond (ns) is an SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second (or one billionth of a second), that is, 1/1,000,000,000 of a second, or 10 seconds.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Aeronautic Association of the United States (NAA) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization and a founding member of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI).
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology.
The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the President's principal adviser on telecommunications policies pertaining to the United States' economic and technological advancement and to regulation of the telecommunications industry.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The navigation paradox states that increased navigational precision may result in increased collision risk.
Nextel Communications, Inc. was a wireless service operator that merged with and continues to exist as a wholly owned subsidiary of Sprint Corporation.
The Nikon GP-1 is a Global Positioning System (GPS) accessory receiver manufactured by Nikon that collects geographic coordinate data and places it into the Exif data of a picture.
NMEA 0183 is a combined electrical and data specification for communication between marine electronics such as echo sounder, sonars, anemometer, gyrocompass, autopilot, GPS receivers and many other types of instruments.
Non-linear least squares is the form of least squares analysis used to fit a set of m observations with a model that is non-linear in n unknown parameters (m > n).
A Notice Advisory to Navstar Users (NANU) is a message issued jointly by the United States Coast Guard and the GPS Operations Center at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado.
Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons.
A nuclear triad is a three-pronged military force structure that consists of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles.
Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.
OMEGA was the first global-range radio navigation system, operated by the United States in cooperation with six partner nations.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
An orbital node is either of the two points where an orbit intersects a plane of reference to which it is inclined.
The orbital plane of a revolving body is the geometric plane on which its orbit lies.
In mathematics, a system of equations is considered overdetermined if there are more equations than unknowns.
A phasor measurement unit (PMU) is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electricity grid using a common time source for synchronization.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A precision-guided munition (PGM, smart weapon, smart munition, smart bomb) is a guided munition intended to precisely hit a specific target, to minimize collateral damage and increase lethality against intended targets.
The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.
Prohibited airspace refers to an area (volume) of airspace within which flight of aircraft is not allowed, usually due to security concerns.
A pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) is a binary sequence that, while generated with a deterministic algorithm, is difficult to predict and exhibits statistical behavior similar to a truly random sequence.
In cryptography, pseudorandom noise (PRN) is a signal similar to noise which satisfies one or more of the standard tests for statistical randomness.
A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of sequences of random numbers.
Qualcomm is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services.
The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) (or in Japanese) is a project of the Japanese government for the development of a four-satellite regional time transfer system and a satellite-based augmentation system for the United States operated Global Positioning System (GPS) to be receivable in the Asia-Oceania regions, with a focus on Japan.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.
Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth.
Radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique used for measuring the physical properties of a planetary atmosphere or ring system.
The Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) is an international standards organization.
A radionavigation-satellite service (RNSS) is, according to the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations, "a radiodetermination-satellite service used for the purpose of radionavigation.
A radiosonde is a battery-powered telemetry instrument package carried into the atmosphere usually by a weather balloon that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them by radio to a ground receiver.
Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems (global navigation satellite systems, GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation.
Roger Lee Easton, Sr. (April 30, 1921 – May 8, 2014) was an American scientist/physicist who was the principal inventor and designer of the Global Positioning System, along with Ivan A. Getting and Bradford Parkinson.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232 is a standard introduced in 1960 for serial communication transmission of data.
The RT-23 (NATO reporting name SS-24 Scalpel) РТ-23 УТТХ «Мо́лодец» was a Soviet ICBM developed and produced before 1991 by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipro, Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union).
The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ Тополь ("Poplar"); NATO reporting name SS-25 Sickle; GRAU designation: 15Ж58 ("15Zh58"); START I designation: RS-12M Topol) is a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia's Strategic Missile Troops.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Simultaneous GPS or S-GPS is a method to enhance a mobile phone's satellite-based position reporting ability to a mobile network operator.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
Schriever Air Force Base (Schriever AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Peterson AFB near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
SECOR spacecraft are satellites used by the United States armed forces for geodesy measurements that precisely determined the locations of points on the Earth's surface.
A seismic hazard is the probability that an earthquake will occur in a given geographic area, within a given window of time, and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.
Senior Airman (SrA) is the fourth enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, just above Airman First Class and below Staff Sergeant.
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.
is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
SiRF Technology, Inc. was a pioneer in the commercial use of GPS technology for consumer applications.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space Foundation is a Colorado-based nonprofit organization that advocates for all sectors of the global space industry through space awareness activities, educational programs and major industry events.
Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
Sprint Corporation is an American telecommunications company that provides wireless services and is an internet service provider.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Telematics is an interdisciplinary field that encompasses telecommunications, vehicular technologies, road transportation, road safety, electrical engineering (sensors, instrumentation, wireless communications, etc.), and computer science (multimedia, Internet, etc.). Telematics can involve any of the following.
TerreStar Corporation (TSTR), formerly Motient Corp. (MNCP - 2000-2007) and American Mobile Satellite Corp. (AMSC - 1988-2000), was the controlling shareholder of TerreStar Networks Inc., TerreStar National Services, Inc. and TerreStar Global Ltd., and a shareholder of SkyTerra Communications.
The Aerospace Corporation is a California nonprofit corporation that operates a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) headquartered in El Segundo, California.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
The Timation satellites were conceived, developed, and launched by the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. beginning in 1964.
Time of flight (TOF) is a property of an object, particle or acoustic, electromagnetic or other wave.
Time transfer is a scheme where multiple sites share a precise reference time.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions.
Total electron content (or TEC) is an important descriptive quantity for the ionosphere of the Earth.
A Track algorithm is a radar and sonar performance enhancement strategy.
Tracking collars are collars used as a radio beacon to track animal migration for research.
Trail blazing is to make a mark on a tree by slashing the bark to indicate the direction of a trail through forested wilderness.
The Transit system, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.
In geometry, trilateration is the process of determining absolute or relative locations of points by measurement of distances, using the geometry of circles, spheres or triangles.
Trimble Inc. is a Sunnyvale, California-based developer of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, laser rangefinders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), inertial navigation systems and software processing tools.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation.
The United States Munitions List (USML) is a list of articles, services, and related technology designated as defense- and space-related by the United States federal government.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.
USA-203, also known as GPS IIR-20(M), GPS IIRM-7 and GPS SVN-49, is an American navigation satellite which was intended to become part of the Global Positioning System.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
A vehicle tracking system combines the use of automatic vehicle location in individual vehicles with software that collects these fleet data for a comprehensive picture of vehicle locations.
Vehicular automation involves the use of mechatronics, artificial intelligence, and multi-agent system to assist a vehicle's operator.
Vela was the name of a group of satellites developed as the Vela Hotel element of Project Vela by the United States to detect nuclear detonations to monitor compliance with the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty by the Soviet Union.
Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is an air navigation aid developed by the Federal Aviation Administration to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS), with the goal of improving its accuracy, integrity, and availability.
William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) is an American mathematician, engineer, and businessman who was the United States Secretary of Defense from February 3, 1994, to January 23, 1997, under President Bill Clinton.
The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 2d Space Operations Squadron is a unit of the United States Air Force at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.
The 50th Space Wing is a wing of the United States Air Force under the major command of Air Force Space Command.
9-1-1, also written 911, is an emergency telephone number for the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), one of eight N11 codes.
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