250 relations: Adjournment (games), Adriaan de Groot, Albin Countergambit, Alekhine's gun, Alexander Kotov, Alexey Troitsky, Algebraic notation (chess), Aron Nimzowitsch, Arpad Elo, Artificial castling, Artificial intelligence, ASCII, Automaton, AVRO 1938 chess tournament, Back-rank checkmate, Backward pawn, Bare king, Basque Country (autonomous community), Battery (chess), Benko Gambit, Bent Larsen, Best response, Bishop (chess), Blindfold chess, Blunder (chess), Bobby Fischer, Boden's Mate, Braslav Rabar, British Chess Magazine, Budapest Gambit, Bughouse chess, Bye (sports), Caïssa, Candidate move, Castling, Check (chess), Checkmate, Checkmate pattern, Chess, Chess annotation symbols, Chess clock, Chess endgame, Chess endgame literature, Chess engine, Chess Informant, Chess middlegame, Chess notation, Chess Olympiad, Chess opening, Chess piece, ..., Chess piece relative value, Chess problem, Chess set, Chess strategy, Chess tactic, Chess title, Chess tournament, Chess World Cup 2007, Chess960, Chessboard, Chessgames.com, Closed Game, Colle System, Combination (chess), Compensation (chess), Computer chess, Connected pawns, Correspondence chess, Corresponding squares, Cross-check, Danish Gambit, David Bronstein, Decoy (chess), Descriptive notation, Desperado (chess), Discovered attack, Domination (chess), Double check, Doubled pawns, Dover Publications, Draw (chess), Draw by agreement, Elo rating system, Email, Emanuel Lasker, En passant, Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, Endgame study, Endgame tablebase, English Chess Federation, English Defence, English Opening, Englund Gambit, Exchange (chess), Exchange variation, Fairy chess piece, Fast chess, Fianchetto, FIDE, FIDE titles, Fifty-move rule, First-move advantage in chess, Flank opening, Flight square, Fool's mate, Forfeit, Fork (chess), Forsyth–Edwards Notation, Fortress (chess), French Defence, Gambit, Garry Kasparov, Géza Maróczy, Giuoco Piano, Glossary of chess, Glossary of chess problems, Grandmaster (chess), Greek gift sacrifice, Half-open file, Handicap (chess), Hastings 1895 chess tournament, Hippopotamus Defence, Hypermodernism (chess), Indian Defence, Initiative (chess), Interference (chess), International Arbiter, International Correspondence Chess Federation, Internet chess server, Interzonal, Intuition, Irregular chess opening, Isolated pawn, Italian Game, Italian Game, Blackburne Shilling Gambit, Johann Löwenthal, John Nunn, José Raúl Capablanca, Key square, Kibitzer, King (chess), King walk, King's Gambit, Falkbeer Countergambit, King's Indian Attack, King's Indian Defence, King's Indian Defence, Four Pawns Attack, King's Pawn Game, Knight (chess), Knight's tour, Kriegspiel (chess), Latvian Gambit, List of chess traps, List of chess variants, London 1851 chess tournament, Lucena position, Luft, Maróczy Bind, Modern Chess Openings, Morphy versus the Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard, New Oxford American Dictionary, Nomen nescio, Norm (chess), Nottingham 1936 chess tournament, Open file, Open Game, Opposite-colored bishops endgame, Opposition (chess), Outpost (chess), Overloading (chess), Passed pawn, Pattern recognition (psychology), Pawn (chess), Pawn storm, Pawn structure, Perpetual check, Philidor position, Pin (chess), Ply (game theory), Poisoned Pawn Variation, Portable Game Notation, Priyome, Professional Chess Association, Promotion (chess), Prophylaxis (chess), Queen (chess), Queen's Gambit, Queen's Gambit Accepted, Queen's Gambit Declined, Queen's Gambit Declined, Elephant Trap, Queen's Indian Defense, Queen's Pawn Game, Raymond Keene, Richard Réti, Romantic chess, Rook (chess), Rook and pawn versus rook endgame, Round-robin tournament, Rules of chess, Ruy Lopez, Sacrifice (chess), Samuel Boden, San Sebastián, Scandinavian Defense, Scholar's mate, Scotch Game, Semi-Closed Game, Semi-Open Game, Sicilian Defence, Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation, Sicilian Defence, Dragon Variation, Sicilian Defence, Najdorf Variation, Sicilian Defence, Smith–Morra Gambit, Siegbert Tarrasch, Siege engine, Simultaneous exhibition, Single-elimination tournament, Skewer (chess), Smothered mate, Sokolsky Opening, Solved game, Stalemate, Staunton chess set, Stonewall Attack, Swindle (chess), Swiss-system tournament, Tarrasch rule, Tempo (chess), The Oxford Companion to Chess, The Turk, Threefold repetition, Tie-breaking in Swiss-system tournaments, Time control, Touch-move rule, Transposition (chess), Triangulation (chess), Two Knights Defense, Two knights endgame, Undermining (chess), United States Chess Federation, Variation (game tree), White and Black in chess, Wilhelm Steinitz, Windmill (chess), Wing Gambit, World Chess Championship, Wrong rook pawn, X-ray (chess), Zero-sum game, Zugzwang, Zwischenzug. Expand index (200 more) » « Shrink index
Some board games, such as chess and Go, use an adjournment mechanism to suspend the game in progress so it can be continued at another time, typically the following day.
Adrianus Dingeman (Adriaan) de Groot (Santpoort, 26 October 1914 – Schiermonnikoog, 14 August 2006) was a Dutch chess master and psychologist, who conducted some of the most famous chess experiments of all time in the 1940s-60.
The Albin Countergambit is a chess opening that begins with the moves: and the usual continuation is: The opening is an uncommon defense to the Queen's Gambit.
Alekhine's gun is a formation in chess named after the former world chess champion Alexander Alekhine.
Alexander Alexandrovich Kotov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Ко́тов; – 8 January 1981) was a Soviet chess grandmaster and author.
Alexey Alexeyevich Troitsky, or Alexei, Troitzky, or Troitzki (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Тро́ицкий) (March 14, 1866–August 1942) is considered to have been one of the greatest composers of chess endgame studies.
Algebraic notation (or AN) is a method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess.
Aron Nimzowitsch (Ārons Nimcovičs, Аро́н Иса́евич Нимцо́вич, Aron Isayevich Nimtsovich; born Aron Niemzowitsch; 7 November 1886 – 16 March 1935) was a Russian-born, Danish leading chess grandmaster and influential chess writer.
Arpad Emmerich Elo (born Árpád Imre Élő; August 25, 1903 – November 5, 1992) was the creator of the Elo rating system for two-player games such as chess.
In chess, artificial castling (also called castling by hand) refers to a maneuver in which a king which has lost the right to castle achieves a castled position in several normal moves, instead of the one special move.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
The AVRO tournament was a famous chess tournament held in the Netherlands in 1938, sponsored by the Dutch broadcasting company AVRO.
In chess, a back-rank checkmate (also known as the corridor mate) is a checkmate delivered by a rook or queen along a back rank (that is, the row on which the pieces stand at the start of the game) in which the mated king is unable to move up the board because the king is blocked by friendly pieces (usually pawns) on the second rank.
In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind all pawns of the same color on the adjacent files and cannot be safely advanced.
In chess and chess variants, a bare king (or lone king) is a game position where one player has only the king remaining (i.e. all the player's other pieces have been).
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
A battery in chess is a formation that consists of two or more pieces on the same rank, file, or diagonal.
The Benko Gambit (or Volga Gambit) is a chess opening characterised by the move 3...b5 in the Benoni Defence arising after: The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings has three codes for the Benko Gambit.
Jørgen Bent Larsen (4 March 19359 September 2010) was a Danish chess grandmaster and author.
In game theory, the best response is the strategy (or strategies) which produces the most favorable outcome for a player, taking other players' strategies as given. The concept of a best response is central to John Nash's best-known contribution, the Nash equilibrium, the point at which each player in a game has selected the best response (or one of the best responses) to the other players' strategies.
A bishop (♗,♝) is a piece in the board game of chess.
Blindfold chess (also known as sans voir) is a form of chess play wherein the players do not see the positions of the pieces or touch them.
In chess, a blunder is a very bad move.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
Boden's Mate is a checkmating pattern in chess characterized by bishops on two criss-crossing diagonals (for example, bishops on a6 and f4 delivering mate to a king on c8), with possible flight squares for the king being occupied by friendly pieces.
Braslav Rabar (27 September 1919, Zagreb – 6 December 1973, Zagreb) was a Croatian chess International Master (1950) and chess writer.
British Chess Magazine is the world's oldest chess journal in continuous publication.
The Budapest Gambit (or Budapest Defence) is a chess opening that begins with the moves: Despite an early debut in 1896, the Budapest Gambit received attention from leading players only after a win as Black by Grandmaster Milan Vidmar over Akiba Rubinstein in 1918.
Bughouse chess (also known as Exchange chess, Siamese chess, Tandem chess, Transfer chess, Double bughouse, Cross chess, Swap chess or simply bughouse or bug) is a popular chess variant played on two chessboards by four players in teams of two.
A bye in sports (and certain other competitions), refers to organizers scheduling a competitor to not participate in a given round of competition, due to one of several circumstances.
Caïssa is a fictional Thracian dryad portrayed as the goddess of chess, as invented during the Renaissance by Italian poet Hieronymus Vida.
In abstract strategy board games, candidate moves are moves which, upon initial observation of the position, seem to warrant further analysis.
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.
A check is a condition in chess, shogi, and xiangqi that occurs when a player's king (or general in xiangqi) is under threat of on their opponent's next turn.
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with) and there is no way to remove the threat.
In chess, several checkmate patterns occur frequently, or are otherwise of such interest to scholars, so as to have acquired specific names in chess commentary.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
When annotating chess games, commentators frequently use widely recognized annotation symbols.
A chess clock consists of two adjacent clocks with buttons to stop one clock while starting the other, so that the two clocks never run simultaneously.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
Chess endgame literature refers to books and magazines about chess endgames.
In computer chess, a chess engine is a computer program that analyses chess or chess variant positions and makes decisions on the best chess moves.
Chess Informant (Šahovski Informator) is a publishing company from Belgrade (Serbia, former Yugoslavia) that periodically (since 2012, four volumes per year) produces a book entitled Chess Informant, as well as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, Encyclopaedia of Chess Endings, Opening Monographs, other print publications, and software (including electronic editions of most print publications).
The middlegame in chess refers to the portion of the game in between the opening and the endgame.
Chess notations are various systems that have developed to record either the moves made in a game of chess or the position of pieces on a chessboard.
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game.
A chess piece, or chessman, is any of the six different movable objects used on a chessboard to play the game of chess.
In chess, the chess piece relative value system conventionally assigns a point value to each piece when assessing its relative strength in potential exchanges.
A chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using chess pieces on a chess board, that presents the solver with a particular task to be achieved.
A chess set has thirty-two chess pieces in two colours and a chessboard used to play chess.
Chess strategy is the aspect of chess playing concerned with evaluation of chess positions and setting of goals and long-term plans for future play.
In chess, a tactic refers to a sequence of moves that limits the opponent's options and may result in tangible gain.
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
A chess tournament is a series of chess games played competitively to determine a winning individual or team.
The Chess World Cup 2007 served as a qualification tournament for the World Chess Championship 2010.
Chess960, also called Fischer Random Chess (originally Fischerandom), is a variant of chess invented and advocated by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer, announced publicly on June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
A chessboard is the type of checkerboard used in the board game chess, consisting of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns).
Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members.
A Closed Game (or Double Queen's Pawn Opening) is a chess opening that begins with the moves: The move 1.d4 offers the same benefits to development and center control as does 1.e4, but unlike with the King Pawn openings where the e4 pawn is undefended after the first move, the d4 pawn is protected by White's queen.
The Colle System, also known as the Colle–Koltanowski system, is a chess opening strategy for White introduced by Belgian Edgard Colle in the 1920s, and further developed by George Koltanowski.
In chess, a combination is a sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain.
In chess, compensation is the typically short-term positional advantages a player has in exchange for typically material disadvantage.
Computer chess is a game of computer architecture encompassing hardware and software capable of playing chess autonomously without human guidance.
In chess, connected pawns are two or more pawns of the same color on adjacent files, as distinct from isolated pawns.
Correspondence chess is chess or variant chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, often through a correspondence chess server, a public internet chess forum, email, or the postal system.
Corresponding squares (also called relative squares, sister squares and coordinate squares) in chess occur in some chess endgames, usually ones that are mostly blocked.
In chess, a cross-check is a tactic in which a check is played in response to a check, especially when the original check is blocked by a piece that itself either delivers check or reveals a discovered check from another piece.
The Danish Gambit, known as the Nordisches Gambit (Nordic Gambit) in German, and the Noors Gambiet (Norwegian Gambit) in Dutch, is a chess opening that begins with the moves: White will sacrifice one or two pawns for the sake of rapid and the attack.
David Ionovich Bronstein (Дави́д Ио́нович Бронште́йн; February 19, 1924 – December 5, 2006) was a Soviet chess grandmaster, who narrowly missed becoming World Chess Champion in 1951.
In chess, decoying is the tactic of ensnaring a piece, usually the king or queen, by forcing it to move to a poisoned square with a sacrifice on that square.
Descriptive notation is a notation for recording chess games, and at one time was the most popular notation in English- and Spanish-speaking countries.
In chess, a desperado piece is a piece that is or trapped, but captures an enemy piece before it is itself captured.
In chess, a discovered attack is an attack revealed when one piece moves out of the way of another.
In chess, and particularly in endgame studies, domination occurs when a piece has a relatively wide choice of destination squares, but nevertheless cannot avoid being captured.
In chess, a double check is a check delivered by two pieces simultaneously.
In chess, doubled pawns are two pawns of the same color residing on the same file.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.
In chess, a draw by (mutual) agreement is the outcome of a game due to the agreement of both players to a draw.
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
En passant (in passing) is a move in chess.
The Encyclopedia of Chess Openings is a classification system for the opening moves in chess.
In the game of chess, an endgame study, or just study, is a composed position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find the essentially unique way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
An endgame tablebase is a computerized database that contains precalculated exhaustive analysis of chess endgame positions.
The English Chess Federation (ECF) is the governing chess organisation in England and is affiliated to FIDE.
The English Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves.
The English Opening is a chess opening that begins with the move: A flank opening, it is the fourth most popular and, according to various databases, anywhere from one of the two most successful to the fourth most successful of White's twenty possible first moves.
The Englund Gambit is a rarely played chess opening that starts with the moves: Black's idea is to avoid the traditional closed queen's pawn games and create an open game with tactical chances, but at the cost of a pawn.
In the tactics and strategy in the board game of chess, an exchange (exchanging) or trade (trading) of chess pieces is series of closely related moves, typically sequential, in which the two players capture each other's pieces.
In chess, an exchange variation is a type of opening in which there is an early, voluntary exchange of pawns or pieces.
A fairy chess piece, variant chess piece, unorthodox chess piece, or heterodox chess piece is a chess piece not used in conventional chess but incorporated into certain chess variants and some chess problems.
Fast chess (also known as speed chess) is a variation of chess in which each side is given less time to make their moves than under normal tournament time controls.
In chess, the fianchetto ("little flank") is a pattern of development wherein a bishop is developed to the second rank of the adjacent knight file, the knight pawn having been moved one or two squares forward.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The fifty-move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty moves (for this purpose a "move" consists of a player completing their turn followed by the opponent completing their turn).
The first-move advantage in chess is the inherent advantage of the player (White) who makes the first move in chess.
A flank opening is a chess opening played by White and typified by play on one or both flanks (the portion of the chess board outside the central d and e files).
In chess, a flight square or escape square is a safe square to which a king or other piece can move if it is threatened.
In chess, Fool's Mate, also known as the Two-Move Checkmate, is the checkmate in the fewest possible number of moves from the start of the game.
Forfeit or forfeiture may refer to.
In chess, a fork is a tactic whereby a single piece makes two or more direct attacks simultaneously.
Forsyth–Edwards Notation (FEN) is a standard notation for describing a particular board position of a chess game.
In chess, the fortress is an endgame drawing technique in which the side behind in sets up a zone of protection that the opponent cannot penetrate.
The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's and gaining on the.
A gambit (from ancient Italian gambetto, meaning "to trip") is a chess opening in which a player, more often White, sacrifices, usually a pawn, with the hope of achieving a resulting advantageous position.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Géza Maróczy (3 March 1870 – 29 May 1951) was a Hungarian chess master, one of the leading players in the world in his time.
The Giuoco Piano (Italian: "Quiet Game"), also called the Italian Opening,Hooper & Whyld (1996), p. 183.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess problems in alphabetical order.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
In chess, the Greek gift sacrifice (or classical bishop sacrifice) is a typical sacrifice of a bishop by White playing Bxh7+ or Black playing Bxh2+.
In chess, a half-open file (or semi-open file) is a with only pawns of one color.
A handicap (or "odds") in chess is variant ways to enable a weaker player to have a chance of winning against a stronger one.
The Hastings 1895 chess tournament was a round-robin tournament of chess conducted in Hastings, England from August 5 to September 2, 1895.
The Hippopotamus Defence is a name for various irregular chess opening systems in which Black moves a number of his pawns to the sixth rank, often developing his pieces to the seventh rank, and does not move any of his pawns to the fifth rank in the opening.
Hypermodernism is a school of chess that emerged after World War I. It featured challenges to the chess ideas of central European masters, including Wilhelm Steinitz's approach to the centre and the rules established by Siegbert Tarrasch.
In the game of chess, Indian defence is a broad term for a group of openings characterised by the moves: They are all to varying degrees hypermodern defences, where Black invites White to establish an imposing presence in the centre with the plan of undermining and ultimately destroying it.
Initiative in a chess position belongs to the player who can make threats that cannot be ignored.
In the game of chess, interference occurs when the line between an attacked piece and its defender is interrupted by sacrificially interposing a piece.
In chess, International Arbiter is a title awarded by FIDE to individuals deemed capable of acting as arbiter in important chess matches.
International Correspondence Chess Federation (ICCF) was founded in 1951 as a new appearance of the International Correspondence Chess Association (ICCA), which was founded in 1945, as successor of the Internationaler Fernschachbund (IFSB), founded in 1928.
An Internet chess server (ICS) is an external server that provides the facility to play, discuss, and view the board game of chess over the Internet.
Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by the World Chess Federation FIDE from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
In chess, irregular opening is a traditional term for any opening considered unusual or unorthodox.
In chess, an isolated pawn is a pawn that has no friendly pawn on an adjacent.
The Italian Game is a family of chess openings beginning with the moves: The Italian Game is part of the large family of Open Games or Double King's Pawn Games.
The Blackburne Shilling Gambit is the name facetiously given to a dubious chess opening, derived from an offshoot of the Italian Game, that begins: It is also sometimes referred to as the Kostić Gambit after the Serbian grandmaster Borislav Kostić, who played it in the early 20th century.
Johann Jacob Löwenthal (Löwenthal János Jakab; 15 July 1810 – 24 July 1876) was a professional chess master.
John Denis Martin Nunn (born 25 April 1955 in London) is an English chess grandmaster, a three-time world champion in chess problem solving, a chess writer and publisher, and a mathematician.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
In chess, particularly in endgames, a key square (also known as a critical square) is a square such that if a player's king can occupy it, he can force some gain such as the promotion of a pawn or the capture of an opponent's pawn.
A Kibitzer is a Yiddish term for a spectator, usually one who offers (often unwanted) advice or commentary.
In chess, the king (♔,♚) is the most important piece.
In chess, a king walk, also known as a king march, steel king (wandelkoning, literally "wanderking") or fighting king, refers to occasions where the king travels up the board, often involved in a against the opposing king.
The Falkbeer Countergambit is a chess opening that begins: In this aggressive, Black disdains the pawn offered as a sacrifice, instead opening the centre to exploit White's weakness on the.
The King's Indian Attack (or KIA), also known as the Barcza System (after Gedeon Barcza), is a chess opening system for White.
The King's Indian Defence is a common chess opening.
The Four Pawns Attack in the King's Indian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the moves: White immediately builds up a large in order to gain a advantage.
The King's Pawn Game is any chess opening starting with the move: It is among the most popular opening moves in chess.
The knight (♘ ♞) is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armored cavalry).
A knight's tour is a sequence of moves of a knight on a chessboard such that the knight visits every square only once.
Kriegspiel is a chess variant invented by Henry Michael Temple in 1899 and based upon the original Kriegsspiel (German for war game) developed by Georg von Reiswitz in 1812.
The Latvian Gambit (or Greco Countergambit) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: It is one of the oldest chess openings, having been analysed in the 17th century by Gioachino Greco, after whom it is sometimes named.
The term chess trap refers to a move which may tempt the opponent to play a losing move.
A chess variant (or unorthodox chess) is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess".
London 1851 was the first international chess tournament.
The Lucena position is one of the most famous and important positions in chess endgame theory, where one side has a rook and a pawn and the defender has a rook.
Luft, the German word for "air" (sometimes also "space" or "breath"), is used by some chess writers and commentators to denote a space or square left by a pawn move into which a castled king may move, especially such a space made with the intention of avoiding a back rank checkmate.
The Maróczy Bind is a pawn formation in chess, named after the Hungarian grandmaster Géza Maróczy and primarily played against the Sicilian Defence.
Modern Chess Openings (usually called) is an important reference book on chess openings, first published in 1911 by the British players Richard Clewin Griffith (1872–1955) and John Herbert White (1880–1920).
The chess game played in 1858 at an opera house in Paris between the American chess master Paul Morphy and two strong amateurs, the German noble Karl II, Duke of Brunswick and the French aristocrat Comte Isouard de Vauvenargues, is among the most famous of chess games.
The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.
Nomen nescio, abbreviated to N.N., is used to signify an anonymous or unnamed person.
A norm in chess is a high level of performance in a chess tournament.
The Nottingham 1936 chess tournament was a 15-player round robin tournament held August 10–28 at the University of Nottingham.
An open file in chess is a with no pawns of either color on it.
An Open Game (or Double King's Pawn Opening) is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: White has moved the king's pawn two squares and Black has replied in kind.
The opposite-colored bishops endgame is a chess endgame in which each side has a single bishop, but the bishops reside on opposite-colored squares on the chessboard, thus cannot attack or block each other.
In chess, opposition (or direct opposition) is the situation occurring when two kings face each other on a rank or file, with only one square in-between them.
An outpost is a square on the fourth, fifth, sixth, or seventh which is protected by a pawn and which cannot be attacked by an opponent's pawn.
Overloading (also overworking) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is given an additional defensive assignment which it cannot complete without abandoning its original defensive assignment.
In chess, a passed pawn is a pawn with no opposing pawns to prevent it from advancing to the eighth; i.e. there are no opposing pawns in front of it on either the same or adjacent files.
In psychology and cognitive neuroscience, pattern recognition describes a cognitive process that matches information from a stimulus with information retrieved from memory.
The pawn (♙,♟) is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, also the weakest.
A pawn storm is a chess strategy in which several pawns are moved in rapid succession toward the opponent's defenses.
In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.
In the game of chess, perpetual check is a situation in which one player can force a draw by an unending series of checks.
The Philidor position (or Philidor's position) usually refers to an important chess endgame which illustrates a drawing technique when the defender has a king and rook versus a king, rook, and a pawn.
In chess, a pin is a situation brought on by an attacking piece in which a defending piece cannot move without exposing a more valuable defending piece on its other side to capture by the attacking piece.
In two-player sequential games, a ply refers to one turn taken by one of the players.
The Poisoned Pawn Variation is any of several series of opening moves in chess in which a pawn is said to be "poisoned" because its capture can result in a positional disadvantage or loss of material.
Portable Game Notation (PGN) is a plain text computer-processible format for recording chess games (both the moves and related data), supported by many chess programs.
Priyome (a) is a Russian noun that is used directly and generically in English to represent some sort of typical maneuver or technique in chess.
The Professional Chess Association (PCA), which existed between 1993 and 1996, was a rival organisation to FIDE, the international chess organization.
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth to be immediately replaced by the player's choice of a queen, knight, rook, or bishop of the same.
In the game of chess, prophylaxis (Greek προφυλαξις, "prophylaxis," guarding or preventing beforehand) or a prophylactic move is a move that stops the opponent from taking action in a certain area for fear of some type of reprisal.
The queen (♕,♛) is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally.
The Queen's Gambit is a chess opening that starts with the moves: The Queen's Gambit is one of the oldest known chess openings.
The Queen's Gambit Accepted (or QGA) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Queen's Gambit Accepted is the third most popular option on Black's second move, after 2...e6 (the Queen's Gambit Declined) and 2...c6 (the Slav Defense).
The Queen's Gambit Declined (or QGD) is a chess opening in which Black declines a pawn offered by White in the Queen's Gambit: This is known as the Orthodox Line of the Queen's Gambit Declined.
In chess, the Elephant Trap is a faulty attempt by White to win a pawn in a popular variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined.
The Queen's Indian Defense (QID) is a chess opening defined by the moves: The opening is a solid defense to the Queen's Pawn Game.
The Queen's Pawn Game is any chess opening starting with the move: It is the second most popular opening move after 1.e4.
Raymond Dennis Keene OBE (born 29 January 1948) is an English chess Grandmaster, a FIDE International Arbiter, a chess organiser, and a journalist and author.
Richard Selig Réti (28 May 1889, Bösing, now Pezinok – 6 June 1929, Prague) was an Austro-Hungarian, later Czechoslovak chess grandmaster, chess author, and composer of endgame studies.
Romantic chess was the style of chess prevalent from the late 15th century until the 1880s.
A rook (♖,♜) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess.
The rook and pawn versus rook endgame is of fundamental importance to chess endgames,,,, and has been widely studied,. Precise play is usually required in these positions.
A round-robin tournament (or all-play-all tournament) is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn.
The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of chess.
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura.
In chess, a sacrifice is a move giving up a piece with the objective of gaining tactical or positional compensation in other forms.
Samuel Standidge Boden (1826–1882) was an English professional chess master.
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
The Scandinavian Defense (or Center Counter Defense, or Center Counter Game) is a chess opening characterized by the moves.
In chess, Scholar's Mate is the checkmate achieved by the following moves, or similar: The same mating pattern may be reached by various move orders.
The Scotch Game, or Scotch Opening, is a chess opening that begins with the moves: Ercole del Rio, in his 1750 treatise Sopra il giuoco degli Scacchi, Osservazioni pratiche d’anonimo Autore Modenese ("On the game of Chess, practical Observations by an anonymous Modenese Author"), was the first author to mention what is now called the Scotch Game.
A Semi-Closed Game (or Semi-Closed Opening) is a chess opening in which White plays 1.d4 but Black does not make the symmetrical reply 1...d5.
A Semi-Open Game is a chess opening in which White plays 1.e4 and Black breaks symmetry immediately by replying with a move other than 1...e5.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
In chess, the Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation is a response to the Sicilian Defence characterised by the moves: It is named after the Russian master Semyon Alapin (1856–1923).
In chess, the Dragon Variation is one of the main lines of the Sicilian Defence and begins with the moves: In the Dragon, Black fianchettoes their bishop on the h8–a1 diagonal, building a home for the king on g8 while aiming the bishop at the center and.
The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most respected and deeply studied of all chess openings.
In chess, the Smith–Morra Gambit (or simply Morra Gambit) is an opening gambit against the Sicilian Defence distinguished by the moves: White sacrifices a pawn to quickly and create attacking chances.
Siegbert Tarrasch (5 March 1862 – 17 February 1934) was one of the strongest chess players and most influential chess teachers of the late 19th and early 20th century.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
A simultaneous exhibition or simultaneous display is a board game exhibition (commonly chess or Go) in which one player (typically of high rank, such as a grandmaster or dan-level player) plays multiple games at a time with a number of other players.
A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is immediately eliminated from the tournament.
In chess, a skewer is an attack upon two pieces in a line and is similar to a pin.
In chess, a smothered mate is a checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because he is surrounded (or smothered) by his own pieces.
The Sokolsky Opening (also known as the Orangutan or Polish) is an uncommon chess opening that begins with the move: According to various databases, out of the twenty possible first moves from White, the move 1.b4 ranks ninth in popularity.
A solved game is a game whose outcome (win, lose or draw) can be correctly predicted from any position, assuming that both players play perfectly.
Stalemate is a situation in the game of chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal move.
The Staunton chess set is composed of a particular style of chess pieces used to play the game of chess.
The Stonewall Attack is a chess opening; more specifically it is a variation of the Queen's Pawn Game.
In chess, a swindle is a ruse by which a player in a losing position tricks his opponent, and thereby achieves a win or draw instead of the expected loss.
A Swiss-system tournament is a non-eliminating tournament format which features a set number of rounds of competition, but considerably fewer than in a round-robin tournament.
The Tarrasch rule is a general principle that applies in the majority of chess middlegames and endgames.
In chess and other chess-like games, tempo is a "turn" or single move.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.
The Turk, also known as the Mechanical Turk or Automaton Chess Player (Schachtürke, "chess Turk"; A Török), was a fake chess-playing machine constructed in the late 18th century.
In chess and some other abstract strategy games, the threefold repetition rule (also known as repetition of position) states that a player can claim a draw if the same position occurs three times, or will occur after their next move, with the same player to move.
Tie-break systems are used in chess Swiss system tournaments to break ties between players who have the same total number of points after the last round.
A time control is a mechanism in the tournament play of almost all two-player board games so that each round of the match can finish in a timely way and the tournament can proceed.
The touch-move rule in chess specifies that, if a player deliberately touches a piece on the board when it is his turn to move, then he must move or capture that piece if it is legal to do so.
A transposition in chess and other chess-like games is a sequence of moves that results in a position which may also be reached by another, more common sequence of moves.
Triangulation is a tactic used in chess to put one's opponent in zugzwang (a position when it is a disadvantage to move).
The Two Knights Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: First recorded by Polerio (c. 1550 – c. 1610) in the late 16th century, this line of the Italian Game was extensively developed in the 19th century.
The two knights endgame is a chess endgame with a king and two knights versus a king.
Undermining (also known as removal of the guard, or removing the defender) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is captured, leaving one of the opponent's pieces undefended or under-defended.
The United States Chess Federation (also known as US Chess or USCF) is the governing body for chess competition in the United States and represents the U.S. in FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
A Variation can refer to a specific sequence of successive moves in a turn-based game, often used to specify a hypothetical future state of a game that is being played.
In chess, the player who moves first is referred to as "White" and the player who moves second is referred to as "Black".
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
In chess, a windmill is a tactic in which a combination of discovered checks and regular checks, usually by a rook and a bishop, often forcing the opposing king to move back and forth between two squares, can win massive amounts of.
In chess, Wing Gambit is a generic name given to openings in which White plays an early b4, deflecting an enemy pawn or bishop from c5 so as to regain control of d4, an important central square.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
In chess endgames with a bishop, a pawn that is a may be the wrong rook pawn.
In chess, the term X-ray or X-ray attack is sometimes used as a synonym for skewer.
In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants.
Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move") is a situation found in chess and other games wherein one player is put at a disadvantage because they must make a move when they would prefer to pass and not move.
The zwischenzug (German: "intermediate move") is a chess tactic in which a player, instead of playing the expected move (commonly a), first interposes another move posing an immediate threat that the opponent must answer, and only then plays the expected move.
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