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Glossary of computer hardware terms

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This is a glossary of terms relating to computer hardware – physical computer hardware, architectural issues, and peripherals. [1]

229 relations: Accelerated Graphics Port, Accumulator (computing), Address space, AI accelerator, Application-specific integrated circuit, Arithmetic, Artificial neural network, AT (form factor), ATX, Auxiliary memory, Backplane, BIOS, Blu-ray, Booting, Bus (computing), Cache (computing), Cache coherence, Cache control instruction, Cache hierarchy, Cache replacement policies, Cache-only memory architecture, Card reader, Cathode ray tube, CD-R, CD-ROM, CD-RW, Cengage, Central processing unit, Channel I/O, Chipset, Communication protocol, Compact disc, Complex instruction set computer, Computer, Computer case, Computer cluster, Computer data storage, Computer fan, Computer form factor, Computer hardware, Computer keyboard, Computer memory, Computer monitor, Computer mouse, Computer network, Computer program, Computer terminal, Computer-aided design, Control store, Conventional PCI, ..., CPU cache, Data, Data (computing), Data storage, Desktop computer, Digital signal processor, Digital Visual Interface, DIMM, Direct current, Direct memory access, Direct-access storage device, Disk storage, Display device, DisplayPort, Drive bay, DVD, Dynamic random-access memory, EEPROM, Electrical connector, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromechanics, Electronic circuit, Electronic engineering, Electronic switch, Electronic visual display, Electronics, EPROM, Ethernet, Expansion card, Field-programmable gate array, Finger, Firewall (computing), Firmware, Flash memory, Floppy disk, Floppy-disk controller, Form factor (design), Free and open-source graphics device driver, Glassbridge Enterprises, Glossary of backup terms, Glossary of computer graphics, Glossary of computer hardware terms, Glossary of computer software terms, Glossary of Internet-related terms, Glossary of reconfigurable computing, Graphical user interface, Graphics hardware, Graphics processing unit, Hard disk drive, Hardware acceleration, Harvard architecture, HDMI, IBM, IBM PC compatible, IBM Personal Computer/AT, Input device, Input/output, Instruction set architecture, Integer, Integrated circuit, IOPS, Latency (engineering), LED display, List of computer term etymologies, Load/store architecture, Load–store unit, Locality of reference, Logic, Logical connective, Machine code, Machine learning, Machine vision, Magnetic tape, Magnetic-core memory, Magneto-optical drive, Magnetoresistive random-access memory, Mainframe computer, Mains electricity, Mask ROM, Megabyte, Memory, Memory access pattern, Memory address, Memory architecture, Memory card, Memory hierarchy, Memory module, Micro-operation, Microcode, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Mini-VGA, Modem, Modified Harvard architecture, Motherboard, Movidius, MultiMediaCard, Multiplexer, Multiplexing, Multiprocessing, Network interface, Network interface controller, Network on a chip, Non-uniform memory access, Non-volatile memory, Non-volatile random-access memory, Opcode, OpenCL, Operating system, Optical disc, Optical disc drive, Parallel computing, PCI Express, PCI-X, Peripheral, Personal computer, Physical address, Pointing device, Power supply, Power supply unit (computer), Printed circuit board, Printer (computing), Processor (computing), Processor register, Program counter, Programmable Array Logic, Programmable logic device, Programmable read-only memory, Programmer (hardware), RAID, Random access, Random-access memory, Read-only memory, Reading (computer), Riser card, Scratchpad memory, Semiconductor, Sequential access, Server (computing), Shader, Shared memory, SIMM, Software, Solid-state drive, Sound, Sound card, Static random-access memory, Stylus (computing), SuperDisk, Superscalar processor, Switched-mode power supply, Synchronous dynamic random-access memory, System bus, System on a chip, Tape drive, Tensor processing unit, Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display, Thrashing (computer science), Touchpad, Transistor, TrueNorth, TV tuner card, Two-dimensional space, Typewriter, Uniform memory access, USB, USB flash drive, Video camera, Video card, Video Graphics Array, Video RAM (dual-ported DRAM), Volatile memory, Webcam, Wireless network, Working set, X86, Zip drive, 3D computer graphics. Expand index (179 more) »

Accelerated Graphics Port

The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) was designed as a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics.

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Accumulator (computing)

In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.

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Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

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AI accelerator

An AI accelerator is a class of microprocessor or computer system designed to accelerate artificial neural networks, machine vision and other machine learning algorithms for robotics, internet of things and other data-intensive or sensor-driven tasks.

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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AT (form factor)

In the era of IBM compatible personal computers, the AT form factor referred to the dimensions and layout (form factor) of the motherboard for the IBM AT.

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ATX

ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) is a motherboard configuration specification developed by Intel in 1995 to improve on previous ''de facto'' standards like the AT design.

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Auxiliary memory

Auxiliary memory, also known as auxiliary storage, secondary storage, secondary memory or external memory, is a non-volatile memory (does not lose stored data when the device is powered down) that is not directly accessible by the CPU, because it is not accessed via the input/output channels (it is an external device).

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Backplane

A backplane (or "backplane system") is a group of electrical connectors in parallel with each other, so that each pin of each connector is linked to the same relative pin of all the other connectors, forming a computer bus.

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BIOS

BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.

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Blu-ray

Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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Booting

In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Bus (computing)

In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.

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Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache, is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere.

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Cache coherence

In computer architecture, cache coherence is the uniformity of shared resource data that ends up stored in multiple local caches.

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Cache control instruction

In computing, a cache control instruction is a hint embedded in the instruction stream of a processor intended to improve the performance of hardware caches, using foreknowledge of the memory access pattern supplied by the programmer or compiler.

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Cache hierarchy

Cache hierarchy, or multi-level caches, refers to a memory design property which uses a hierarchy of memory stores based on varying access speeds to cache data.

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Cache replacement policies

In computing, cache algorithms (also frequently called cache replacement algorithms or cache replacement policies) are optimizing instructionsor algorithmsthat a computer program or a hardware-maintained structure can follow in order to manage a cache of information stored on the computer.

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Cache-only memory architecture

Cache only memory architecture (COMA) is a computer memory organization for use in multiprocessors in which the local memories (typically DRAM) at each node are used as cache.

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Card reader

A card reader is a data input device that reads data from a card-shaped storage medium.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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CD-R

CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

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CD-ROM

A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

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CD-RW

CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

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Cengage

Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Channel I/O

In computing, channel I/O is a high-performance input/output (I/O) architecture that is implemented in various forms on a number of computer architectures, especially on mainframe computers.

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Chipset

In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.

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Communication protocol

In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Complex instruction set computer

A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer case

A computer case, also known as a computer chassis, tower, system unit or cabinet, is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer (usually excluding the display, keyboard and mouse).

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Computer cluster

A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer fan

A computer fan is any fan inside, or attached to, a computer case used for active cooling, and may refer to fans that draw cooler air into the case from the outside, expel warm air from inside, or move air across a heat sink to cool a particular component.

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Computer form factor

In computing, the form factor is the specification of a motherboard – the dimensions, power supply type, location of mounting holes, number of ports on the back panel, etc.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Computer monitor

A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.

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Computer mouse

A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer terminal

A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.

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Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

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Control store

A control store is the part of a CPU's control unit that stores the CPU's microprogram.

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Conventional PCI

Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer.

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CPU cache

A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.

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Data

Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

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Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

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Data storage

Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.

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Desktop computer

A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Digital Visual Interface

Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG).

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DIMM

A DIMM or dual in-line memory module comprises a series of dynamic random-access memory integrated circuits.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Direct memory access

Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).

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Direct-access storage device

A direct-access storage device (DASD) pronounced) is a secondary storage device in which "each physical record has a discrete location and a unique address." IBM coined the term DASD as a shorthand describing disks, magnetic drums, and data cells. Later, optical disc drives are also classified as DASD. The term DASD contrasts with sequential storage media such as magnetic tape, and unit record equipment such as card devices like card readers and punches. Access methods for DASD include sequential, indexed, and direct. Direct access contrasts with the sequential access method used in tape drives. A record on a DASD can be accessed without having to read through intervening records from the current location, whereas reading anything other than the "next" record on tape requires skipping over intervening records, and requires a proportionally long time to access a distant point in a medium. The DASD storage class includes both fixed and removable media.

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Disk storage

Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.

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Display device

A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).

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DisplayPort

DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA).

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Drive bay

A drive bay is a standard-sized area for adding hardware to a computer.

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DVD

DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

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Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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EEPROM

EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

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Electrical connector

An electrical connector, is an electro-mechanical device used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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Electromechanics

In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.

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Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

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Electronic engineering

Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.

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Electronic switch

In electronics, an electronic switch is an electronic component or device that can switch an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

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Electronic visual display

An electronic visual display, informally a screen, is a display device for presentation of images, text, or video transmitted electronically, without producing a permanent record.

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Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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EPROM

An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.

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Ethernet

Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).

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Expansion card

In computing, the expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an electrical connector, or expansion slot, on a computer motherboard, backplane or riser card to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Finger

A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates.

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Firewall (computing)

In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

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Firmware

In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Floppy-disk controller

A floppy-disk controller (FDC) is a special-purpose chip and associated disk controller circuitry that directs and controls reading from and writing to a computer's floppy disk drive (FDD).

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Form factor (design)

Form factor is an aspect of hardware design which defines and prescribes the size, shape, and other physical specifications of components, particularly in consumer electronics and electronic packaging.

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Free and open-source graphics device driver

A free and open-source graphics device driver is a software stack which controls computer-graphics hardware and supports graphics-rendering application programming interfaces (APIs) and is released under a free and open-source software license.

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Glassbridge Enterprises

Glassbridge Enterprises, known as Imation Corporation prior to 2017, is an American holding company. Through the company's two subsidiaries, Glassbridge focuses primarily on investment, asset management and global enterprise data storage. Prior to the name change, Glassbridge had three core elements – traditional storage (magnetic tape and optical products), secure and scalable storage (data backup, data archive and data security for small and medium businesses) and what the company calls “audio and video information” products.

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Glossary of backup terms

The subject of computer backups is rife with jargon and highly specialized terminology.

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Glossary of computer graphics

This is a glossary of terms relating computer graphics.

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Glossary of computer hardware terms

This is a glossary of terms relating to computer hardware – physical computer hardware, architectural issues, and peripherals.

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Glossary of computer software terms

This glossary of computer software terms lists the general terms related to computer software, and related fields, as commonly used in Wikipedia articles.

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Glossary of Internet-related terms

This is a glossary of terms relating to the Internet.

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Glossary of reconfigurable computing

This is a glossary of terms used in the field of Reconfigurable computing and reconfigurable computing systems, as opposed to the traditional Von Neumann architecture.

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Graphics hardware

Graphics hardware is computer hardware that generates computer graphics and allows them to be shown on a display, usually using a graphics card (video card) in combination with a device driver to create the images on the screen.

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Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Hardware acceleration

In computing, hardware acceleration is the use of computer hardware to perform some functions more efficiently than is possible in software running on a more general-purpose CPU.

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Harvard architecture

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.

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HDMI

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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IBM Personal Computer/AT

The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.

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Input device

In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.

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Input/output

In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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IOPS

Input/output operations per second (IOPS, pronounced eye-ops) is an input/output performance measurement used to characterize computer storage devices like hard disk drives (HDD), solid state drives (SSD), and storage area networks (SAN).

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Latency (engineering)

Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.

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LED display

An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses an array of light-emitting diodes as pixels for a video display.

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List of computer term etymologies

This is a list of the origins of computer-related terms or terms used in the computing world (i.e., a list of computer term etymologies).

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Load/store architecture

In computer engineering, a load/store architecture is an instruction set architecture that divides instructions into two categories: memory access (load and store between memory and registers), and ALU operations (which only occur between registers).

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Load–store unit

In computer engineering a load–store unit is a specialized execution unit responsible for executing all load and store instructions, generating virtual addresses of load and store operations and loading data from memory or storing it back to memory from registers.

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Locality of reference

In computer science, locality of reference, also known as the principle of locality, is a term for the phenomenon in which the same values, or related storage locations, are frequently accessed, depending on the memory access pattern.

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Logic

Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical connective

In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Machine vision

Machine vision (MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry.

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Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.

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Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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Magneto-optical drive

A magneto-optical drive is a kind of optical disc drive capable of writing and rewriting data upon a magneto-optical disc.

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Magnetoresistive random-access memory

Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is a non-volatile random-access memory technology available today that began its development in mid-1980s.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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Mains electricity

Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.

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Mask ROM

Mask ROM (MROM) is a type of read-only memory (ROM) whose contents are programmed by the integrated circuit manufacturer (rather than by the user).

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Megabyte

The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Memory

Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Memory access pattern

In computing, a memory access pattern or IO access pattern is the pattern with which a system or program reads and writes memory or secondary storage.

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Memory address

In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.

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Memory architecture

Memory architecture describes the methods used to implement electronic computer data storage in a manner that is a combination of the fastest, most reliable, most durable, and least expensive way to store and retrieve information.

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Memory card

A memory card, flash card or memory cartridge is an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information.

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Memory hierarchy

In computer architecture, the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time.

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Memory module

In computing, a memory module is a printed circuit board on which memory integrated circuits are mounted.

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Micro-operation

In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as a micro-ops or μops) are detailed low-level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions (sometimes termed macro-instructions in this context).

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Microcode

Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.

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Microcontroller

A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Mini-VGA

Mini-VGA connectors are a non-standard, proprietary alternative used on some laptops and other systems in place of the standard VGA connector, although most laptops use a standard VGA connector.

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Modem

A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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Modified Harvard architecture

The modified Harvard architecture is a variation of the Harvard computer architecture that allows the contents of the instruction memory to be accessed as if it were data.

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Motherboard

A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.

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Movidius

Movidius is a company based in San Mateo, California that designs specialised low-power processor chips for computer vision.

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MultiMediaCard

In consumer electronics, the MultiMediaCard (MMC) is a memory-card standard used for solid-state storage.

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Multiplexer

In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.

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Multiplexing

In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

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Multiprocessing

Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.

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Network interface

In computing, a network interface is a system's (software and/or hardware) interface between two pieces of equipment or protocol layers in a computer network.

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Network interface controller

A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

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Network on a chip

Network on chip or network on a chip (NoC or NOC) is a communication subsystem on an integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip"), typically between intellectual property (IP) cores in a system on a chip (SoC).

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Non-uniform memory access

Non-uniform memory access (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to the processor.

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Non-volatile memory

Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.

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Non-volatile random-access memory

Non-volatile random-access memory (NVRAM) is random-access memory that retains its information when power is turned off.

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Opcode

In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.

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OpenCL

OpenCL (Open Computing Language) is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of central processing units (CPUs), graphics processing units (GPUs), digital signal processors (DSPs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and other processors or hardware accelerators.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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Optical disc drive

In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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PCI Express

PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.

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PCI-X

PCI-X, short for Peripheral Component Interconnect eXtended, is a computer bus and expansion card standard that enhances the 32-bit PCI local bus for higher bandwidth demanded mostly by servers and workstations.

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Peripheral

A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Physical address

In computing, a physical address (also real address, or binary address), is a memory address that is represented in the form of a binary number on the address bus circuitry in order to enable the data bus to access a particular storage cell of main memory, or a register of memory mapped I/O device.

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Pointing device

A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (i.e., continuous and multi-dimensional) data to a computer.

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Power supply

A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.

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Power supply unit (computer)

A power supply unit (or PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer.

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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Printer (computing)

In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.

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Processor (computing)

In computing, a processor or processing unit is an electronic circuit which performs operations on some external data source, usually memory or some other data stream.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Program counter

The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.

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Programmable Array Logic

Programmable Array Logic (PAL) is a family of programmable logic device semiconductors used to implement logic functions in digital circuits introduced by Monolithic Memories, Inc.

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Programmable logic device

A programmable logic device (PLD) is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits.

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Programmable read-only memory

A programmable read-only memory (PROM) or field programmable read-only memory (FPROM) or one-time programmable non-volatile memory (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse.

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Programmer (hardware)

Programmer (hardware), device programmer, chip programmer, device burner, or PROM writer is an electronic equipment that arrange written software to configure programmable non-volatile integrated circuits, called programmable devices.

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RAID

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks, originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.

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Random access

In computer science, random access (more precisely and more generally called direct access) is the ability to access any item of data from a population of addressable elements roughly as easily and efficiently as any other, no matter how many elements may be in the set.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Reading (computer)

Reading is an action performed by computers, to acquire data from a source and place it into their volatile memory for processing.

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Riser card

A riser card is a printed circuit board that picks up a multitude of signal lines (often bused) via a single connector (usually an edge connector) on a motherboard and distributes them via dedicated connectors on the card.

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Scratchpad memory

Scratchpad memory (SPM), also known as scratchpad, scratchpad RAM or local store in computer terminology, is a high-speed internal memory used for temporary storage of calculations, data, and other work in progress.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Sequential access

In computer science, sequential access means that a group of elements (such as data in a memory array or a disk file or on magnetic tape data storage) is accessed in a predetermined, ordered sequence.

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Server (computing)

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

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Shader

In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.

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Shared memory

In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.

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SIMM

A SIMM, or single in-line memory module, is a type of memory module containing random-access memory used in computers from the early 1980s to the late 1990s.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Solid-state drive

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.

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Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Sound card

A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs.

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Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.

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Stylus (computing)

In computing, a stylus (or stylus pen) is a small pen-shaped instrument that is used to input commands to a computer screen, mobile device or graphics tablet.

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SuperDisk

The SuperDisk LS-120 is a high-speed, high-capacity alternative to the 90 mm (3.5 in), 1.44 MB floppy disk.

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Superscalar processor

A superscalar processor is a CPU that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

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Switched-mode power supply

A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.

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Synchronous dynamic random-access memory

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) is any dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) where the operation of its external pin interface is coordinated by an externally supplied clock signal.

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System bus

A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system, combining the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation.

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System on a chip

A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.

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Tape drive

A tape drive is a data storage device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape.

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Tensor processing unit

A tensor processing unit (TPU) is an AI accelerator application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed by Google specifically for neural network machine learning.

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Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display

A Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display (LCD) that uses thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology to improve image qualities such as addressability and contrast.

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Thrashing (computer science)

In computer science, thrashing occurs when a computer's virtual memory resources become saturated, leading to a constant state of paging (rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk), to the exclusion of most application-level processing.

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Touchpad

A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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TrueNorth

TrueNorth is a neuromorphic CMOS integrated circuit chip produced by IBM in 2014.

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TV tuner card

A TV tuner card is a kind of television tuner that allows television signals to be received by a computer.

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Two-dimensional space

Two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

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Typewriter

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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Uniform memory access

Uniform memory access (UMA) is a shared memory architecture used in parallel computers.

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USB

USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.

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USB flash drive

A USB flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key (after the original M-Systems DiskOnKey drive from 2000), flash-drive, memory stick (not to be confused with the Sony Memory Stick), USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

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Video camera

A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.

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Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Video Graphics Array

Video Graphics Array (VGA) is the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.

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Video RAM (dual-ported DRAM)

Video RAM, or VRAM, is a dual-ported variant of dynamic RAM (DRAM), which was once commonly used to store the framebuffer in graphics adapters.

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Volatile memory

Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost.

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Webcam

A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network.

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Wireless network

A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.

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Working set

Working set is a concept in computer science which defines the amount of memory that a process requires in a given time interval.

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X86

x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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Zip drive

The Zip drive is a removable floppy disk storage system that was introduced by Iomega in late 1994.

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3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_computer_hardware_terms

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