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Global warming

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Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects. [1]

307 relations: Abrupt climate change, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Adaptive capacity, Aerosol, Africa, Agricultural productivity, Albedo, Albrecht effect, American Astronomical Society, American Chemical Society, American Geophysical Union, American Institute of Physics, American Meteorological Society, American Physical Society, American Quaternary Association, Anthropocene, Arctic, Arctic sea ice decline, Asia, Asian brown cloud, Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere, Attribution of recent climate change, Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, Bangladesh, BBC, BioScience, Black body, Black carbon, Bonn, Brian Hoskins, British Isles, Calcination, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, Cancún, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carbon dioxide removal, Chlorofluorocarbon, Circumpolar peoples, Citibank, Civil disorder, Clathrate hydrate, Climate, ..., Climate change, Climate change adaptation, Climate change and agriculture, Climate change and ecosystems, Climate change denial, Climate change in Africa, Climate change mitigation, Climate commitment, Climate engineering, Climate model, Climate resilience, Climate sensitivity, Clinker (cement), Cloud condensation nuclei, Cloud forcing, Cold blob (North Atlantic), Competitive Enterprise Institute, Computer simulation, Conservatism in the United States, Continent, Copenhagen, Copenhagen Accord, Deforestation, Deforestation and climate change, Deposition (aerosol physics), Desertification, Developed country, Developing country, Drought, Earth, Earth's energy budget, Economics of global warming, Ecosystem, Effects of global warming, Effects of global warming on human health, Effects of global warming on humans, Effects of global warming on oceans, Efficient energy use, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Emission spectrum, Endangered species, Energy conservation, Environmental impact of the coal industry, Environmental issues with coral reefs, Environmental migrant, Environmental Research Letters, Eos (magazine), Erik M. Conway, European Academy of Sciences and Arts, European Geosciences Union, European Science Foundation, European Union, Evaporation, Extinction, Extinction risk from global warming, Extreme weather, ExxonMobil, Feedback, Financial Times, Fishery, Flower, Fluid dynamics, Fossil fuel, France, Gallup (company), Gas flare, Gavin Schmidt, Geologic temperature record, Geological Society of America, Geological Society of Australia, Geological Society of London, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, George W. Bush, Global cooling, Global dimming, Global temperature record, Global warming, Global warming (disambiguation), Global warming controversy, Global warming hiatus, Glossary of climate change, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gas, Greenhouse gas emissions accounting, Gross domestic product, Group of 77, Guy Stewart Callendar, Harvest, Heat capacity, Heat wave, Hemispheres of Earth, History of climate change science, Holocene extinction, Humidity, Ice age, Ice core, Ice sheet, Ice–albedo feedback, Index of climate change articles, Indigenous peoples, Industrial Revolution, Infrared, Instrumental temperature record, InterAcademy Panel, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Union for Quaternary Research, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Inundation, IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, IPCC Second Assessment Report, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Irradiance, James Hansen, John Tyndall, Joseph Fourier, Journal of Geophysical Research, Jule Gregory Charney, Kelvin, Kyoto Protocol, Landslide, Libertarianism, Limestone, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, Little Ice Age, Long-term effects of global warming, Low-carbon economy, Low-carbon power, Maldives, Malnutrition, Mark Z. Jacobson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical model, Mauna Loa Observatory, Media coverage of global warming, Median, Medieval Warm Period, Meta-analysis, Methane, Mikhail Budyko, Milankovitch cycles, Monsoon, Myles Allen, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Geographic, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natural environment, Natural resource, Nature Climate Change, Network of African Science Academies, Nitrous oxide, Nordic countries, North Atlantic Current, Nuclear power, Ocean, Ocean acidification, Ocean current, Ocean deoxygenation, Ocean heat content, Orbital forcing, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Paleoclimatology, Parts-per notation, Permafrost, Pew Research Center, PH, Phenology, Polarization (politics), Polish Academy of Sciences, Pollutant, Population growth, Post-glacial rebound, Precipitation, Probability, Proxy (climate), Radiative cooling, Radiative forcing, Radiative transfer, RealClimate, Reforestation, Regional effects of global warming, Renewable energy, Representative Concentration Pathways, Retreat of glaciers since 1850, Reuters, River delta, Roger Revelle, Royal Meteorological Society, Royal Society, Runaway climate change, Salinity, Satellite, Satellite temperature measurements, Science (journal), Science Daily, Scientific consensus, Scientific opinion on climate change, Sea ice, Sea level rise, Shutdown of thermohaline circulation, Society, Sociology, Soil carbon feedback, Solar cycle, Solar irradiance, Solar luminosity, Solar radiation management, Soot, Southeastern United States, Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Square kilometre, Stanford University, Statelessness, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Stratosphere, Subtropics, Svante Arrhenius, Technology, Temperature record of the past 1000 years, The New York Times, The Times of Northwest Indiana, The Washington Post, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermodynamics, Think tank, Tropical cyclones and climate change, Troposphere, Tropospheric ozone, Tuvalu, Twomey effect, U.S. Global Change Research Program, United Nations Climate Change conference, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, University of California, Irvine, Violence, Violent crime, Volcano, Wallace Smith Broecker, War, Water cycle, Water scarcity, Water vapor, World Meteorological Organization, World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. 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Abrupt climate change

An abrupt climate change occurs when the climate system is forced to transition to a new climate state at a rate that is determined by the climate system energy-balance, and which is more rapid than the rate of change of the external forcing.

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Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Adaptive capacity

Adaptive capacity is the capacity of a system to adapt if the environment where the system exists is changing.

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Aerosol

An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Agricultural productivity

Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.

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Albedo

Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).

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Albrecht effect

The Albrecht effect describes how cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), possibly from anthropogenic pollution, may increase cloud lifetime and hence increase the amount of solar radiation reflected from clouds.

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American Astronomical Society

The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.

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American Chemical Society

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.

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American Geophysical Union

The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.

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American Institute of Physics

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.

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American Meteorological Society

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.

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American Physical Society

The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.

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American Quaternary Association

The American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) is a professional organization of North American scientists devoted to studies of the quaternary geological period.

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Anthropocene

The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.

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Arctic

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Arctic sea ice decline

Arctic sea ice decline is the sea ice loss observed in recent decades in the Arctic Ocean.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asian brown cloud

The Indian Ocean brown cloud or Asian brown cloud is a layer of air pollution that recurrently covers parts of South Asia, namely the northern Indian Ocean, India, and Pakistan.

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Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a system of currents in the Atlantic Ocean, characterized by a northward flow of warm, salty water in the upper layers of the Atlantic, including the Gulf Stream, and a southward flow of colder, deep waters that are part of the thermohaline circulation.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Attribution of recent climate change

Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'.

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Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

The Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (AMOS) is an independent learned society that supports and fosters interest in Meteorology, Oceanography and other related sciences.

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Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change

Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that examined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2 °C (3.6 °F) ceiling on global warming thought necessary to avoid the most serious effects of global warming.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BioScience

BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Black carbon

Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).

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Bonn

The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

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Brian Hoskins

Sir Brian John Hoskins CBE FRS, (born 17 May 1945) is a British dynamical meteorologist and climatologist based at the Imperial College London and the University of Reading.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Calcination

The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

The Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS) was Canada's main funding body for university-based research on climate, atmospheric and related oceanic work.

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Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society

The Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, italic, is the national society of individuals and organisations dedicated to advancing atmospheric and oceanic sciences and related environmental disciplines in Canada.

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Cancún

Cancún is a city in southeastern Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.

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Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carbon dioxide removal

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) refers to a number of technologies, the objective of which is the large-scale removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Circumpolar peoples

Circumpolar peoples and Arctic peoples are umbrella terms for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic.

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Citibank

Citibank is the consumer division of financial services multinational Citigroup.

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Civil disorder

Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.

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Clathrate hydrate

Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.

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Climate

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Climate change adaptation

Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.

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Climate change and agriculture

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale.

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Climate change and ecosystems

This article is about climate change and ecosystems.

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Climate change denial

Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy.

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Climate change in Africa

Climate change in Africa pertains to aspects of climate change within the continent of Africa.

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Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.

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Climate commitment

Climate commitment describes the fact that climate reacts with a delay to influencing factors ("climate forcings") such as the presence of greenhouse gases.

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Climate engineering

Climate engineering or climate intervention, commonly referred to as geoengineering, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, usually with the aim of mitigating the adverse effects of global warming.

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Climate model

Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.

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Climate resilience

Climate resilience can be generally defined as the capacity for a socio-ecological system to: (1) absorb stresses and maintain function in the face of external stresses imposed upon it by climate change and (2) adapt, reorganize, and evolve into more desirable configurations that improve the sustainability of the system, leaving it better prepared for future climate change impacts.

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Climate sensitivity

Climate sensitivity is the equilibrium temperature change in response to changes of the radiative forcing.

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Clinker (cement)

Typical clinker nodules Hot clinker In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually to in diameter, produced by sintering (fused together without melting to the point of liquefaction) limestone and aluminosilicate materials such as clay during the cement kiln stage.

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Cloud condensation nuclei

Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.

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Cloud forcing

Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing or cloud radiative effect) is, in meteorology, the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions.

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Cold blob (North Atlantic)

The cold blob in the North Atlantic describes a cold temperature anomaly of ocean surface waters, affecting the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) which is part of the thermohaline circulation, possibly related to global warming-induced melting of the Greenland ice sheet.

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Competitive Enterprise Institute

The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) is a non-profit libertarian think tank founded by political writer Fred L. Smith, Jr., on March 9, 1984, in Washington, D.C. According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), CEI is number 59 (of 60) in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Conservatism in the United States

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Copenhagen Accord

The Copenhagen Agreement is a document that delegates at the 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to "take note of" at the final plenary on 18 December 2009.

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Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Deforestation and climate change

Deforestation is one of the main contributors to climate change.

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Deposition (aerosol physics)

In aerosol physics, deposition is the process by which aerosol particles collect or deposit themselves on solid surfaces, decreasing the concentration of the particles in the air.

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Desertification

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth's energy budget

Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between energy Earth receives from the Sun, energy Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered the so-called "Earth’s heat engine".

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Economics of global warming

The economics of global warming concerns the economic aspects of global warming; this can inform policies that governments might consider in response. A number of factors make this a difficult problem from both economic and political perspectives: it is a long-term, intergenerational problem;, in benefits and costs are distributed unequally both within and across countries; and scientific and public opinions may diverge. One of the most important greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide., p.5, in Around 20% of carbon dioxide which is emitted due to human activities can remain in the atmosphere for many thousands of years., in The long time scales and uncertainty associated with global warming have led analysts to develop "scenarios" of future environmental, social and economic changes. These scenarios can help governments understand the potential consequences of their decisions. The impacts of climate change include the loss of biodiversity, sea level rise, increased frequency and severity of some extreme weather events, and acidification of the oceans. Economists have attempted to quantify these impacts in monetary terms, but these assessments can be controversial. The two main policy responses to global warming are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and to adapt to the impacts of global warming (e.g., by building levees in response to sea level rise). Another policy response which has recently received greater attention is geoengineering of the climate system (e.g. injecting aerosols into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight away from the Earth's surface). One of the responses to the uncertainties of global warming is to adopt a strategy of sequential decision making. This strategy recognizes that decisions on global warming need to be made with incomplete information, and that decisions in the near term will have potentially long-term impacts. Governments might choose to use risk management as part of their policy response to global warming. Abstract, in: For instance, a risk-based approach can be applied to climate impacts which are difficult to quantify in economic terms, e.g., the impacts of global warming on indigenous peoples. Analysts have assessed global warming in relation to sustainable development. Sustainable development considers how future generations might be affected by the actions of the current generation. In some areas, policies designed to address global warming may contribute positively towards other development objectives., in, in In other areas, the cost of global warming policies may divert resources away from other socially and environmentally beneficial investments (the opportunity costs of climate change policy).

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Effects of global warming

The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.

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Effects of global warming on human health

The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.

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Effects of global warming on humans

Climate change has brought about possibly permanent alterations to Earth's geological, biological and ecological systems.

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Effects of global warming on oceans

Effects of global warming on oceans provides information on the various effects that global warming has on oceans.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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El Niño–Southern Oscillation

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.

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Environmental impact of the coal industry

The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products.

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Environmental issues with coral reefs

Human impact on coral reefs is significant.

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Environmental migrant

Climate refugees or environmental migrants are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment.

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Environmental Research Letters

Environmental Research Letters is a quarterly, open-access, electronic-only, peer-reviewed, scientific journal covering research in all aspects of environmental science.

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Eos (magazine)

Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, is a weekly magazine of Earth science published by John Wiley & Sons for the American Geophysical Union (AGU).

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Erik M. Conway

Erik M. Conway (born 1965) is the historian at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

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European Academy of Sciences and Arts

The European Academy of Sciences and Arts (Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea) is a learned society of around 1,700 top scientists and artists who approach the questions facing Europe and the globe in various colloquia and publications.

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European Geosciences Union

The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.

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European Science Foundation

The European Science Foundation (ESF) is an association of 8 member organizations devoted to scientific research in 7 European countries.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Extinction

In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extinction risk from global warming

The extinction risk of global warming is the risk of species becoming extinct due to the effects of global warming.

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Extreme weather

Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.

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ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.

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Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Fishery

Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Flower

A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Gallup (company)

Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.

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Gas flare

A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.

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Gavin Schmidt

Gavin A. Schmidt is a climatologist, climate modeler and Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York, and co-founder of the award-winning climate science blog RealClimate.

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Geologic temperature record

The Geologic temperature record are changes in Earth's environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion (109) year time scales.

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Geological Society of America

The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.

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Geological Society of Australia

The Geological Society of Australia (GSA) was established as a non-profit organisation in 1952 to promote, advance and support earth sciences in Australia.

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Geological Society of London

The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.

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Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR).

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Global cooling

Global cooling was a conjecture during the 1970s of imminent cooling of the Earth's surface and atmosphere culminating in a period of extensive glaciation.

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Global dimming

Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.

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Global temperature record

The global temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Global warming (disambiguation)

Global warming is one of the common names for the current change in Earth's climate.

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Global warming controversy

The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, how much has occurred in modern times, what has caused it, what its effects will be, whether any action should be taken to curb it, and if so what that action should be.

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Global warming hiatus

A global warming hiatus, also sometimes referred to as a global warming pause or a global warming slowdown, is a period of relatively little change in globally averaged surface temperatures.

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Glossary of climate change

This article serves as a glossary of climate change terms.

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Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Greenhouse gas emissions accounting

Greenhouse gas emissions accounting is a method of calculating the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted by a region in a given time-scale.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Group of 77

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.

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Guy Stewart Callendar

Guy Stewart Callendar (February 1898 – October 1964) was an English steam engineer and inventor.

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Harvest

Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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Heat wave

A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.

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Hemispheres of Earth

In geography and cartography, the hemispheres of Earth refer to any division of the globe into two hemispheres (from Ancient Greek ἡμισφαίριον hēmisphairion, meaning "half of a sphere").

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History of climate change science

The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified.

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Holocene extinction

The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.

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Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Ice core

An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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Ice–albedo feedback

Ice–albedo feedback is a positive feedback climate process where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers, and sea ice alters the albedo.

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Index of climate change articles

This is a list of climate change topics.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Instrumental temperature record

The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures.

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InterAcademy Panel

The InterAcademy Panel: The Global Network of Science Academies (IAP) is a global network consisting of over 106 national science academies.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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International Union for Quaternary Research

The International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) was founded in 1928.

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International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG; Union géodésique et géophysique internationale, UGGI) is an international non-governmental organisation dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth and its space environment using geophysical and geodetic techniques.

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Inundation

Inundation (from the Latin inundatio, flood) is both the act of intentionally flooding land that would otherwise remain dry, for military, agricultural, or river-management purposes, and the result of such an act.

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IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the fifth in a series of such reports.

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IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.

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IPCC Second Assessment Report

The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change.

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IPCC Third Assessment Report

The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC.

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Irradiance

In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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James Hansen

James Edward Hansen (born 29 March 1941) is an American adjunct professor directing the Program on Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions of the Earth Institute at Columbia University.

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John Tyndall

John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.

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Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

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Journal of Geophysical Research

The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Jule Gregory Charney

Jule Gregory Charney (January 1, 1917 – June 16, 1981) was an American meteorologist who played an important role in developing weather prediction.

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

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Landslide

The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.

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Libertarianism

Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency released in 2015.

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Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.

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Long-term effects of global warming

There are expected to be various long-term effects of global warming.

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Low-carbon economy

A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

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Low-carbon power

Low-carbon power comes from processes or technologies that produce power with substantially lower amounts of carbon dioxide emissions than is emitted from conventional fossil fuel power generation.

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Maldives

The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.

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Malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Mark Z. Jacobson

Mark Zachary Jacobson (born 1965) is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University and director of its Atmosphere/Energy Program.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Mauna Loa Observatory

The Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an atmospheric baseline station on Mauna Loa, on the island of Hawaii.

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Media coverage of global warming

Media coverage of global warming has had effects on public opinion on climate change, as it mediates the scientific opinion on climate change that the global instrumental temperature record shows increase in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.

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Median

The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

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Medieval Warm Period

The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may have been related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from to.

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Meta-analysis

A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Mikhail Budyko

Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (Михаил Иванович Будыко) (20 January 1920 – 10 December 2001) was a Russian climatologist and one of the founders of physical climatology.

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Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Myles Allen

Myles R. Allen is head of the Climate Dynamics group at the University of Oxford's Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics Department.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural resource

Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.

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Nature Climate Change

Nature Climate Change is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group covering all aspects of research on global warming, especially its effects.

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Network of African Science Academies

The Network of African Science Academies was formed in December 2001 as an independent forum, for African science academies to discuss scientific issues of common concern.

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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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North Atlantic Current

The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Ocean

An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Ocean deoxygenation

Ocean deoxygenation is the expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the world's oceans as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide.

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Ocean heat content

Oceanic heat content (OHC) is the heat stored in the ocean.

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Orbital forcing

Orbital forcing is the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis and shape of the orbit (see Milankovitch cycles).

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Oxford Institute for Energy Studies

The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies is an energy research institution which was founded in 1982, and serves a worldwide audience with its research, guides understanding of all major energy issues.

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Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Paleoclimatology

Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Permafrost

In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phenology

Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation).

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Polarization (politics)

In politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes.

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Polish Academy of Sciences

The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.

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Pollutant

A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.

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Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Post-glacial rebound

Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Proxy (climate)

In the study of past climates ("paleoclimatology"), climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct meteorological measurements and enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions over a longer fraction of the Earth's history.

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Radiative cooling

Radiative cooling is the process by which a body loses heat by thermal radiation.

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Radiative forcing

Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.

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Radiative transfer

Radiative transfer is the physical phenomenon of energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

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RealClimate

RealClimate is a commentary site (blog) on climatology.

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Reforestation

Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.

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Regional effects of global warming

Regional effects of global warming are long-term significant changes in the expected patterns of average weather of a specific region due to global warming.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Representative Concentration Pathways

Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are four greenhouse gas concentration (not emissions) trajectories adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5) in 2014.

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Retreat of glaciers since 1850

The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Roger Revelle

Roger Randall Dougan Revelle (March 7, 1909 – July 15, 1991) was a scientist and scholar who was instrumental in the formative years of the University of California San Diego and was among the early scientists to study anthropogenic global warming, as well as the movement of Earth's tectonic plates.

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Royal Meteorological Society

The Royal Meteorological Society is a long-established institution that promotes academic and public engagement in weather and climate science.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Runaway climate change

Runaway climate change or runaway global warming is hypothesized to follow a tipping point in the climate system, after accumulated climate change initiates a reinforcing positive feedback.

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Salinity

Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite temperature measurements

Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and land surface temperatures obtained from radiometric measurements by satellites.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Scientific consensus

Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.

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Scientific opinion on climate change

The scientific opinion on climate change is the overall judgment among scientists regarding the extent to which global warming is occurring, its likely causes, and its probable consequences.

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Sea ice

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Shutdown of thermohaline circulation

A shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is an effect of global warming on a major ocean circulation.

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Society

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Soil carbon feedback

The soil carbon feedback concerns releases of carbon from soils, in response to global warming, known as a positive climate feedback.

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Solar cycle

The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solar luminosity

The solar luminosity,, is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars, galaxies and other celestial objects in terms of the output of the Sun.

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Solar radiation management

Solar radiation management (SRM) projects are a type of climate engineering which seek to reflect sunlight and thus reduce global warming.

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Soot

Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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Southeastern United States

The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.

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Special Report on Emissions Scenarios

The Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) is a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that was published in 2000.

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Square kilometre

Square kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square kilometer (American spelling), symbol km2, is a multiple of the square metre, the SI unit of area or surface area.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Statelessness

In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".

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Stefan–Boltzmann law

The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Svante Arrhenius

Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.

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Technology

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Temperature record of the past 1000 years

The temperature record of the past 1,000 years is reconstructed using data from climate proxy records in conjunction with the modern instrumental temperature record which only covers the last 150 years at a global scale.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Times of Northwest Indiana

The Times of Northwest Indiana (NWI) is a daily newspaper headquartered in Munster, Indiana.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

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Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Think tank

A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.

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Tropical cyclones and climate change

Tropical cyclones and climate change concerns how tropical cyclones have changed (in number, intensity, track or otherwise), and are expected to further change, under global warming.

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Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Tropospheric ozone

Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).

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Tuvalu

Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.

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Twomey effect

The Twomey effect describes how additional cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), possibly from anthropogenic pollution, may increase the amount of solar radiation reflected by clouds.

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U.S. Global Change Research Program

The United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society.

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United Nations Climate Change conference

The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is a nonprofit consortium of more than 100 colleges and universities providing research and training in the atmospheric and related sciences.

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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Violence

Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.

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Violent crime

A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which an offender or perpetrator uses or threatens to use force upon a victim.

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Wallace Smith Broecker

Wallace Smith Broecker (born November 29, 1931 in Chicago) is the Newberry Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University, a scientist at Columbia's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and a sustainability fellow at Arizona State University.

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War

War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

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Water scarcity

Water scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand.

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Water vapor

No description.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

In late 1992, the late Henry W. Kendall, a former chair of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) board of directors, wrote "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity", which begins: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course." A majority of the Nobel Prize laureates in the sciences signed the document; about 1,700 of the world's leading scientists appended their signature.

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2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December.

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2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún, Mexico, from 29 November to 10 December 2010.

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2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP17) was held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 November to 11 December 2011 to establish a new treaty to limit carbon emissions.

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2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference was the 18th yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 8th session of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (the protocol having been developed under the UNFCCC's charter).

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2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP19 or CMP9 was held in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 23 November 2013.

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2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming

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