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Glossary of computer graphics

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This is a glossary of terms relating computer graphics. [1]

214 relations: Abstraction layer, Address space, Addressing mode, Algorithm, Alpha compositing, Ambient occlusion, Angle, Anti-aliasing, AOS and SOA, Application programming interface, Array data structure, Array data type, Artificial intelligence, Atlas (topology), Autodesk Mudbox, Back-face culling, Bare machine, Bidirectional reflectance distribution function, Billboard, Bit plane, Bitmap, Bitwise operation, Blend modes, Bloom (shader effect), Boolean function, Bounding volume, Bounding volume hierarchy, Bresenham's line algorithm, Bump mapping, Cache (computing), Cache coherence, Camera, Camera matrix, Central processing unit, Channel (digital image), Clipping (computer graphics), Collision detection, Color depth, Compute kernel, Computer data storage, Computer graphics, Computer memory, Conservation of energy, Constructive solid geometry, Control point (mathematics), Coordinate space, Coordinate system, Cross product, Curve, Data structure, ..., Data type, Deferred shading, Delaunay triangulation, Depth map, Derivative, Digital painting, Direct3D, Displacement mapping, Division (mathematics), Dynamical simulation, Edge (geometry), Edge detection, Empirical modelling, Error term, Euclidean vector, Euler angles, Evans & Sutherland, Fast approximate anti-aliasing, Fixed-point arithmetic, Floating-point arithmetic, Framebuffer, Free-form deformation, Frequency, Geometric primitive, Geometry, Gimbal lock, Global illumination, Glossary of computer graphics, Glossary of computer hardware terms, Graph (discrete mathematics), Graphical user interface, Graphics pipeline, Graphics processing unit, Hardware acceleration, Hash function, Heightmap, Hidden surface determination, Hierarchy, High-dynamic-range imaging, Homogeneous coordinates, Hypergraph, Image file formats, Immediate mode (computer graphics), Implicit surface, Integer, Interpolation, Intersection, Key frame, Landscape, Level of detail, Library (computing), Light, Light field, Light stage, Lightmap, Line segment, List of 3D modeling software, List of rendering APIs, Lists of shapes, Local coordinates, Map extent, Marching cubes, Materials system, Mathematical model, Matrix (mathematics), Memory access pattern, Memory architecture, Memory management unit, Metal (API), Minimum bounding box, Monochrome, Multiplication, Normal (geometry), Normal mapping, OpenGL, Origin (mathematics), Palette (computing), Parallel array, Particle system, Phong shading, Pixel, Plane (geometry), PlayStation 3 system software, Point cloud, Polygon, Polygon mesh, Polynomial interpolation, Portal rendering, Potentially visible set, Quaternion, Rasterisation, Ray (optics), Ray tracing (graphics), Real-time computer graphics, Recursion (computer science), Reflection mapping, Rendering (computer graphics), Rendering equation, RGB color model, RGB color space, Rotation (mathematics), Screen space ambient occlusion, Shader, Shading language, Shadow mapping, SIMD, Simulation, Skeletal animation, Solid modeling, Sorting algorithm, Space-filling curve, Spatial anti-aliasing, Specularity, Sprite (computer graphics), Subdivision surface, Subsurface scattering, Supersampling, Surface triangulation, Swizzling (computer graphics), System on a chip, Terrain rendering, Tessellation (computer graphics), Texel (graphics), Texture filtering, Texture mapping, Texture mapping unit, Three-dimensional space, Tone mapping, Transformation matrix, Triangle mesh, Triangle strip, Two-dimensional space, Unique key, Unit vector, UV mapping, Vector (mathematics and physics), Vector quantization, Vector space, Vegetation, Vertex (computer graphics), Vertex buffer object, Video card, Video game console, Video post-processing, Viewing frustum, Virtual camera system, Visual artifact, Voxel, Vulkan (API), Weighting, Window (computing), Wire-frame model, Word (computer architecture), YUV, Z-buffering, Z-order, Z-order curve, ZBrush, 2D computer graphics, 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling, 3D projection, 3D rendering, 8-bit color. Expand index (164 more) »

Abstraction layer

In computing, an abstraction layer or abstraction level is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence.

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Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

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Addressing mode

Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.

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Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Alpha compositing

In computer graphics, alpha compositing is the process of combining an image with a background to create the appearance of partial or full transparency.

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Ambient occlusion

In computer graphics, ambient occlusion is a shading and rendering technique used to calculate how exposed each point in a scene is to ambient lighting.

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Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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Anti-aliasing

Anti-aliasing may refer to any of a number of techniques to combat the problems of aliasing in a sampled signal such as a digital image or digital audio recording.

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AOS and SOA

In computing, AoS and SoA refer to contrasting ways to arrange a sequence of records in memory, with regard to interleaving, and are of interest in SIMD programming.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

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Array data type

Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Atlas (topology)

In mathematics, particularly topology, one describes a manifold using an atlas.

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Autodesk Mudbox

Mudbox is a proprietary computer-based 3D sculpting and painting tool.

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Back-face culling

In computer graphics, back-face culling determines whether a polygon of a graphical object is visible.

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Bare machine

In computer science, bare machine (or bare metal) refers to a computer executing instructions directly on logic hardware without an intervening operating system.

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Bidirectional reflectance distribution function

The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF; f_(\omega_,\, \omega_)) is a function of four real variables that defines how light is reflected at an opaque surface.

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Billboard

A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads.

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Bit plane

A bit plane of a digital discrete signal (such as image or sound) is a set of bits corresponding to a given bit position in each of the binary numbers representing the signal.

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Bitmap

In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.

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Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

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Blend modes

Blend modes (or Mixing modes) in digital image editing and computer graphics are used to determine how two layers are blended into each other.

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Bloom (shader effect)

Bloom (sometimes referred to as light bloom or glow) is a computer graphics effect used in video games, demos, and high dynamic range rendering (HDRR) to reproduce an imaging artifact of real-world cameras.

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Boolean function

In mathematics and logic, a (finitary) Boolean function (or switching function) is a function of the form ƒ: Bk → B, where B.

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Bounding volume

In computer graphics and computational geometry, a bounding volume for a set of objects is a closed volume that completely contains the union of the objects in the set.

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Bounding volume hierarchy

A bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) is a tree structure on a set of geometric objects.

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Bresenham's line algorithm

Bresenham's line algorithm is an algorithm that determines the points of an n-dimensional raster that should be selected in order to form a close approximation to a straight line between two points.

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Bump mapping

Bump mapping is a technique in computer graphics for simulating bumps and wrinkles on the surface of an object.

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Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache, is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere.

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Cache coherence

In computer architecture, cache coherence is the uniformity of shared resource data that ends up stored in multiple local caches.

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Camera

A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

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Camera matrix

In computer vision a camera matrix or (camera) projection matrix is a 3 \times 4 matrix which describes the mapping of a pinhole camera from 3D points in the world to 2D points in an image.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Channel (digital image)

Color digital images are made of pixels, and pixels are made of combinations of primary colors represented by a series of code.

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Clipping (computer graphics)

Clipping, in the context of computer graphics, is a method to selectively enable or disable rendering operations within a defined region of interest.

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Collision detection

Collision detection is the computational problem of detecting the intersection of two or more objects.

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Color depth

Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel.

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Compute kernel

In computing, a compute kernel is a routine compiled for high throughput accelerators (such as GPUs, DSPs or FPGAs), separate from (but used by) a main program.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Constructive solid geometry

Constructive solid geometry (CSG) (formerly called computational binary solid geometry) is a technique used in solid modeling.

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Control point (mathematics)

In computer-aided geometric design a control point is a member of a set of points used to determine the shape of a spline curve or, more generally, a surface or higher-dimensional object.

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Coordinate space

In mathematics, a coordinate space is a space in which an ordered list of coordinates, each from a set (not necessarily the same set), collectively determine an element (or point) of the space – in short, a space with a coordinate system.

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Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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Cross product

In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.

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Curve

In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

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Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

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Data type

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.

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Deferred shading

In the field of 3D computer graphics, deferred shading is a screen-space shading technique.

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Delaunay triangulation

In mathematics and computational geometry, a Delaunay triangulation (also known as a Delone triangulation) for a given set P of discrete points in a plane is a triangulation DT(P) such that no point in P is inside the circumcircle of any triangle in DT(P).

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Depth map

In 3D computer graphics a depth map is an image or image channel that contains information relating to the distance of the surfaces of scene objects from a viewpoint.

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Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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Digital painting

Digital painting is an emerging art form in which traditional painting techniques such as watercolor, oils, impasto, etc.

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Direct3D

Direct3D is a graphics application programming interface (API) for Microsoft Windows.

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Displacement mapping

Displacement mapping is an alternative computer graphics technique in contrast to bump mapping, normal mapping, and parallax mapping, using a (procedural-) texture- or height map to cause an effect where the actual geometric position of points over the textured surface are displaced, often along the local surface normal, according to the value the texture function evaluates to at each point on the surface.

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Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

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Dynamical simulation

Dynamical simulation, in computational physics, is the simulation of systems of objects that are free to move, usually in three dimensions according to Newton's laws of dynamics, or approximations thereof.

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Edge (geometry)

In geometry, an edge is a particular type of line segment joining two vertices in a polygon, polyhedron, or higher-dimensional polytope.

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Edge detection

Edge detection includes a variety of mathematical methods that aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities.

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Empirical modelling

Empirical modelling refers to any kind of (computer) modelling based on empirical observations rather than on mathematically describable relationships of the system modelled.

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Error term

In mathematics and statistics, an error term is an additive type of error.

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Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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Euler angles

The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.

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Evans & Sutherland

Evans & Sutherland is a pioneering American computer firm in the computer graphics field.

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Fast approximate anti-aliasing

Fast Approximate Anti-Aliasing (FXAA) is an anti-aliasing algorithm created by Timothy Lottes at NVIDIA.

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Fixed-point arithmetic

In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).

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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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Framebuffer

A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.

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Free-form deformation

In computer graphics, free-form deformation (FFD) is a geometric technique used to model simple deformations of rigid objects.

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Geometric primitive

The term geometric primitive, or prim, in computer graphics and CAD systems is used in various senses, with the common meaning of the simplest (i.e. 'atomic' or irreducible) geometric objects that the system can handle (draw, store).

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Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Gimbal lock

Gimbal lock is the loss of one degree of freedom in a three-dimensional, three-gimbal mechanism that occurs when the axes of two of the three gimbals are driven into a parallel configuration, "locking" the system into rotation in a degenerate two-dimensional space.

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Global illumination

Global illumination (shortened as GI), or indirect illumination, is a general name for a group of algorithms used in 3D computer graphics that are meant to add more realistic lighting to 3D scenes.

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Glossary of computer graphics

This is a glossary of terms relating computer graphics.

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Glossary of computer hardware terms

This is a glossary of terms relating to computer hardware – physical computer hardware, architectural issues, and peripherals.

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Graph (discrete mathematics)

In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense "related".

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Graphics pipeline

In computer graphics, a computer graphics pipeline, rendering pipeline or simply graphics pipeline, is a conceptual model that describes what steps a graphics system needs to perform to render a 3D scene to a 2D screen.

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Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

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Hardware acceleration

In computing, hardware acceleration is the use of computer hardware to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible in software running on a more general-purpose CPU.

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Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.

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Heightmap

In computer graphics, a heightmap or heightfield is a raster image used to store values, such as surface elevation data, for display in 3D computer graphics.

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Hidden surface determination

In 3D computer graphics, shown surface determination (also known as hidden surface removal (HSR), occlusion culling (OC) or visible surface determination (VSD)) is the process used to determine which surfaces and parts of surfaces are not visible from a certain viewpoint.

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Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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High-dynamic-range imaging

High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) is a high dynamic range (HDR) technique used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques.

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Homogeneous coordinates

In mathematics, homogeneous coordinates or projective coordinates, introduced by August Ferdinand Möbius in his 1827 work Der barycentrische Calcül, are a system of coordinates used in projective geometry, as Cartesian coordinates are used in Euclidean geometry.

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Hypergraph

In mathematics, a hypergraph is a generalization of a graph in which an edge can join any number of vertices.

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Image file formats

Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.

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Immediate mode (computer graphics)

Immediate mode rendering is a style for application programming interfaces of graphics libraries, in which client calls directly cause rendering of graphics objects to the display, or in which the data to describe rendering primitives is inserted frame by frame directly into a command list (in the case of), without the use of extensive indirection to retained resources.

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Implicit surface

In mathematics an implicit surface is a surface in Euclidean space defined by an equation An implicit surface is the set of zeros of a function of three variables.

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Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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Interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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Intersection

In mathematics, the intersection of two or more objects is another, usually "smaller" object.

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Key frame

A keyframe in animation and filmmaking is a drawing that defines the starting and ending points of any smooth transition.

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Landscape

A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.

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Level of detail

In computer graphics, accounting for Level of detail involves decreasing the complexity of a 3D model representation as it moves away from the viewer or according to other metrics such as object importance, viewpoint-relative speed or position.

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Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light field

The light field is a vector function that describes the amount of light flowing in every direction through every point in space.

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Light stage

A light stage or light cage is equipment used for shape, texture, reflectance and motion capture often with structured light and a multi-camera setup.

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Lightmap

A lightmap is a data structure used in lightmapping, a form of surface caching in which the brightness of surfaces in a virtual scene is pre-calculated and stored in texture maps for later use.

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Line segment

In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its endpoints.

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List of 3D modeling software

Following is a list of notable 3D modeling software, computer programs used for developing a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional surface of objects, also called 3D modeling.

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List of rendering APIs

Rendering APIs typically provide just enough functionality to abstract a graphics accelerator, focussing on rendering primitives, state management, command lists/command buffers; and as such differ from fully fledged 3D graphics libraries, 3D engines (which handle scene graphs, lights, animation, materials etc.), and GUI frameworks; Some provide fallback software rasterisers, which were important for compatibility and adoption before graphics accelerators became widespread.

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Lists of shapes

This is an index of lists of geometric shapes and related topics.

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Local coordinates

Local coordinates are measurement indices into a local coordinate system or a local coordinate space.

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Map extent

A map extent is the portion of area of a region show in a map.

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Marching cubes

Marching cubes is a computer graphics algorithm, published in the 1987 SIGGRAPH proceedings by Lorensen and Cline, for extracting a polygonal mesh of an isosurface from a three-dimensional discrete scalar field (sometimes called a voxel).

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Materials system

In Computer graphics, Materials are an enhancement of texture mapping (and a pre-requisite for advanced shading effects) that allows for objects in 3D modelling packages and video games to simulate different types of materials in real life.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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Memory access pattern

In computing, a memory access pattern or IO access pattern is the pattern with which a system or program reads and writes memory or secondary storage.

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Memory architecture

Memory architecture describes the methods used to implement electronic computer data storage in a manner that is a combination of the fastest, most reliable, most durable, and least expensive way to store and retrieve information.

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Memory management unit

A memory management unit (MMU), sometimes called paged memory management unit (PMMU), is a computer hardware unit having all memory references passed through itself, primarily performing the translation of virtual memory addresses to physical addresses.

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Metal (API)

Metal is a low-level, low-overhead hardware-accelerated 3D graphic and compute shader application programming interface (API) developed by Apple Inc., and which debuted in iOS 8.

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Minimum bounding box

In geometry, the minimum or smallest bounding or enclosing box for a point set (S) in N dimensions is the box with the smallest measure (area, volume, or hypervolume in higher dimensions) within which all the points lie.

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Monochrome

Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.

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Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

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Normal (geometry)

In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.

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Normal mapping

In 3D computer graphics, normal mapping, or Dot3 bump mapping, is a technique used for faking the lighting of bumps and dents – an implementation of bump mapping.

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OpenGL

Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.

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Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

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Palette (computing)

In computer graphics, a palette is a finite set of colors.

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Parallel array

In computing, a group of parallel arrays (also known as structure of arrays or SoA) is a form of implicit data structure that uses multiple arrays to represent a singular array of records.

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Particle system

A particle system is a technique in game physics, motion graphics, and computer graphics that uses a large number of very small sprites, 3D models, or other graphic objects to simulate certain kinds of "fuzzy" phenomena, which are otherwise very hard to reproduce with conventional rendering techniques - usually highly chaotic systems, natural phenomena, or processes caused by chemical reactions.

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Phong shading

Phong shading refers to an interpolation technique for surface shading in 3D computer graphics.

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Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

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PlayStation 3 system software

The PlayStation 3 system software is the updatable firmware and operating system of the PlayStation 3.

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Point cloud

A point cloud is a set of data points in space.

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Polygon

In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.

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Polygon mesh

A polygon mesh is a collection of, s and s that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling.

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Polynomial interpolation

In numerical analysis, polynomial interpolation is the interpolation of a given data set by the polynomial of lowest possible degree that passes through the points of the dataset.

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Portal rendering

In computer-generated imagery and real-time 3D computer graphics, portal rendering is an algorithm for visibility determination.

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Potentially visible set

Potentially Visible Sets are used to accelerate the rendering of 3D environments.

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Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

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Rasterisation

Rasterisation (or rasterization) is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer, or for storage in a bitmap file format.

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Ray (optics)

In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

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Ray tracing (graphics)

In computer graphics, ray tracing is a rendering technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light as pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects.

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Real-time computer graphics

Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the sub-field of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in real time.

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Recursion (computer science)

Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).

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Reflection mapping

In computer graphics, environment mapping, or reflection mapping, is an efficient image-based lighting technique for approximating the appearance of a reflective surface by means of a precomputed texture image.

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Rendering (computer graphics)

Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.

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Rendering equation

In computer graphics, the rendering equation is an integral equation in which the equilibrium radiance leaving a point is given as the sum of emitted plus reflected radiance under a geometric optics approximation.

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RGB color model

The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.

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RGB color space

A RGB color space is any additive color space based on the RGB color model.

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Rotation (mathematics)

Rotation in mathematics is a concept originating in geometry.

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Screen space ambient occlusion

Screen space ambient occlusion (SSAO) is a computer graphics technique for efficiently approximating the ambient occlusion effect in real time.

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Shader

In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.

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Shading language

A shading language is a graphics programming language adapted to programming shader effects (characterizing surfaces, volumes, and objects).

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Shadow mapping

Shadow mapping or shadowing projection is a process by which shadows are added to 3D computer graphics.

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SIMD

Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.

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Simulation

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.

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Skeletal animation

Skeletal animation is a technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.

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Solid modeling

Solid modeling (or modelling) is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and computer modeling of three-dimensional solids.

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Sorting algorithm

In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.

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Space-filling curve

In mathematical analysis, a space-filling curve is a curve whose range contains the entire 2-dimensional unit square (or more generally an n-dimensional unit hypercube).

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Spatial anti-aliasing

In digital signal processing, spatial anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution image at a lower resolution.

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Specularity

Specularity is the visual appearance of specular reflections.

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Sprite (computer graphics)

In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.

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Subdivision surface

A subdivision surface, in the field of 3D computer graphics, is a method of representing a smooth surface via the specification of a coarser piecewise linear polygon mesh.

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Subsurface scattering

Subsurface scattering (or SSS), also known as subsurface light transport (SSLT), is a mechanism of light transport in which light penetrates the surface of a translucent object, is scattered by interacting with the material, and exits the surface at a different point.

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Supersampling

Supersampling is a spatial anti-aliasing method, i.e. a method used to remove aliasing (jagged and pixelated edges, colloquially known as "jaggies") from images rendered in computer games or other computer programs that generate imagery.

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Surface triangulation

Triangulation of a surface means.

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Swizzling (computer graphics)

In computer graphics, swizzling means rearranging the elements of a vector.

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System on a chip

A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.

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Terrain rendering

Terrain rendering covers a variety of methods of depicting real-world or imaginary world surfaces.

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Tessellation (computer graphics)

In computer graphics, tessellation is used to manage datasets of polygons (sometimes called vertex sets) presenting objects in a scene and divide them into suitable structures for rendering.

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Texel (graphics)

A texel, texture element, or texture pixel is the fundamental unit of a texture map, used in computer graphics.

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Texture filtering

In computer graphics, texture filtering or texture smoothing is the method used to determine the texture color for a texture mapped pixel, using the colors of nearby texels (pixels of the texture).

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Texture mapping

Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model.

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Texture mapping unit

A texture mapping unit (TMU) is a component in modern graphics processing units (GPUs).

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Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

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Tone mapping

Tone mapping is a technique used in image processing and computer graphics to map one set of colors to another to approximate the appearance of high-dynamic-range images in a medium that has a more limited dynamic range.

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Transformation matrix

In linear algebra, linear transformations can be represented by matrices.

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Triangle mesh

A triangle mesh is a type of polygon mesh in computer graphics.

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Triangle strip

A triangle strip is a series of connected triangles, sharing vertices, allowing for more efficient memory usage for computer graphics.

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Two-dimensional space

Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

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Unique key

In database relational modeling and implementation, a unique key (also known as a candidate key) of a relation is a minimal superkey for that relation; that is, a set of attributes such that.

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Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

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UV mapping

UV mapping is the 3D modeling process of projecting a 2D image to a 3D model's surface for texture mapping.

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Vector (mathematics and physics)

When used without any further description, vector usually refers either to.

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Vector quantization

Vector quantization (VQ) is a classical quantization technique from signal processing that allows the modeling of probability density functions by the distribution of prototype vectors.

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Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

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Vegetation

Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.

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Vertex (computer graphics)

A vertex (plural vertices) in computer graphics is a data structure that describes certain attributes, like the position of a point in 2D or 3D space, at multiple points on a surface.

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Vertex buffer object

A vertex buffer object (VBO) is an OpenGL feature that provides methods for uploading vertex data (position, normal vector, color, etc.) to the video device for non-immediate-mode rendering.

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Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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Video post-processing

The term post-processing (or postproc for short) is used in the video/film business for quality-improvement image processing (specifically digital image processing) methods used in video playback devices, (such as stand-alone DVD-Video players), and video players software and transcoding software.

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Viewing frustum

In 3D computer graphics, the view frustum (also called viewing frustum) is the region of space in the modeled world that may appear on the screen; it is the field of view of the notional camera.

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Virtual camera system

In 3D video games, a virtual camera system aims at controlling a camera or a set of cameras to display a view of a 3D virtual world.

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Visual artifact

Visual artifacts (also artefacts) are anomalies apparent during visual representation as in digital graphics and other forms of imagery, particularly microscopy.

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Voxel

A voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space.

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Vulkan (API)

Vulkan is a low-overhead, cross-platform 3D graphics and compute API.

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Weighting

The process of weighting involves emphasizing the contribution of some aspects of a phenomenon (or of a set of data) to a final effect or result, giving them more weight in the analysis.

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Window (computing)

In computing, a window is a graphical control element.

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Wire-frame model

A wire-frame model is a visual presentation of a 3-dimensional (3D) or physical object used in 3D computer graphics.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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YUV

YUV is a color encoding system typically used as part of a color image pipeline.

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Z-buffering

In computer graphics, z-buffering, also known as depth buffering, is the management of image depth coordinates in 3D graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software.

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Z-order

Z-order is an ordering of overlapping two-dimensional objects, such as windows in a stacking window manager, shapes in a vector graphics editor, or objects in a 3D application.

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Z-order curve

In mathematical analysis and computer science, functions which are Z-order, Lebesgue curve, Morton order or Morton code map multidimensional data to one dimension while preserving locality of the data points.

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ZBrush

ZBrush is a digital sculpting tool that combines 3D/2.5D modeling, texturing and painting.

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2D computer graphics

2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them.

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3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

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3D modeling

In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software.

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3D projection

3D projection is any method of mapping three-dimensional points to a two-dimensional plane.

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3D rendering

3D rendering is the 3D computer graphics process of automatically converting 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer.

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8-bit color

8-bit color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory or in an image file, such that each pixel is represented by one 8-bit byte.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_computer_graphics

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