152 relations: Acetate, Acid, Acid–base homeostasis, Action potential, Adenosine monophosphate, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Agonist, Ajinomoto, Alanine, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Aldosterone, Aldosterone synthase, Alkali, Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, American Society for Nutrition, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, AMPA receptor, Aspartic acid, Auxigro, Bacteria, Biosynthesis, Blood–brain barrier, Bonnet macaque, Carbon, Carboxylic acid, Cell wall, Cerebellum, Cheese, Chirality, Chirality (chemistry), Citric acid cycle, Conjugate acid, Cortisol, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Crystallization, Deamination, Dextromethorphan, Disodium glutamate, Disodium inosinate, Dissociative, Drosophila, Eglumegad, Electric charge, Enzyme, Extracellular, Fight-or-flight response, ..., Flavor, Folate, Food additive, Formimidoyltransferase cyclodeaminase, Formiminoglutamic acid, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Genetic code, Glioblastoma, Glioma, GLS2, Gluconeogenesis, GLUD2, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate dehydrogenase, Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, Glutamate flavoring, Glutamate racemase, Glutamate receptor, Glutaminase, Glutamine, Gluten, Glycolysis, Growth cone, Guanosine monophosphate, Hallucinogen, Hippocampus, Hydrochloride, Inosinic acid, Ion, Japan Patent Office, Journal of Nutrition, Kainic acid, Karl Heinrich Ritthausen, Ketamine, Keto acid, Kikunae Ikeda, Kombu, Learning, Liver, Long-term potentiation, Mammal, Mark Mattson, Memory, Metabolism, Metabotropic glutamate receptor, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, Metabotropic receptor, Monopotassium glutamate, Monosodium glutamate, N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid, N-Acetylglutamic acid, Neocortex, Nervous system, Neuroglia, Neuromodulation, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrogen, NMDA receptor, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nucleus accumbens, Oxaloacetic acid, Pancreas, PH, Phencyclidine, Point-to-point (telecommunications), Product (chemistry), Protein, Proton, Pyruvic acid, Radical (chemistry), Reagent, Receptor antagonist, Residual dipolar coupling, Salt (chemistry), Soy sauce, Steroid, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Stiff-person syndrome, Sulfuric acid, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Synaptic vesicle, Synaptogenesis, Taste, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, The Guardian, Tien Chu Ve-Tsin, Transaminase, Transamination, Umami, University of Tokyo, Urea, Water, Yohimbine, Zwitterion, 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
is a Japanese food and chemical corporation which produces seasonings, cooking oils, TV dinners, sweeteners, amino acids, and pharmaceuticals.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of aldehydes.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid.
The American Society for Nutrition (ASN) is an American society for professional researchers and practitioners in the field of nutrition.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Auxigro is a controversial chemical-based growth-enhancer that is approved in the United States by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for spray on fruits, vegetables, and grains.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The bonnet macaque also known as zatiChambers English Dictionary (Macaca radiata) is a macaque endemic to southern India.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Corynebacterium glutamicum (previously known as Micrococcus glutamicus) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is used industrially for large-scale production of amino acids.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Disodium glutamate, abbreviated DSG, (Na2C5H7NO4) is a sodium salt of glutamic acid.
Disodium inosinate (E631) is the disodium salt of inosinic acid with the chemical formula C10H11N4Na2O8P.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Eglumegad (LY354740) is a research drug developed by Eli Lilly and Company, which is being investigated for its potential in the treatment of anxiety and drug addiction.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Formimidoyltransferase cyclodeaminase or formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (symbol FTCD in humans) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of formiminoglutamate and tetrahydrofolate into formiminotetrahydrofolate and glutamate.
Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) is an intermediate in the metabolism of histidine.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.
Glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLS2 gene.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial, also known as GDH 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GLUD2 gene.
In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate peptidase I (NAALADase I), NAAG peptidase, or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FOLH1 (folate hydrolase 1) gene.
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2.
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, GDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa.
GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme, one of the family of glutamate dehydrogenases that are ubiquitous in life, with a key role in nitrogen and glutamate (Glu) metabolism and energy homeostasis.
Glutamate flavoring is a generic name for flavor-enhancing compounds based on glutamic acid and its salts (glutamates).
In enzymology, glutamate racemase (MurI with a capital i) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme RacE has one substrate, L-glutamate, and one product, D-glutamate.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
Glutaminase (glutaminase I, L-glutaminase, glutamine aminohydrolase) is an amidohydrolase enzyme that generates glutamate from glutamine.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
A growth cone is a big actin-supported extension of a developing or regenerating neurite seeking its synaptic target.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid (conjugate base guanylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Inosinic acid or inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a nucleoside monophosphate.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The is a Japanese governmental agency in charge of industrial property right affairs, under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
The Journal of Nutrition is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Nutrition.
Kainic acid, or kainate, is an acid that naturally occurs in some seaweed.
Karl Heinrich Ritthausen (13 January 1826 – 16 October 1912) was a German biochemist who identified two amino acids and made other contributions to the science of plant proteins.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
was a Japanese chemist and Tokyo Imperial University professor of Chemistry who, in 1908, uncovered the chemical basis of a taste he named umami.
Kombu (from konbu) is edible kelp from mostly the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mark P. Mattson is Chief of the Laboratory of Neurosciences at the National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program National Institute on Aging.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GRM2 gene.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM3 gene.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Monopotassium glutamate (MPG) is a compound with formula KC5H8NO4.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid (N-acetylaspartylglutamate or NAAG) is a peptide neurotransmitter and the third-most-prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system.
N-Acetylglutamic acid (also referred to as N-Acetylglutamate, abbreviated NAG, chemical formula C7H11NO5) is biosynthesized from glutamate and acetylornithine by ornithine acetyltransferase, and from glutamic acid and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme ''N''-acetylglutamate synthase.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two Communication endpoints or nodes.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
The residual dipolar coupling between two spins in a molecule occurs if the molecules in solution exhibit a partial alignment leading to an incomplete averaging of spatially anisotropic dipolar couplings.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS), also known as stiff-man syndrome (SMS), is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear cause characterized by progressive rigidity and stiffness.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed biomedical journal in the field of clinical nutrition.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Tien Chu Ve-Tsin Chemical Limited is a Chinese manufacturer of honey by-products, food chemicals and additives including Monosodium Glutamate or MSG.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).
, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid is an imino acid.
Acidulin, Aciglut, Aminoglutaric acid, D-glutamic acid, E620, Excitatory amino acid agents, Glusate, Glutacid, Glutamate, Glutamate metabolism, Glutamatergic neurotransmission, Glutamatergic system, Glutamateric, Glutamates, Glutamic, Glutamic Acid, Glutamic acid metabolism, Glutamic acids, Glutamicol, Glutamidex, Glutaminic Acid, Glutaminol, Glutamyl, Glutaton, L-Glutamic Acid, L-glutamate.