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Glucose

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. [1]

187 relations: -ose, Acetic acid, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Aldehyde, Aldohexose, Aldose, Allose, Altrose, Amine, Anaerobic respiration, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Anomer, Anomeric effect, Aqueous solution, Astrocyte, Bacteria, Ball-and-stick model, Beta cell, Biofuel, Biology, Blood glucose monitoring, Blood sugar level, Blood test, Brain, Calorie, Caramelization, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Cassava, Catalysis, Cell membrane, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Chemical stability, Chemosynthesis, Chirality, Chitin, Cis–trans isomerism, Citric acid cycle, Conformational isomerism, Corn starch, Corn syrup, Covalent bond, Cyclic compound, Cyclohexane, Cyclohexane conformation, ..., Cyclopentane, Decomposition, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Diabetes mellitus, Dihedral angle, Disaccharide, Duodenum, Enantiomer, Enterocyte, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Enzyme, Ethanol, Fat, Fehling's solution, Fermentation, Fischer projection, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Food energy, Fructose, Fungus, Furan, Furanose, Galactose, Gastrointestinal tract, Gauche effect, Glucan, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glucose transporter, GLUT1, GLUT2, Glycated hemoglobin, Glycation, Glycerol, Glycogen, Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis, Glycosylation, Greek language, Gulose, Gut flora, Hard candy, Haworth projection, Health system, Hemiacetal, Hermann Emil Fischer, Heterocyclic compound, Hexokinase, Hexose, Honey, Husk, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, Hypoglycemia, Idose, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Inverted sugar syrup, Isomer, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Joule, Kidney, Kidney failure, L-Glucose, Lactic acid, Lactose, Lipid, Liver, Lumen (anatomy), Maize, Maltodextrin, Maltose, Mannose, Metabolic pathway, Methanol, Molecule, Monosaccharide, Muscle, Must, Mutarotation, Neuron, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nucleophilic addition, Oligosaccharide, Open-chain compound, Organic chemistry, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxygen, Pancreas, Peripheral neuropathy, Peritoneal dialysis, PH, Phosphate, Phosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Physiological condition, Plant, Polarization (waves), Polymer, Polysaccharide, Prediabetes, Prokaryote, Protein, Psychology, Pyran, Pyranose, Pyruvic acid, Raisin, Red blood cell, Redox, Reducing sugar, Rice, Room temperature, Sago, Self-control, SLC5A1, Small intestine, Solubility, Starch, Stereocenter, Stereoisomerism, Sucrose, Sugar, Sugar packet, Sugars in wine, Talose, Tautomer, Trinder glucose activity test, United States, Visual impairment, Vitamin C, Water, Wheat, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Wine, 2,5-Dimethylfuran. Expand index (137 more) »

-ose

The suffix -ose is used in biochemistry to form the names of sugars.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Adenosine diphosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adipocyte

Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Aldehyde

An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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Aldohexose

An aldohexose is a hexose with an aldehyde group on one end.

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Aldose

An aldose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar) with a carbon backbone chain with a carbonyl group on the endmost carbon atom, making it an aldehyde, and hydroxyl groups connected to all the other carbon atoms.

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Allose

Allose is an aldohexose sugar.

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Altrose

Altrose is an aldohexose sugar.

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).

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Andreas Sigismund Marggraf

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.

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Anomer

An anomer is a type of geometric variation found in at certain atoms in carbohydrate molecules.

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Anomeric effect

In organic chemistry, the anomeric effect or Edward-Lemieux effect is a stereoelectronic effect that describes the tendency of heteroatomic substituents adjacent to a heteroatom within a cyclohexane ring to prefer the axial orientation instead of the less hindered equatorial orientation that would be expected from steric considerations.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Astrocyte

Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Ball-and-stick model

In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them.

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Beta cell

Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Blood glucose monitoring

Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia).

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Calorie

A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Caramelization

Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Chemical stability

Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.

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Chemosynthesis

In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.

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Chirality

Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Cis–trans isomerism

Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Conformational isomerism

In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).

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Corn starch

Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.

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Corn syrup

Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cyclic compound

A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.

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Cyclohexane

Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).

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Cyclohexane conformation

A cyclohexane conformation is any of several three-dimensional shapes that a cyclohexane molecule can assume while maintaining the integrity of its chemical bonds.

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Cyclopentane

Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane.

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Decomposition

Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.

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Dextrorotation and levorotation

Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dihedral angle

A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes.

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Disaccharide

A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.

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Duodenum

The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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Enantiomer

In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Enterocyte

Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine.

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Enzymatic hydrolysis

Enzymatic hydrolysis is a process in which enzymes facilitate the cleavage of bonds in molecules with the addition of the elements of water.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fehling's solution

Fehling's solution is a chemical reagent used to differentiate between water-soluble carbohydrate and ketone functional groups, and as a test for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, supplementary to the Tollens' reagent test.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fischer projection

The Fischer projection, devised by Hermann Emil Fischer in 1891, is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection.

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Fludeoxyglucose (18F)

Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Furan

Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.

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Furanose

A furanose is a collective term for carbohydrates that have a chemical structure that includes a five-membered ring system consisting of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

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Galactose

Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gauche effect

The term "gauche" refers to conformational isomers (conformers) where two vicinal groups are separated by a torsion angle of 60°.

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Glucan

A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers, linked by glycosidic bonds.

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Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glucose 6-phosphate

Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.

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Glucose transporter

Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane.

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GLUT1

Glucose transporter 1 (or GLUT1), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1), is a uniporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene.

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GLUT2

Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a transmembrane carrier protein that enables protein facilitated glucose movement across cell membranes.

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Glycated hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.

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Glycation

Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.

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Glycerol

Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.

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Glycogen

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycogenolysis

Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).

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Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Glycosylation

Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gulose

Gulose is an aldohexose sugar.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Hard candy

A hard candy, or boiled sweet, is a sugar candy prepared from one or more sugar-based syrups that is boiled to a temperature of 160 °C (320 °F) to make candy.

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Haworth projection

A Haworth projection is a common way of writing a structural formula to represent the cyclic structure of monosaccharides with a simple three-dimensional perspective.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Hemiacetal

A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.

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Hermann Emil Fischer

Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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Hexokinase

A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.

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Hexose

In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.

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Honey

Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.

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Husk

Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Idose

Idose is a hexose, a six carbon monosaccharide.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Inverted sugar syrup

Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.

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Isomer

An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Jr. (30 August 1852 – 1 March 1911) was a Dutch physical chemist.

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Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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L-Glucose

L-Glucose is an organic compound with formula C6H12O6 or H–(C.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactose

Lactose is a disaccharide.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lumen (anatomy)

In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Maltodextrin

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.

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Maltose

Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.

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Mannose

Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monosaccharide

Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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Muscle

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Must

Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.

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Mutarotation

Mutarotation is the change in the optical rotation because of the change in the equilibrium between two anomers, when the corresponding stereocenters interconvert.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nucleophilic addition

In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.

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Oligosaccharide

An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

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Open-chain compound

In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Peritoneal dialysis

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphorylation

In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Physiological condition

Physiological condition or, more often "physiological conditions" is a term used in biology, biochemistry, and medicine.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Prediabetes

Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.

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Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Pyran

In chemistry, pyran, or oxine, is a six-membered heterocyclic, non-aromatic ring, consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom and containing two double bonds.

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Pyranose

Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Raisin

A raisin is a dried grape.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reducing sugar

A reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free aldehyde group or a free ketone group.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Sago

Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially that of Metroxylon sagu.

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Self-control

Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses.

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SLC5A1

Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 also known as solute carrier family 5 member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A1 gene.

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Small intestine

The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

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Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Starch

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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Stereocenter

In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.

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Stereoisomerism

In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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Sucrose

Sucrose is common table sugar.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sugar packet

A sugar packet is a delivery method for one 'serving' of sugar.

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Sugars in wine

Sugars in wine are at the heart of what makes winemaking possible.

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Talose

Talose is an aldohexose sugar.

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Tautomer

Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.

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Trinder glucose activity test

The Trinder glucose activity test is a diagnostic test used in medicine to determine the presence of glucose or glucose oxidase.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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2,5-Dimethylfuran

2,5-Dimethylfuran is a heterocyclic compound with the formula (CH3)2C4H2O.

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Redirects here:

(CH2OH* (CHOH)4*CHO), (CH2OH· (CHOH)4·CHO), 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal, ATC code B05CX01, ATC code V04CA02, ATC code V06DC01, ATCvet code QB05CX01, ATCvet code QV04CA02, ATCvet code QV06DC01, Alpha-D-glucose, Beta-D-glucose, C6H1206, Commercial dextrose, D-glucose, Dextrose, Dextrosol, Glucofuranose, Glucopyranose, Glucose solution, Glucose tablets, Glycose, Grape sugar, Maltodextrose, Pentahydroxyhexanal, Starch sugar, ᴅ-glucose.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose

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