185 relations: Abkhaz alphabet, Abkhaz language, Abkhaz phonology, Adyghe language, Aleph, Allophone, American English, Americanist phonetic notation, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Argyll, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Australian English, Ayin, Barbagia, Bikol languages, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, Burmese language, Burmese script, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Cebuano language, Chamorro language, Chechen language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chipewyan language, Circumflex, Cockney, Consonant, Cook Islands Māori, Creaky voice, Creaky-voiced glottal approximant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Egyptian Arabic, English language, English language in Northern England, English orthography, English phonology, ..., Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto phonology, Estuary English, ʻOkina, Filipino orthography, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, Free variation, Gaj's Latin alphabet, General American, German dialects, German language, German orthography, Gimi language, Glottal stop (letter), Glottalization, Glottis, Grave accent, Guarani alphabet, Guarani language, Hamza, Hangul, Hausa language, Hawaiian alphabet, Hawaiian language, Hawaiian phonology, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hiatus (linguistics), Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Ideophone, Ilocano language, Index of phonetics articles, Indonesian language, International Phonetic Alphabet, Japanese language, Javanese language, Juncture, Jyutping, Kabardian language, Kagayanen language, Kagoshima dialect, Khasi language, Korean language, Language, Languages of the Caucasus, Latin alphabet, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Maltese alphabet, Maltese language, Mandarin Chinese, Māori language, Mexican Spanish, Modern Hebrew phonology, Modern Standard Arabic, Modifier letter apostrophe, Modifier letter double apostrophe, Morpheme, Mutsun language, Nahuatl, Nez Perce language, Nheengatu, Nicaraguan Spanish, Northwest Territories, Okinawan language, Palochka, PDF, Perfect (grammar), Persian alphabet, Persian language, Persian phonology, Philippine languages, Phonation, Phoneme, Pirahã language, Pitch-accent language, Polynesian languages, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Received Pronunciation, Ribes divaricatum, Romanization, Rotuman language, Saltillo (linguistics), Samoan language, Sardinian language, Sarrabus-Gerrei, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Segment (linguistics), Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Seri language, Slavey language, Sloth, Sokuon, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Spoken language, Squamish language, Standard German phonology, Stød, Syriac alphabet, T-glottalization, Tagalog language, Tagalog phonology, Tahitian language, Tautosyllabic, Thai alphabet, Thai language, Thriller (Michael Jackson album), Tone (linguistics), Tongan language, Tundra Nenets language, Uh oh, Variety (linguistics), Võro language, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Visayan languages, Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Vowel length, Wagiman language, Wallisian language, Wolaytta language, Wu Chinese. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
The Abkhaz alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
Abkhaz is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Argyll (archaically Argyle, Earra-Ghàidheal in modern Gaelic), sometimes anglicised as Argyllshire, is a historic county and registration county of western Scotland.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
Barbagia (Barbàgia or Barbàza) is a mountain area of inner Sardinia.
The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias of Masbate.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
The Burmese script is the basis of the alphabets used for modern Burmese, Mon, Shan and Karen.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.
Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Cook Islands Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language.
In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact.
The creaky-voiced glottal approximant is a consonant sound in some languages.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
The phonology of Danish is similar to that of the other Scandinavian languages such as Swedish and Norwegian, but it also has distinct features setting it apart from the phonologies of its most closely related languages.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
Egyptian Arabic, locally known as the Egyptian colloquial language or Masri, also spelled Masry, meaning simply "Egyptian", is spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English language in Northern England has been shaped by the region's history of settlement and migration, and today encompasses a group of related dialects known as Northern England English (or, simply, Northern English in the United Kingdom).
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.
The okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.
Filipino orthography specifies the correct use of the writing system of the Filipino language, the national and co-official language of the Philippines.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.
Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Gimi (Labogai) is a Papuan language spoken in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.
The sign is called glottal stop and it is a letter in some extended Latin alphabets of several languages of Canada.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Guarani alphabet (achegety) is used to write the Guarani language, spoken mostly in Paraguay and nearby countries.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
The Hawaiian alphabet (in ka pīʻāpā Hawaiʻi) is an alphabet used to write Hawaiian.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
The phonological system of the Hawaiian language is based on documentation from those who developed the Hawaiian alphabet during the 1820s as well as scholarly research conducted by lexicographers and linguists from 1949 to present.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound (onomatopoeia), movement, color, shape, or action.
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Juncture, in linguistics, is the manner of moving (transition) or mode of relationship between two consecutive sounds.
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines.
The, often referred to as the, is a group of dialects or dialect continuum of the Japanese language spoken mainly within the area of the former Ōsumi and Satsuma provinces now incorporated into the southwestern prefecture of Kagoshima.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada.
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The modifier letter apostrophe (ʼ) is a glyph.
The modifier letter double apostrophe (ˮ) is a spacing glyph.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Mutsun (also known as San Juan Bautista Costanoan) is an Utian language that was spoken in Northern California.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Nez Perce, also spelled Nez Percé or called Niimi'ipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin (note the spellings -ian vs. -in).
The Nheengatu language, often spelled Nhengatu, is an indigenous language of the Americas from the Tupi–Guarani language family.
Nicaraguan Spanish (Español nicaragüense) is geographically defined as the form of Spanish spoken in Nicaragua.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Central Okinawan, or simply the Okinawan language (沖縄口/ウチナーグチ Uchinaaguchi), is a Northern Ryukyuan language spoken primarily in the southern half of the island of Okinawa, as well as in the surrounding islands of Kerama, Kumejima, Tonaki, Aguni, and a number of smaller peripheral islands.
The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (r, literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persian language has six vowel phonemes and twenty-three consonant phonemes.
In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã of Amazonas, Brazil.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia and on a patchwork of outliers from south central Micronesia to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the southeast Solomon Islands and sprinkled through Vanuatu.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Ribes divaricatum is a species of in the genus Ribes found in the forests, woodlands, and coastal scrub of western North America from British Columbia to California.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Rotuman, also referred to as Rotunan, Rutuman or Fäeag Rotuma, is an Austronesian language spoken by the indigenous people of the South Pacific island group of Rotuma, an island with a Polynesian-influenced culture that was incorporated as a dependency into the Colony of Fiji in 1881.
In Mexican linguistics, saltillo (Spanish, meaning "little skip") refers to a glottal stop consonant,.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
Sarrabus-Gerrei is a sub-region of south-eastern Sardinia, Italy.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
Seri (Seri: cmiique iitom) is an indigenous language spoken by between 716La situación sociolingüística de la lengua seri en 2006.
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America and Central America.
The is a Japanese symbol in the form of a small hiragana or katakana tsu.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
Squamish (Sḵwx̱wú7mesh sníchim, sníchim meaning "language") is a Coast Salish language spoken by the Squamish people of southwestern British Columbia, Canada, centred on their reserve communities in Squamish, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Stød (also occasionally spelled stod) is a suprasegmental unit of Danish phonology (represented in IPA as or as), which in its most common form is a kind of creaky voice (laryngealization), but it may also be realized as a glottal stop, especially in emphatic pronunciation.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
This article deals with current phonology and phonetics and with historical developments of the phonology of the Tagalog language, including variants.
Tahitian (autonym Reo Tahiti, part of Reo Mā'ohi, languages of French Polynesia)Reo Mā'ohi correspond to “languages of natives from French Polynesia”, and may in principle designate any of the seven indigenous languages spoken in French Polynesia.
Two or more phonemes (segments) are tautosyllabic (with each other) if they occur in the same syllable.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thriller is the sixth studio album by American singer Michael Jackson, released on November 30, 1982, in the United States by Epic Records and internationally by CBS Records.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
Tundra Nenets is a Samoyedic language spoken in northern Russia, from the Kanin Peninsula to the Yenisei River, by the Nenets people.
Uh-oh is a ubiquitous interjection or expression of dismay in the English language, usually said in anticipation of something bad about to happen, with the sly admittance of guilt that one may have caused something bad to happen, or perceiving that something bad has already happened.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines that are related to Tagalog and Bikol languages, all three of which are part of the Central Philippine languages.
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Wagiman (also spelled Wageman, Wakiman, Wogeman, Wakaman) is a near-extinct indigenous Australian language spoken by fewer than 10 peopleGordon, R. G., Jr.
Wallisian, or Uvean (Fakauvea|), is the Polynesian language spoken on Wallis (also known as Uvea).
Wolaytta is a North Omotic language of the Ometo group spoken in the Wolayita Zone and some other parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
/ʔ/, Glo'all stop, Glotal stop, Glottal Stop, Glottal closure, Glottal plosive, Glottal stop in English, Glottal stops, Glottalstop, Glottlestop, Gloʔal stop, Laryngeal plosive, Laryngeal stop, Voiceless glottal plosive, Voiceless glottal stop, ʔ, ʔ (IPA).