251 relations: Abdominal obesity, Adenoviridae, Adipose tissue, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenaline, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Alertness, Allergen, Allergy, Amino acid, Aminoglutethimide, Amygdala, Annexin, Annexin A1, Anovulation, Anti-inflammatory, Antibody, Appetite, Arachidonic acid, Aspergillus, Asthma, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autoimmune disease, B cell, Bcl-2, Beclometasone, Betamethasone, Biological half-life, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Blood proteins, Blood vessel, Body fluid, Body surface area, Bone, Bruise, Budesonide, Cancer, Candida albicans, Carbohydrate metabolism, Carnivore, Cataract, Cell adhesion, Cell nucleus, Cell-mediated immunity, Central nervous system, Chemical structure, Chemotaxis, ..., Ciclesonide, Circulatory system, Coccidioides immitis, Cognition, Corticosteroid, Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Cortisol, Cortisone, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptosporidiosis, Cushing's syndrome, Cyclooxygenase, Cystoisospora belli, Cytokine, Cytomegalovirus, Cytosol, Delayed puberty, Developmental biology, Dexamethasone, Diabetes mellitus, Downregulation and upregulation, Dry-powder inhaler, Eicosanoid, Emigration, Endogeny (biology), Enterobacteriaceae, Enzyme, Epidermal growth factor, Epidural space, Epithelium, Extracellular fluid, Fatty acid degradation, Fc receptor, FCGR1A, Flashbulb memory, Fludrocortisone, Fluticasone, Frontal lobe, Fungus, Fusarium, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Glaucoma, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucocorticoids in hippocampal development, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphatase, Glucuronic acid, Glycerol, Graft-versus-host disease, Heart failure, Herbivore, Herpes simplex virus, Hexose, Hippocampus, Histone deacetylase, Histoplasma capsulatum, Homeostasis, Hormone, Hormone response element, Human papillomavirus infection, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Humoral immune deficiency, Humoral immunity, Hydrocortisone, Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, IL-2 receptor, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Immunology, Immunosuppression, Immunosuppressive drug, Inflammation, Influenza, Inhalant, Inhaler, Insulin resistance, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 3, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, Interleukin-1 family, Legionella micdadei, Leukotriene, Ligand, Lipolysis, Lipomatosis, List of corticosteroid cyclic ketals, List of corticosteroid esters, List of corticosteroids, Listeria monocytogenes, Liver, Long-term potentiation, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, MAPK phosphatase, Membrane glucocorticoid receptor, Menstrual cycle, Metabolic alkalosis, Metabolism, Metered-dose inhaler, Methylprednisolone, Metyrapone, Mineralocorticoid, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mometasone, Monocyte, Mouth, Muscle, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neutropenia, Neutrophil, NF-κB, Nocardia asteroides, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nuclear receptor, Opsonin, Organ transplantation, Osteoporosis, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Penicillium marneffei, Phagocytosis, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Phosphatase, Phospholipase A2, Pleiotropy (drugs), Pneumocystis jirovecii, Potassium, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Promoter (genetics), Properties of water, Prostaglandin, Protein targeting, Pseudallescheria boydii, Red burning skin, Regeneration (biology), Regulation of gene expression, Respiratory burst, Rhinitis, Rhodococcus equi, Route of administration, S100A10, Salmonella, Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, Sepsis, Serum albumin, Sex steroid, Skin, SLPI, Sodium, Staphylococcus aureus, Steroid, Steroid atrophy, Steroid dementia syndrome, Steroid diabetes, Steroid hormone, Steroid-induced osteoporosis, Streptococcus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Sulfate, Surfactant, T cell, T cell deficiency, Tendinopathy, Tendon, TNFRSF18, Topical medication, Topical steroid, Toxoplasma gondii, Transactivation, Transcortin, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transplant rejection, Transrepression, Triamcinolone, Tyrosine aminotransferase, Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK, Urea, Urine, Varicella zoster virus, Vertebrate, Viral disease, White blood cell, Yerkes–Dodson law, Zona fasciculata, Zona glomerulosa, Zygomycosis, Zygosity, 11-Deoxycorticosterone. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aminoglutethimide is an anti-steroid drug marketed under the tradename Cytadren by Novartis around the world.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Annexin is a common name for a group of cellular proteins.
Annexin A1, also known as lipocortin I, is a protein that is encoded by the ANXA1 gene in humans.
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.
Beclometasone (brand names Becotide, Beclocort), or beclomethasone, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid which is marketed in Norway and Russia.
Betamethasone is a steroid medication.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Blastomyces dermatitidis is the causal agent of blastomycosis, an invasive and often serious fungal infection found occasionally in humans and other animals in regions where the fungus is endemic.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
Budesonide (BUD), sold under the brand name Pulmicort among others, is a medication of the corticosteroid type.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
Ciclesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coccidioides immitis is a pathogenic fungus that resides in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern United States, northern Mexico, and a few other areas in the Western Hemisphere.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticosteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 2 also known as 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HSD11B2 gene.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is a parasite that causes an intestinal disease known as cystoisosporiasis.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A dry-powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Fatty acid degradation is the process in which fatty acids are broken down into their metabolites, in the end generating acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the citric acid cycle, the main energy supply of animals.
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
High affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGR1A gene.
A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshot' of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.
Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef among others, is a corticosteroid which is used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.
Fluticasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid which is used in some countries to treat nasal symptoms.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
The hippocampus is an area of the brain integral to learning and memory.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate, resulting in the creation of a phosphate group and free glucose.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
Histoplasma capsulatum is a species of dimorphic fungi.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
Humoral immune deficiencies are conditions which cause impairment of humoral immunity, which can lead to immunodeficiency.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
An inhaler (puffer or pump) is a medical device used for delivering medication into the body via the lungs.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
Legionella micdadei is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella which stains acid-fast.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
Lipomatosis is believed to be an autosomal dominant condition in which multiple lipomas are present on the body.
This is a list of corticosteroid cyclic ketals, including cyclic ketals (cyclic acetals) of steroidal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
This is a list of corticosteroid esters, including esters of steroidal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
This is a list of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) or derivatives of cortisol (hydrocortisone).
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are the largest class of phosphatases involved in down-regulating Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling.
Membrane glucocorticoid receptors (mGRs) are a group of receptors which bind and are activated by glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone, as well as certain exogenous glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45).
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.
Methylprednisolone, sold under the brand names Depo-Medrol and Solu-Medrol among others, is a corticosteroid medication used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation.
Metyrapone (trade name Metopirone) is a drug used in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and occasionally in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism).
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Mometasone (INN, BAN), is a synthetic, steroidal glucocorticoid or corticosteroid that was never marketed.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nocardia asteroides is a species of Nocardia.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Penicillium species are usually regarded as unimportant in terms of causing human disease.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes that release fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol.
In pharmacology, pleiotropy includes all of a drug's actions other than those for which the agent was specifically developed.
Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously P. carinii) is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
Pseudallescheria boydii is a species of fungus classified in the Ascomycota.
Red burning skin, also known as topical steroid addiction and steroid dermatitis, has been reported in long-term users of topical steroids.
In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Respiratory burst (sometimes called oxidative burst) is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive coccobacillus bacterium.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and the S100a10 gene in other species.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SEGRMs) and selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists (SEGRAs) formerly known as dissociated glucocorticoid receptor agonists (DIGRAs) are a class of experimental drugs designed to share many of the desirable anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or anticancer properties of classical glucocorticoid drugs but with fewer side effects such as skin atrophy.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Antileukoproteinase, also known as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLPI gene.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Within two weeks of starting Topical Steroid treatment, and probably within a few days, microscopic degenerative changes may be seen in the epidermis with a reduction of cell size and the number of cell layers.
Steroid dementia syndrome describes the signs and symptoms of hippocampal and prefrontal cortical dysfunction, such as deficits in memory, attention, and executive function, induced by glucocorticoids.
Steroid diabetes (also "steroid-induced diabetes") is a medical term referring to prolonged hyperglycemia due to glucocorticoid therapy for another medical condition.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP) is osteoporosis arising due to use of glucocorticoids (steroid hormones) - analogous to Cushing's syndrome and involving mainly the axial skeleton.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Strongyloides stercoralis is a human pathogenic parasitic roundworm causing the disease strongyloidiasis.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, caused by decreased function of individual T cells, it causes an immunodeficiency of cell-mediated immunity.
Tendinopathy refers to a disease of a tendon.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) also known as activation-inducible TNFR family receptor (AITR) or glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF18 gene.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Topical steroids are the topical forms of corticosteroids.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
In the field of molecular biology, transrepression is a process whereby one protein represses (i.e., inhibits) the activity of a second protein through a protein-protein interaction.
Triamcinolone is an intermediate-acting synthetic glucocorticoid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.
Tyrosine aminotransferase (or tyrosine transaminase) is an enzyme present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate.
Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK also known as C-terminal Src kinase is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CSK gene.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The Yerkes–Dodson law is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in 1908.
The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
Zygomycosis is the broadest term to refer to infections caused by bread mold fungi of the zygomycota phylum.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or simply deoxycorticosterone, also known as 21-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as desoxycortone (INN), deoxycortone, and cortexone, is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that possesses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone.
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