91 relations: Acute kidney injury, Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis, Albumin, Aldosterone, Alport syndrome, Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody, Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, Anti-nuclear antibody, Anti-streptolysin O, Autoantibody, Autoimmune disease, Autosome, Basement membrane, Biopsy, C3-convertase, Cancer, Cerebral shunt, Chronic kidney disease, Complement component 3, Complement deficiency, Complement system, Complete blood count, Corticosteroid, Edema, Electron microscope, Endocarditis, Epithelium, Fever, Fibrosis, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Glomerular basement membrane, Glomerulus, Goodpasture syndrome, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, H&E stain, Hematuria, Hemoptysis, Henoch–Schönlein purpura, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Heroin, HIV, Hyalin, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Hypoalbuminemia, IgA nephropathy, Immune complex, Immunofluorescence, Immunoglobulin A, ..., Immunoglobulin G, Inflammation, Jones' stain, Juxtaglomerular apparatus, Kidney, Lipid, Lung, Lupus nephritis, Malaria, Membranous glomerulonephritis, Mesangium, Methylprednisolone, Microscopic polyangiitis, Minimal change disease, Nausea, Nephritic syndrome, Nephritis, Nephrology, Nephrotic syndrome, Oliguria, Oncotic pressure, Penicillamine, Periodic acid–Schiff stain, Petechia, Pharynx, Podocyte, Protein, Proteinuria, Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, Renal ultrasonography, Renin–angiotensin system, Shunt nephritis, Sodium, Steroid, Streptococcus pyogenes, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Thin basement membrane disease, Urinary cast, Urine, Vasculitis, Water. Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis is a disorder of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis), or small blood vessels in the kidneys.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Alport syndrome is a genetic disorder affecting around 1 in 50,000 children, characterized by glomerulonephritis, end-stage kidney disease, and hearing loss.
Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM Ab) is an antibody which is found in Goodpasture's syndrome but not found in microscopic polyangiitis.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes.
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus.
Anti-streptolysin O (ASO or ASLO) is the antibody made against streptolysin O, an immunogenic, oxygen-labile streptococcal hemolytic exotoxin produced by most strains of group A and many strains of groups C and G Streptococcus bacteria.
An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
C3 convertase (C2, C4bC2b, (formerly C4bC2a)C3bBb, complement C.hivin.4.hivin2, complement C3 convertase) belongs to family of serine proteases and is necessary in innate immunity as a part of the complement system which eventuate in opsonisation of particles, release of inflammatory peptides, C5 convertase formation and cell lysis.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cerebral shunts are commonly used to treat hydrocephalus, the swelling of the brain due to excess buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Complement component 3, often simply called C3, is a protein of the immune system.
Complement deficiency is an immunodeficiency of absent or suboptimal functioning of one of the complement system proteins.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as a leading cause of kidney failure in adults.
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus.
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
Goodpasture syndrome (GPS) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) also known as IgA vasculitis, anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, and Schönlein–Henoch purpura, is a disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes other organs that most commonly affects children.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hyalin is a protein released from the cortical granules of a fertilized animal egg.
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypoalbuminemia (or hypoalbuminaemia) is a medical sign in which the level of albumin in the blood is abnormally low.
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), also known as IgA nephritis, Berger disease (and variations), or synpharyngitic glomerulonephritis, is a disease of the kidney (or nephropathy); specifically it is a form of glomerulonephritis or an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
An immune complex, sometimes called an antigen-antibody complex, is a molecule formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.
Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Jones' stain, also Jones stain, is a methenamine silver-Periodic acid-Schiff stain used in pathology.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lupus nephritis (also known as SLE nephritis) is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a slowly progressive disease of the kidney affecting mostly people between ages of 30 and 50 years, usually Caucasian.
In the glomerulus of the kidney, the mesangium is a structure associated with the capillaries.
Methylprednisolone, sold under the brand names Depo-Medrol and Solu-Medrol among others, is a corticosteroid medication used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation.
Microscopic polyangiitis is an ill-defined autoimmune disease characterized by a systemic, pauci-immune, necrotizing, small-vessel vasculitis without clinical or pathological evidence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation.
Minimal change disease (also known as MCD and nil disease, among others) is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nephritic syndrome (or acute nephritic syndrome) is a syndrome comprising signs of nephritis, which is kidney disease involving inflammation.
Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel's plasma (blood/liquid) that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.
Penicillamine, sold under the trade names of Cuprimine among others, is a medication primarily used for the treatment of Wilson's disease.
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.
A petechia, plural petechiae, is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a syndrome of the kidney that is characterized by a rapid loss of renal function, Citing: McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine.
Renal ultrasonography (Renal US) is the examination of one or both kidneys using medical ultrasound.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.
Shunt nephritis is a rare disease of the kidney that can occur in patients being treated for hydrocephalus with a cerebral shunt.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD, also known as benign familial hematuria and thin basement membrane nephropathy or TBMN) is, along with IgA nephropathy, the most common cause of asymptomatic hematuria.
Urinary casts are microscopic cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.